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Ch. 15 hw 7 e

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Ch. 15 hw 7 e

  1. 1. Name:____________________________ Instructor:_______________________Grade:_______ LOs: 76 Chapter 15 Conceptual Work Sheets for Avoidance Introduction At this point, your knowledge of the basic principles of behavior should be extensive. You should be familiar with reinforcement, escape, discriminative stimuli and motivating operations. In this homework, we are going to take advantage of your knowledge and expand it. So before you go on, if you feel rusty or unfamiliar with the previously mentioned concepts and principles don’t hesitate to revisit relevant material in POB7E. 2. Let’s try a basic example in the Skinner box. Rudolph will hear a loud tone in 10 seconds, if he just sits there. However, if Rudolph presses the lever before the 10 seconds are up the loud aversive tone will not come on for 10 more seconds. So, if Rudolph presses the lever every 9.999 seconds he will never hear the loud tone. Please diagram this contingency (2). Before Avoidance Contingency Behavior After Definition: Concept Avoidance contingency: o The response-contingent o prevention of an aversive condition o resulting in an increased frequency of that response. 1. Below is the basic format for the avoidance contingency. Please fill in the following contingency using the information given (2). Before: will receive aversive condition at a specified time Behavior: perform the desired behavior After: won’t receive aversive condition at a specified time Before Behavior 3. Did you include a specified time for the delivery of the aversive condition in the before and after condition? A. yes B. no 4. Are the before and after conditions in future tense? A. yes B. no After Notice the avoidance contingencies are worded in future tense (will/won’t) and include deadlines. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 1
  2. 2. 8. Are the before and after condition in the future tense? A. yes B. no Avoidance-of-loss Definition: Concept Avoidance-of-loss contingency o The response-contingent o prevention of the loss o of a reinforcer o resulting in an increased frequency of that response 5. Below is the basic format for the avoidanceof-loss contingency. Please fill in the following contingency using the information given (2). Before: will lose reinforcer at a specified time Behavior: perform specified behavior After: won’t lose reinforcer at a specified time Before Behavior After Review Time Let’s review some of the different types of contingencies you’ve learned. Notice how avoidance differs from reinforcement, punishment, penalty, and escape contingencies. Note: In an avoidance contingency, a specific consequence will occur if a certain behavior is not performed by the deadline. The specific consequence is the presentation of an aversive condition or the loss of a reinforcer. Please fill in the following contingencies and then label them. 9. Rudolph will receive water if he presses the lever (2). Let’s try a basic example in the Skinner box. Rudolph will lose his food in 10 seconds (a specified time) if he just sits there. However, if Rudolph presses the lever before the 10 seconds are up, he will not lose his food for 10 more seconds. So if Rudolph presses the lever every 9.999 seconds he will never lose his food. 6. Please diagram this contingency (2). Before Behavior Before Behavior After 10. What kind of contingency is this? _________ 11. Rudolph will be shocked if he presses the lever (2). After Before 7. Did you include when the loss of a reinforcer will occur in the before and after condition? A. yes B. no Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 Behavior After 12. What kind of contingency is this? _________ 2
  3. 3. 13. Rudolph will have an aversively bright light shine in his eyes in three seconds, unless he presses the lever before the three seconds are up. (2) Before Behavior After 14. What kind of contingency is this? _________ 15. The shock will turn off if Rudolph presses the lever (2). Before Behavior After 16. What kind of contingency is this? ________ 17. Rudolph will lose his water if he presses the lever (2). Before Behavior After 18. What kind of contingency is this? _________ 19. Rudolph will not lose his water if he presses the lever within 10 seconds (2). Cued Avoidance Often, in real life, there is a so called “cue” associated with the occasions when the aversive condition is about to occur. And if the person makes the avoidance response in time, the cue will terminate and the aversive condition will be avoided. This means we really have two contingencies, as we will see in this next example. My Example of Cued Avoidance The following is my example of a behavioral episode that can be analyzed in terms of cued avoidance and an illustration of how to use our new diagram. I’m in the kitchen cooking my infamous Uncle Dickie’s marathoner’s special, oldfashioned rolled oats. First I put a small amount of raisins, a banana, a dash of vanilla, a quarter cup of frozen, concentrated apple juice, and two cups of water, in a small pan, put it on the stove, and set it to boiling. Then I move over to the sink and start peeling and chopping two apples. But I keep an ear out; and as soon as I hear the sound of vigorous boiling, I rush to turn down the burner. I’m avoiding the aversive sight of my meal boiling over the stove top and making a sticky mess (this will usually occur in about 10 seconds). 22. Please fill in the diagram with the example from above (3). Before Before Behavior After Escape After Behavior 20. What kind of contingency is this? _________ 21. What kind of contingency prevents a consequence that would have happened? A. reinforcement B. punishment C. penalty D. avoidance Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 Before After Avoidance 3
  4. 4. Previously the vigorous boiling has preceded the aversive sticky mess and thus has been paired with it; so the sound of the vigorous boiling has become a learned aversive stimulus. So, the behavior of turning down the burner also avoids the sticky mess. 23. What is vigorous boiling? A. an SD B. a warning stimulus NOTE: The warning stimulus is the SAME as the before condition for escape. For the warning stimulus to be paired with the original aversive stimulus; they either need to overlap in time [sticky messes must occur during (or immediately after) vigorous boiling] or follow each other in a close temporal proximity (sticky mess must follow shortly after vigorous boiling starts.) By close proximity we mean seconds. If vigorous boiling were not accompanied by sticky mess until hours after the boiling had stopped, the aversiveness of sticky mess would not normally turn vigorous boiling into a learned aversive warning stimulus. A warning stimulus could be anything that affects your senses such as: sight, sound, touch, taste, or smell. Cued Avoidance Revisited A person who has frequently escaped getting wet in the rain by moving under shelter, eventually avoids rain by moving in the presence of stormy skies. Note that the stormy sky, by itself, is not normally an aversive condition; it may be aversive only in combination with not being under shelter; so we might call this a conditional aversive stimulus—the stormy sky is aversive, conditional upon (dependent upon) not being under the shelter. (Hint: One could interpret being under stormy skies without shelter as being like the vigorously boiling before condition in our previous example.) The point of the conditional aversive stimulus is that when one of the elements is missing, the remaining element is no longer aversive. For example, Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 even when you go under shelter, the stormy sky is still there. 24. What is the stormy sky combined with not being under shelter? A. an SD B. a warning stimulus This is a correct way of diagramming the before and after, because the other condition should still have the presence of the stormy sky. Do not write in the shaded boxes. Before Escape Stormy sky and not under shelter After Stormy sky and under shelter Behavior Before After Avoidance 25. Diagram the entire correct contingency with the warning stimulus in the before condition (3). Before ______ Escape and _____ After ______ and ______ Behavior Before Avoidance After 4
  5. 5. 26. Did you include a specified time for the occurrence of the aversive condition in the before and after condition? A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so – note that you can be vague about it) 27. In the avoidance contingency, are your before and after conditions worded in future tense? A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) Stimuli, such as stormy skies, which frequently precede rain become learned aversive conditions (we commonly call them the signs or threats of rain). They are more aversive when a person is not under shelter and by moving under shelter he or she escapes them and avoids getting wet. The effective consequences is not that he or she does not get wet when rain eventually falls but that a learned aversive stimulus is immediately escaped. Another Stop on Our Tour of Cued Avoidance The clever child avoids a scolding by wiping food stains off before his parents spot them. 28. What are the food stains? (Hint: the food stains may serve the same function as the boiling oats.)________________________________ 29. Diagram the contingency (3) Before ______ and _____ Escape After ______ and ______ Behavior Before After Avoidance 30. Did you include a specified time? A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) 31. In your avoidance contingency, are the aversive before and after in future tense? A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) As before, stimuli which frequently precede parental scolding become learned aversive conditions. By removing the stain, the kid escapes an aversive condition (the stain) and in the process avoids being scolded by his parents. This is also a conditional aversive stimulus in which the food stains are aversive conditional upon mom’s presence. (Note: Mom hasn’t yet noticed the food stains.) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 5
  6. 6. Your Original Example of Cued Avoidance of an Aversive Condition 33. Diagram the contingency (3). Before Now it’s your turn to give an original example of cued avoidance. Give an example of Avoidance of an Aversive Condition. (NOTE: The behaver is preventing the presentation of an aversive condition.) After Behavior Student examples: Bad example: Escape: Bambi hears the click of a gun, runs, and doesn’t hear the click. Avoidance: Bambi will be shot in a second; a Bambi runs; Bambi won’t be shot. What’s wrong with this example? Bambi won’t hear the click of the gun, even if he doesn’t run (in other words, the hunter is not going to stand there repeatedly clicking his gun). The fix: A conditional aversive stimulus. Bambi just heard the click of a gun and doesn’t have the proprioceptive stimuli of running. (The after condition will be sufficiently less aversive than the before that it will reinforce running.) The sleaze test: But I really doubt if Bambi would get enough trials of the pairing of the click with the unlearned aversive stimulus of the shot or the unlearned aversive stimulus of being wounded. Hunters aren’t that bad as markspeople. So the click without the proprioceptive running stimuli would probably not have enough pairings to become a learned aversive stimulus (a warning stimulus). Bambi would be permanently extinguished before that happened. The truth is that the click may be some sort of unlearned aversive stimulus for Bambi—maybe, deer seem pretty skittish. Before After Examine just the escape contingency for a moment. The before condition should be a warning stimulus, then the behavior occurs, and the after should be the termination of the warning stimulus. Remember you should have a causal relationship. The termination of the warning stimulus (aversive condition) is contingent on the occurrence of the behavior. 34. Does your escape contingency pass the causality test? (Remember the behavior must cause the outcome.) A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) 35. Did you include a specified time for the avoidance contingency? A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) 36. Are the before and after in future tense for the avoidance contingency? A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) 32. Describe your original example. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 6
  7. 7. Your Original Example of Cued Avoidance of Loss of a Reinforcer 40. Did you include a specified time for the avoidance contingency? A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) Now give an original example of Cued Avoidance of the Loss of a Reinforcer. (NOTE: The behaver already has the reinforcer and prevents the loss of it.) 41. Are the before and after in future tense for the avoidance contingency? A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) 37. Describe your original example: Non-Cued Avoidance 38. Diagram the contingency (3) Before Escape After Behavior Before After Non-cued avoidance (Sidman avoidance) refers to instances where no warning stimulus can be identified as being responsible for the avoidance behavior. For example, if we were unable to figure out what the warning stimulus was causing us to seek shelter before it started to rain, we may be tempted to talk about the contingency as non-cued avoidance. Even though we cannot identify any warning stimulus, we should not assume there isn’t any. Rather we should take the position that we have not done a completely thorough job of analyzing the behavioral episode. We diagram non-cued avoidance the same way as cued avoidance, except we put a “?” where we would otherwise have put a warning stimulus. The question mark should tell us that our analysis is incomplete and needs to be improved upon. Avoidance Before Examine just the escape contingency for a moment. The before condition should be the warning stimulus, then the behavior occurs, and the after condition should be the termination of the warning stimulus. Remember you should have a causal relationship. The termination of the warning stimulus (aversive condition) is contingent on the occurrence of the behavior. 39. Does your escape contingency pass that causality test? (Remember the behavior must cause the outcome). A. yes B. no (if not, then please do so) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 Escape After ? ? Behavior Move under shelter Before After Will be rained on in a few seconds Will not be rained on in a few seconds Avoidanc e 7
  8. 8. A Skinner box example of non-cued avoidance: Before Escape ? 42. Fill in this contingency diagram (4). SD After After ? Before Behavior Behavior Press lever Before Will be shocked in 10 seconds After Avoidance Sdelta After Will not be shocked in 10 seconds Note: In this example there is not a stimulus present to warn the rat of the impending shock. But even so, after a number of trials the rat will successfully avoid the shock by pressing the lever during the 10 seconds prior to the shock. Discriminated Escape The reason we go now into discriminated escape is to provide you with a context for understanding the difference between the warning stimulus and the discriminative stimulus. It is crucial to be able to make this distinction before we go into discriminated cued avoidance. Consider the following example of discriminated escape. A rat in a Skinner box is shocked every 30 seconds. In the presence of a 500 Hz tone, the rat can turn off the shock by pressing a lever, but not in the presence of a 1500 Hz tone. Because lever pressing is only reinforced by shock offset in the presence of the 500 Hz tone, the rat’s lever pressing will eventually come under 500 Hz control. It will only press the lever when the 500 Hz tone is on. We can diagram this contingency as follows: It is only when the 500 Hz tone is on the lever pressing is reinforced by escaping the shock. When the 1500 Hz tone is on, the before and after conditions remain identical and as a result lever pressing becomes extinguished in its presence. Even though both the shock and the 500 Hz tone have control over the rat’s lever pressing behavior, they function quite differently. Shock onset functions in the before condition, because it establishes shock offset as an effective form of reinforcement. A 500 Hz tone on the other hand functions as a discriminative stimulus, because it is correlated with the availability of a reinforcer (shock offset). A 500 Hz tone guarantees that when shock is turned on, lever pressing will produce shock offset, which was previously established as a valuable outcome by the shock onset. In the absence of a proper before condition (shock onset), the discriminative stimulus (500 Hz tone) is behaviorally neutral. It does not evoke any behavior because the consequence with which it is correlated (shock offset) has not been established as a valuable outcome. Discriminated Cued Avoidance Imagine now that we change our experimental procedure slightly. We change it in such a way that 10 sec. before the shock, a light comes on and stays on until the shock and as a result Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 8
  9. 9. becomes a learned aversive condition. As such, it will function similarly to the shock from which its aversive properties are paired. It will function in the before condition that establishes its own termination as an effective form of reinforcement. Just as the shock onset established shock offset as a valuable outcome, the light onset will establish its own termination as an effective form of reinforcement. What this means is the light comes to function as the warning stimulus in cued avoidance. If you understand how the shock acts in the before condition and the 500 Hz tone acts as a discriminative stimulus function differently, you should also be able to understand the difference between the light and the 500 Hz tone. As a warning stimulus, the light is a learned before condition establishing its own termination (light offset) as an effective form of reinforcement. As a discriminative stimulus, the 500 Hz tone is correlated with the availability of that reinforcement (light offset). This distinction in function is illustrated below as discriminated cued avoidance. In discriminated cued avoidance, we have a discriminative stimulus (the tone) determining when a particular behavior (lever press) can terminate the warning stimulus (the light) and thus avoid the other aversive condition (the shock). NOTE: The warning stimulus is the same as the before condition for escape. Before Light is on Escape SD Light is off Behavior 500 Hz tone After Press lever Before Shock will be one in 10” Avoidance Before Light is on Extinction of escape After Light is on Sdelta Behavior 1500 Hz tone Press lever Before Shock will be on in 10” Extinction of avoidance After Shock will be on in 10” My Example It is hard to come up with a good every day example of a discriminated cued avoidance contingency. Here is a poor one for you to analyze. I’m cooking my rolled oats again and you are a diabolical experimenter who has placed a light on the wall above my stove. The control knob for my burner works only when the light is on. Crouched in the control room of my root cellar, unbeknownst to me, you chuckle inaudibly to yourself as you turn the light off and on randomly during the times my oats are boiling vigorously and the sticky mess may occur. 43. What is the vigorous boiling? A. an SD B. the before condition C. warning stimulus D. both B&C 44. Explain your answer: After Shock won’t be on in 10” 45. What is the light? A. an SD B. warning stimulus C. the before condition D. Both B & C Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 9
  10. 10. 46. Explain your answer: Before you begin your diagrams you should note that the vigorous boiling is not an SD because it’s the warning stimulus/before condition—check that your answers to 44 and 46 are correct. 47. Diagram the contingency (8) Before Escape (warning stimulus) SD Before After Sdelta Behavior After Before (warning stimulus) Avoidance Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 After Extinction of Escape Behavior After Before Extinction of Avoidance 10
  11. 11. Your Turn: 48. For brownie points, can you come up with a better example of an everyday instance of discriminated cued avoidance? Please explain your example here: Before (warning stimulus) SD 49. What is the discriminative stimulus? (In order to have a discriminative stimulus, you must have an Sdelta!) Escape After Behavior After Before Avoidance 50. What is the warning stimulus in your example? 51. Diagram your example: Before (warning stimulus) Sdelta Extinction of Escape After Behavior After Before Extinction of Avoidance Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 11

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