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ASO 8

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ASO 8

1. 1. Chapter 8 Shaping ANSWERS REVIEW: Please write the definitions for the differential reinforcement procedure and the procedure of shaping with reinforcement. ANSWER: The differential reinforcement procedure – Reinforcing one set of responses and extinguishing another set of responses. The procedure of shaping with reinforcement – The differential reinforcement of only behavior that more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior. 11. The differential reinforcement procedure vs. the procedure of shaping with reinforcement. a. Compare and Contrast ANSWER:  Similarities: Both procedures include a concurrent reinforcement contingency and extinction procedure. The results of both procedures are that, along some dimension, the frequency of a response will increase at some value(s) of that dimension, and will decrease at another value(s) of that dimension.  Crucial Differences: In differential reinforcement, only one distinction is made along the relevant response dimension. However, in shaping with reinforcement, successive distinctions are made along the relevant response dimension using a separate differential reinforcement procedure for each set of values. ALSO, when using the differential reinforcement procedure the frequency of both responses must occur regularly at the beginning of the procedure. However in the shaping procedure, the initial response must occur with at least a minimal frequency, and the successive responses may or may not occur even at a minimal frequency at the beginning of the procedure. They will, however, increase in frequency as the shaping procedure progresses until the terminal response is occurring at the desired frequency. b. Illustrate this relationship using a pair of examples from the Skinner box. (Use force as the response dimension.) ANSWER: Differential Reinforcement Reinforcement Before: Behavior: Press the lever forcefully (with more than 20g) After: Behavior: Press the lever weakly (with less than 20g) After: Water No water Extinction No water
2. 2. Shaping with Reinforcement Reinforcement Before: Initial: Press with 10g Intermediate: Press with 15g Terminal: Press with 20g After: Water No water Initial: Press with 5g Intermediate: Press with 10g Terminal: Press with 15g After: No water Extinction c. Using the examples that you’ve provided, please explain the differences between the two concepts using the terminology that you had provided in your answer to 11a. ANSWER: In the differential reinforcement procedure, only one distinction is made along the response dimension of force (20g), whereas in the shaping procedure, successive distinctions are made along the dimension of force (5g vs. 10g, 10g, vs. 15g, 15g, vs. 20g) using a separate differential reinforcement procedure for each set of values. ALSO, when using the differential reinforcement procedure, the frequency of both responses (those stronger than 20g and those weaker than 20g) must occur regularly at the beginning of the procedure. However in the shaping procedure, the initial 10g lever press must occur with at least a minimal frequency, and the successive, more forceful lever presses after that may or may not occur even at a minimal frequency at the beginning of the procedure. They will, however, increase in frequency as the shaping procedure progresses until the terminal response is occurring at the desired frequency. REVIEW: Please write the definition for the procedure of shaping with punishment ANSWER: The procedure of shaping with punishment – The differential punishment of all behavior EXCEPT that which more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior. 12. The shaping procedure using reinforcement vs. the shaping procedure using punishment. a. Give contrasting Skinner box examples using force of the lever press as the response dimension. Shaping with Reinforcement (this is the same as from 11b) Reinforcement Before: Initial: Press with 10g Intermediate: Press with 15g Terminal: Press with 20g After: Initial: Press with 5g Intermediate: Press with 10g Terminal: Press with 15g After: Water No water Extinction No water
3. 3. Shaping with Punishment Punishment Before: Initial: Press with 5g Intermediate: Press with 10g Terminal: Press with 15g After: Initial: Press with 10g Intermediate: Press with 15g Terminal: Press with 20g After: Shock No shock No shock Recovery b. Using the examples that you have provided, please compare and contrast shaping with reinforcement and shaping with punishment. ANSWER: In both of these examples, the terminal response is a lever press of 20 grams. However, the shaping with reinforcement procedure achieves this by reinforcing only those responses that more and more closely approximate the terminal response. In contrast, the shaping with punishment procedure achieves this same terminal response by punishing ALL responses EXCEPT those that more and more closely approximate the terminal response. REVIEW: Please write the definitions for the procedure of variable-outcome shaping and the procedure of fixedoutcome shaping. ANSWER: The procedure of variable-outcome shaping – Shaping that involves an increase in the amount of a reinforcer or a decrease in the amount of an aversive outcome as performance more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior. The procedure of fixed-outcome shaping – Shaping that involves the delivery of a fixed magnitude of a reinforcer when performance meets the changing criteria, or the delivery of a fixed magnitude of an aversive outcome when performance fails to meet the changing criteria. 13. Variable-outcome shaping vs. fixedoutcome shaping a. Be able to construct, describe, and explain the following table illustrating the differences between these two concepts. # of outcome sizes Regression to earlier levels Usual Source of Shaping Fixedoutcome One Variableoutcome Many No Weaker reinforcers reinforcers Performance Nature Manager
4. 4. b. Illustrate the differences between these two procedures using a pair of examples from the Skinner box. ANSWER: Variable-Outcome Shaping: Reinforcement Initial: Press with 10g Intermediate: Press with 15g Terminal: Press with 20g Initial: Press with 5g Intermediate: Press with 10g Terminal: Press with 15g Before: Initial: 2 drops of H2O Intermediate: 3 drops H2O Terminal: 4 drops H2O Initial: 1 drop H2O Intermediate: 2 drops H2O Terminal: 3 drops H2O No water Extinction Fixed-Outcome Shaping: Reinforcement Before: Initial: Press with 10g Intermediate: Press with 15g Terminal: Press with 20g After: 1 drop of water No water Initial: Press with 5g Intermediate: Press with 10g Terminal: Press with 15g Extinction After: No water c. Using the preceding examples, distinguish between Variableoutcome and Fixed-outcome shaping. ANSWER: In the examples shown here, the variable-outcome shaping procedure used increasing amounts of water to reinforce responses that more and more closely approximated the terminal response (pressing the lever with 20g of force). In contrast, in the fixed-outcome procedure, only a single drop of water is used to reinforce behavior that meets the changing criteria of lever presses that are made with increasing forcefulness. Additionally, if Rudolph were to regress to a weaker lever press, in the variable-outcome shaping procedure he would receive a smaller amount of drops of water. In the fixed-outcome shaping procedure, Rudolph would receive no water for performing a response that did not meet the current criteria for reinforcement.