Dukane projector glossary

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A glossary of data-video terms,and how they relate to Dukane's products.

Bill McIntosh
Authorized Dukane Consultant
Phone :843-442-8888
Email :WKMcIntosh@Comcast.net

You can find information on all of Dukane products here



http://www.slideshare.net/WKMcIntoshIII/documents

http://www.slideshare.net/WKMcIntoshIII/presentations

http://www.slideshare.net/WKMcIntoshIII/videos.



Here is the main the main Dukane website

www.dukane.com/av






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Dukane projector glossary

  1. 1. Find Projectors Get Bids CuData-Video Projectors – A Glossary of TermsUnderstanding the terms used to describe any technology can be a daunting task.Those who create technology have a tendency to use terms with the assumption thatthey are self-explanatory. Of course, that is not always the case, and the terminologyused to describe data-video projector can also be as difficult to comprehend as thoseused to describe computer technology.Here is a glossary of the most commonly used terms used to describe the features andfunctions of a data video projector, and how they apply to Dukane data-videoprojectors.AAC Port: The AC port on a projector is simply another name for the port where heelectricity (Alternating Current) comes into the projector. All Dukane projectors use themost widely used power cable, shown belowThe fact that all Dukane projectors used this cable is fairly significant. Some projectormanufacturers have chosen NOT to use these standard cables, which are the samepower cables used on most PCs and many other devices. Most tech /IT offices havedozens of these cables, and a replacement cable of this type can also easily be foundin most local stores. Buying or borrowing a power cable can easily fix the dilemma ofleaving behind or misplacing the power cable. However, locating a special power cablefor a particular projector that doesnt used this standard cable is often a problem.
  2. 2. ANSI-American National Standards Institute. A group that creates what are meant tobe agreed-upon standards for technology. In terms of projectors, ANSI is most oftenused for two terms predictive of the quality of a projected image, ANSI Contrast andANSI lumens.ANSI Contrast: Contrast is the ratio between white and black. The larger the contrastratio the greater the ability of a projector to show subtle color details and tolerateextraneous room light.ANSI Lumens: A standard for measuring light output, used for comparing projectors..Aspect Ratio: The most popular aspect ratio is 4:3 (4 by 3). Early television andcomputer video formats are in a 4:3 aspect ratio, which means that the width of theimage is 4/3 times the height. Examples: A 15 inch monitor is 12 inches wide by 9 inches high (9 x 4/3 = 12). Aresolution of 640x480 is a 4:3 format (480 x 4/3 = 640). Other formats are 5:4 used bythe 1280x1024 SXGA resolution, 16:9 is used by HDTV, and 3:2 for 35mm slidesMany movies are designed to be shown in he 16:9 ratio .ATA Rated Case: A case rated strong enough to be shipped by common carrier;freight lines, UPS, FedEx, etc. Most cases of this type are easily recognized by theirmetal reinforced corners and handles..B------------------------------------------------------------------------Back Room Projector: A projector with a "long-throw" lens designed to be used fromthe far back of the room, often in a projection booth, balcony, or back of an auditorium.Many projectors have lenses available for "long-throw" applications.C------------------------------------------------------------------------Component Video: Component Video is a method of delivering quality video (RGB) ina format that contains all the components of the original image. These components arereferred to as luma and chroma and are defined as YPbPr for analog component and
  3. 3. YCbCr for digital component. Component video is available on some DVD playersand projectors. The cable for component video is typically that with red, green and blueRCA tips.Composite video –With composite video, the entire video signal is transmitted on onecable. Composite cables are typically color-coded yellow( the video cable) white andred( the audio cables). This is the lowest quality means to send video to a projector,but still remains a common standard particularly on older VCRS, and DVD playerswhere HDMI ( the highest quality) is not an option. These cable also have RCA tips.Contrast Ratio: The ratio between white and black. The larger the contrast ratio thegreater the ability of a projector to show subtle color details and tolerate extraneousroom light. A higher contrast ratio means a crisper image.D------------------------------------------------------------------------Diagonal Screen: A method of measuring the size of a screen or a projected image. Itmeasures from one corner to the opposite corner. A 9FT high, 12FT wide, screen hasa diagonal of 15FT. It is typically assumed that the diagonal dimensions are for thetraditional 4:3 ratio of a computer image as per the example above. Some screens aresquare, others particularly wide for 35mm slides 3:2 ratio. As such even if the screen is12x12, we would rate it 15FT diagonal since that would be the diagonal of the usablearea. OK, how about this! Remember high school? Heres your old geometry lesson. X-squared times Y-squared equals Z-squared. 3ft by 4ft screen = 3 squared (9), + 4squared (16), equals 25 (5 squared) a 5 ft diagonal image.Digital Light Processing (DLP): The commercial name for this technology from TexasInstruments (TI): The technology inside is often referred to as either "micro-mirrors", orDMD: The most amazing part of DLP micro mirrors, is the scale of size. The hingesand motors are packed onto a "wafer" a bit larger than your thumbnail.Distribution Amplifier: An amplifier used to maintain a clean noise free signal to theprojector over significant distances. Even with good heavily shielded cables, range ofvideo and computer signals is limited to a few dozen feet before noticeabledegradation. In ceiling mount situations, where the wiring may pass along side oracross electrical conduits, etc. a distribution amp may be needed with shorterdistances. Many distribution amps can also split the signal into 2 or more amplifiedsignals for driving multiple projectors, projectors and monitors. A common error is usinga cable too long for a strong signal to reach the projector. The need for a “DA” varieswith the quality of the cable, but using a cable much longer than 25 feet generally callsfor a distribution amplifier.
  4. 4. DVI: DVI means Digital Visual Interface. DVI is a standard that defines the digitalinterface between digital devices such as projectors and personal computers. Fordevices that support DVI, a digital-to-digital connection can be made that eliminatesthe conversion to analog and thereby delivers an unblemished image. DVI was anearly digital interface. HDMI is largely taking the place of DVI.F------------------------------------------------------------------------Focal Length: The distance from the surface of a lens to its focal point.Form Factor: A general description a major feature or features that identify a type ofprojector or category of capabilities. Projectors with a smaller form factor are moreportable. However, a smaller form factor also allows for fewer inputs and a smaller fanand room for heat to dissipate. A smaller form factor is ideal for a traveling presenter or“road warrior. A slightly larger form factor for a classroom or conference room remainsportable, but does not limit inputs or the size of the case. Projectors used for apermanently fixed in stallion can have a larger form factor, since they will seldom ifever be used. Again, a common error is to assume that a very small affordableprojector will suffice for all day classroom or conference room use.Front Room Projector or Position: A unit that sits close to the screen, its short throwlens projects an image size that is about the same as the distance to the screen. 6FTdiag. screen = 6FT distance. Generally the unit might be as close as 3/4 the screensize or as far as 1.2 times image size.H------------------------------------------------------------------------Halogen Lamps: Used in most low and medium priced projectors, these lamps lastabout 40 hours, with consistent output throughout their life. Although halogens lookvery white compared to a normal incandescent lamp, they are not as white as metalhalide units. Cost of operation: Under $0.50 per hour. Most projectors using halogenlamps carry a spare lamp inside. Halogen lamps were used in early projectors and maybe in some “legacy projectors, but are no longer widely sold.Hard Wired Remote: Generally a remote control is wireless, and uses infraredtransmitter. There are situations where this is not practical: Large rooms where thespeaker is 35 ft or more from the projector. Rear projection, where the screen will passsome signal, but normally has the presenter pretty much tied down. Also, the presenterhas to point the remote "at" the projector, which often means turning away from theaudience. A hard-wired remote is generally used where the presenter cannot aim the
  5. 5. remote in the direction of the projector, such as a projector mounted in a projectionbooth.HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a compact audio/video interface fortransferring uncompressed video data and compressed/uncompressed digital audio data froman HDMI-compliant device ("the source device") to a compatible digital audio device,computer monitor, video projector, or digital television. HDMI is a digital replacement forexisting analog video standards. All of the current models of Dukane projectors have an HDMIinput, in addition to the standard RGB inputs, which makes them ready for use with devicesthat can connect via HDMI, including some computers, DVD and Blu ray players and Ipads(with the Apple HDMI adapter) .High Gain Screen: A screen that uses one of many methods to collect light and reflectit back to the audience, which dramatically increase the brightness of the image over awhite wall or semi-matte screen. Technologies used include curved screens, specialmetal foil screens (some polarized), and certain glass bead screens. Screens with amatte-white surface offer less gain, but are the most commonly used screens inclassrooms and conference rooms since they are more affordable and can be cleanedwhen needed.I------------------------------------------------------------------------Infrared Remote: The traditional remote control, it transmits infrared, like a televisionremote. Typical range is limited to 30 or 35 feet. Infrared requires line of site or abounce off of a hard surface. The presenter must pay attention to where the remote ispointed. Some projectors have an IR sensor in both the front and rear of the projector,which can help a bit. When working at or near the maximum distance pointing right atthe receiver is necessary. Remember "line of sight" - a persons head, directly betweenyour remote and the projector may be enough to render it unusable. Radio frequencyremote mousing systems, by comparison, have two distinct advantages, no line ofsight requirement, and longer range. A wireless tablet/slate gives the advantage ofcontrolling the mouse functions and also is easier to use to simply advance slides orclose or open computer windows .
  6. 6. International Power Supply: A unit that can operate under a international selection ofpower requirements. The specs of units vary widely, but the minimum is 105-230 volts,and 50-60 cycles AC (alternating current). If you see a specification like 110v, 220vinstead of a range, those ratings are usually +/- a given percent such as 10%. Someunits are "self-switching" they will automatically switch to whatever power source youplug it into. Others will have to be switched (internally or externally to accommodate adifference volt age or cycle range. If your projector comes with some “strange looking”power cables, those are ones for international use.Invert Image: Invert image flips the image from top to bottom, to compensate forceiling mounting a projector upside down. Projectors typically ceiling-mount upsidedown, because most have "keystone" correction built in to compensate for thedistortion created by "pointing up" from the table to the screen. Usual positioning hasthe projector about even with the bottom of the screen in a "table top position," or, evenwith the top of the screen when ceiling mounted.KKensington Lock Port : Kensington is the brand name of company that producessecurity cables and locks for computers and projector. The port to use with aKensington lock has become a “defacto” standard. Many Dukane projectors include aslot for a Kensington security device.Keystone Correction: Using optics design or other methods to apply a "negative"keystone to the image, which will partially cancel the effects of keystoning. If you aim aprojector with keystone correction at a screen with the lens level with the middle of thescreen, you will not that the image at the bottom is wider than at the top. When theprojector is in normal position, pointing upward 10-25 degrees, the resulting image isfairly rectangular.Keystoning: Keystoning is caused when the projected image is not perpendicular tothe screen, making the top and bottom of the image different lengths. The keystoneeffect, and the need for keystone correction can be avoided by simply placing theprojector at a point as perpendicular at possible to the screen. They keystonecorrection feature offered in many projectors helps to assure of a rectangular image.LLAN-Local Area Network: Some projectors now come with an input so the projectorcan be put on a LAN. There are two reasons to have your projector on a lan. Usingsoftware, a site or IT administrator can check the status of the projector monitoring
  7. 7. such things as the lamp life on the projector and whether it is on or off. Someprojectors now come with software that allows an image to be wireless projected over aLAN as wellLaser Pointer: A small pen or cigar-sized pointer, that contains a small batterypowered laser, which can project a small, red (typically), high intensity beam of lightthat is immediately very visible on the screen. Excellent for pointing to objects or text,to make a point. Some schools have avoided or even banned the use of laser pointerssimply because of the risk of them being used by incorrectly or picked up b studentsand aimed at someone’s eyes.LCD: LCD stands for liquid crystal display and comes in many forms, sizes, andresolutions. Its primary purpose is to present a digital image for viewing. A commonuse of LCDs is as a display on a notebook computer and “smart phonesLens Shift: The Lens Shift feature of a projector allows the optical lens to be physicallyshifted up and down (Vertical) or left and right (Horizontal). Most all lens shiftmechanisms are motorized with vertical lens shift being the most popular. With aprojector that has lens shift you can optically correct for keystone distorted images. It isalso used to help geometrically align images when stacking projectors.Long Throw Lens: A lens designed for projection from the back of a room, or ratherthe back of a long room. Long throw lenses would be used a projection booth in theback of a theater, a church, or a large ballroom in a hotel or other venue. A typical longthrow lens might have to be 50 to 100 FT back to project a 10FT diagonal image.Some long throw lens is “factory installed”. Some projectors include what is typicallycalled a “bayonet mount” where different lens can be added, just as a bayonet can beadded to, or left off of, some rifles as needed.M------------------------------------------------------------------------Maximum Image Size: The largest image a projector can throw in a darkened room.This is usually limited by focal range of the optics.Menu Driven: Refers to the type of controls on a projector. A typical menu drivensystem, will first offer a menu of major categories such as Computer, Video, Audio,Display, Options. After selecting Computer, you will get another menu of choices withitems like brightness, contrast, number of colors, color balance, sync. Select one ofthose and you can then adjust it. Many projectors, which are menu driven, also offerthe most widely used functions in a non-menu fashion, such as have separate buttonson the remote for volume, brightness, and contrast, as well as switching betweenchannels/sources. One factor to look for is if the projectors menus can be adjustedWITHOU a remote. There are two kinds of projector remotes: those that will soon be
  8. 8. misplaced and those that are misplaced. Of course a celling mounted, fixed projectorshould be mounted so that the menus dont need to be adjusted, but it is good to knowwhether the menus can be controlled on the projector without a remote. Mostprojectors DO have “redundant menus” on both the remote and the unit itself. Somedont.Metal Halide Lamp: The type of lamp used in most current projectors. These lampstypically have a "half-life" of 2000-6000 hours. That is they slowly lose intensity(brightness) as they are used, and at the "half-life" point, they are half as bright aswhen new, but typically dont suddenly fail these lamps output a very "hot" temperaturelight, similar to mercury vapor lamps used in streetlights.Smaller “road warrior projectors”, the less than 5 lb. category, have a smaller formfactor and thus a smaller fan. While these are being used in classrooms andconference rooms, they were not designed or meant to be “always on” for severalhours.Mini Plug: Since most laptop, and many desktop computers, has a headphone port,this port can be used to send the sound from a computer to a projector.A male-to-male mini plug cable, using the tip shown below can be used to accomplishthat, if the projector has a mini plug in. Likewise a projector may have an audio-out portthat uses the kind of mini-pin connection, so that a set of speakers can be attached tothe projector.Minimum Distance: The closest position that a projector can focus an image onto ascreen.
  9. 9. NTSC: The United States broadcast standard for video and broadcasting. A VCR hasNTSC output. PAL is a European standardO------------------------------------------------------------------------OHP: The common abbreviation for overhead projector.Overhead Projector (OHP): A device consisting of a light source, a transmissive orreflective platform, and a focusable lens assembly. An OHP is designed to projectimages from transparencies onto a screen. With the advent of affordable visualpresenters and document cameras, OHPs are not the classroom staple they oncewere. However, they do represent a tool that does what is was mean to do. It is alsopossible to get inkjet compatible transparencies, and make good transparencies wherean OHP is available to use.P------------------------------------------------------------------------PAL: A European and international broadcast standard for video and broadcasting.Higher resolution than NTSC.Panel: Also known as a projection panel, LCD projection panel, or plate. The panel isthe predecessor of todays projectors. They worked with an overhead projector. Most ofthese are “retired” from use.Power Zoom : A zoom lens with the zoom in and out controlled by a motor, usuallyadjusted from the projectors control panel and also the remote control.Projector: A projector is a device that integrates a light source, optics system,electronics and display(s) for the purpose of projecting an image from a computer orvideo device onto a wall or screen for large image viewing. There are hundreds ofproducts available in the market and their resolution, performance features, warrantyand support differentiate them. These devices attached to a computer or videodevices, as you would connect a monitor. A “data-video “ projector is a more accurateterm as it suggests the fact that these can be used to project the Image from acomputer or a video source, such as a Video camera, VCR, DVD player or blu rayplayer .
  10. 10. R------------------------------------------------------------------------Rear Screen Projection: Using an opaque screen, the projector is placed behind thescreen, invisible to the audience. It projects onto the screen and the audience sees iton the other side. Good rear projection screens actually produce brighter images thansome standard screens. So as not to waste space behind the screen, ideally aprojector with a short throw lens is used. Since the projector can be placed even withthe middle of the screen, without blocking anyones view, keystoning is not a problem.RCA cable –An RCA cable uses the plug seen below . Both composite(Red Green,Blue) and Component ( Yellow, white and red) use RCA cables, which make it easy toconfuse them. Also, some projectors have a pair and Red and White RCA ports, whichcan be used for “audio out” to a set of speakers.Reverse Image: Reverse image is a feature found on most projectors, which flips theimage horizontally. When used in a normal forward projection environment text,graphics, etc, are backwards. Reverse image is used for rear projection.RGB: Red, Green, Blue; the normal type of monitor used with computers, examples ofusage: RGB input or output often referred to as Computer input or output.RS-232 Port : An RS-232 Port is a serial connection found on the input section ofmany projectors. Its typical use is for the addition of a wired remote as described herein the glossary. It has “male “ pins and is easy to confuse with
  11. 11. S------------------------------------------------------------------------S-Video: A video transmission standard that uses a 4-pin mini-DIN connector to sendvideo information on two signal wires called luminance (brightness, Y) andchrominance (color, C)SECAM: A French and international broadcast standard for video and broadcasting.Higher resolution than NTSC.Short Throw Lens: A lens designed to project the largest possible image from shortdistance. Most front room projectors use short throw lens. They are often required forrear projection, where the depth behind the screen is limited. A typical short throw lensmight produce a diagonal image size of 10 FT, from a distance of 7 to 10 FT.SVGA: SVGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined bythe number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots arecalled pixels. An SVGA display has 800 horizontal pixels and 600 vertical pixels givinga total display resolution of 480,000 individual pixels that are used to compose theimage delivered by a projector.SXGA: SXGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined bythe number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots arecalled pixels. An SXGA display has 1280 horizontal pixels and 1024 vertical pixelsgiving a total display resolution of 1,310,720 individual pixels that are used to composethe image delivered by a projector.TThrow Distance : Throw distance is a term used to explain how far the image can be“thrown” from the computer to the screen. Put another way, if you have an existingscreen size, the throw distance will determine how fan away from the screen thecomputer should be placed for the best image. Throw distance falls in one of fourcategories. Long throw, Standard throw, short throw , and ultra-short throw.
  12. 12. Since most classrooms are 12” from floor to ceiling , the typical screen sizes are 6”x6”,8’x8’ or 10’x10’. Larger rooms or larger presentation areas can of course support largerscreens.Dukane makes the process of determining the throw distance easy with this very usefulPrjojection distance calculation webpage:http://www.dukane.com/av/products/ProjectorCalculator.asp?Every current Dukane model is listed, as well as “historic models” ( no longer sold butstill in use) . It also suggests a location based on ambient light in the room. This chartmakes it much easier to chose the right projector for your needs, and to know where toplace if for the best results.Here is a another way to look at this. The location of a standard throw projector shouldbe roughly twice the width of the screen. If you walk into a room and look at theexisting screen, you can estimate how far away from the screen a standard throwProjector using the formula L ( location) = SW( screen width) X 2.Example: Given a 6 foot screen a standard throw projector would be 12 feet away fromthe screenA short throw projector could be 9 feet away from the screenAn ultra short throw projector could be three feet away from the screen.And a long throw projector could be at the back of the room, 25 feet away.These are rough distances used for the sake of example. The projector calculator onthe Dukane website takes away any guesswork. Most projectors include a throwdistance chart either on the data sheet or the user manual.A zoom lens adds a plus/minus variable . Meaning you can make the image slightlylarger or smaller. Ideally you want to zoom in the projector as much as possible,sincethat also means the light is more focused and less difused, resulting in a a brighter andsharper image from a given distance.
  13. 13. UUltra short throw projector : A category of projectors designed to be set up and usedonly a few feet from the screen or projection surface. These projectors are widely usedwith interactive whiteboard or in the case of a rear projection screen.USB-Universal Serial Bus- USB is another term for a standard on computers andrelated technology devices like Data video projector. The USB port on a Projector canbe used either to connect the projector to the computer in some cases. USB ports onprojectors can also be used to allow “computer-less “presenting if the presentation isput on a USB “Flash drive”UXGA: UXGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined bythe number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots arecalled pixels. A UXGA display has 1600 horizontal pixels and 1200 vertical pixelsgiving a total display resolution of 1,920,000 individual pixels that are used to composethe image delivered by a projectorV------------------------------------------------------------------------VGA: VGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined by thenumber of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are calledpixels. A VGA display has 640 horizontal pixels and 480 vertical pixels giving a totaldisplay resolution of 307,200 individual pixels that are used to compose the imagedelivered by a projector. Virtually all computers today produce an image greater thanVGA. At one time many projectors were only capable of VGA resolution.VGA Cable: The VGA cable is a 15 pin male-to-male cable. It remains the mostcommon way to attach a computer to a projector. This same cable is used on manyPCs to connect the video card on the computer to a monitor. This is also sometimescalled an RGB cable, and some projectors show the port where this cable is to beplugged as the “RGB “ port instead of the “Computer “port.
  14. 14. VGA-Out (also called Monitor out). : Many projector have a port that allows thesignal coming INTO the projector from a computer to be “split” and shared with a PCmonitor. This feature is useful, for example , where the PC is at a desk and what isbeing presented is showing up behind the desk. When a monitor is attached to theprojector, the presenter gets a “mirror image” of what is being presented to theaudience.W------------------------------------------------------------------------WSXGA: WSXGA defines a class of SXGA displays with a width resolution sufficient tocreate an aspect ratio of 16:9. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dotsthat a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. A WSXGA displayhas 1920 to 1600 horizontal pixels and 1080 to 900 vertical pixels respectively that areused to compose the image delivered by the projector.WXGA: WXGA defines a class of XGA displays with a width resolution sufficient tocreate an aspect ratio of 16:9. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dotsthat a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. A WXGA displayhas 1366 to 1280 horizontal pixels and 768 to 720 vertical pixels respectively that areused to compose the image delivered by the projector.X------------------------------------------------------------------------XGA: XGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined by thenumber of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are calledpixels. An XGA display has 1020 horizontal pixels and 768 vertical pixels giving a totaldisplay resolution of 783,360 individual pixels that are used to compose the imagedelivered by a projector. Most, if not all projectors today, have minimum resolution ofXGA.
  15. 15. Z------------------------------------------------------------------------Zoom Lens: A lens with a variable focal length providing the ability to adjust the size ofthe image on a screen by adjusting the zoom lens, instead of having to move theprojector closer or further.Zoom Lens Ratio: Is the ratio between the smallest and largest image a lens canprojector from a fixed distance. For example, a 1.4:1 zoom lens ratio means that a 10foot image without zoom would be a 14 foot image with full zoom. Conversely, a 10foot diagonal image at 15 feet with no zoom would still be a 10 image at 21 feet atmaximum zoom (15 x 1.4 = 21 feet). A zoom lens is "not as bright" as a fixed lens, andthe higher the ratio, the less light output. As anyone knows who has shined a flashlighton a nearby wall , and then on a wall several feet away, light disperses over distance.However, without a zoom lens , some projectors would not FIT on the available screenwhere it not possible to place the projector as close to the screen as might produce abrighter image.Here is how these terms apply to a typical Dukane projectorThe Data sheet on the Dukane 8928A can be found here :http://www.dukane.com/av/products/documents/specs/8928A.pdf
  16. 16. Here is a picture of the 8928AWhile it has a low profile form factor, you can also see it has a good-sized air filter porton the right to keep the unit cool.The product sheet lists this as a 2700 ANSI Lumen Unit, bright enough for almost anyclassroomThe 4000:1 Contrast ratio means it will produce a very crisp image.
  17. 17. This diagram of the input area on the 8928 A will show many of the glossary terms inuse“Crestron” is the name of company well known for software to control projectors atlarge scale installations. The fact this unit is “Crestron Ready” simply acknowledgesthat fact to those who already use Creston’s products.Finally, there is one term that probably doesnt need explanation in a glossary but doesneed to be pointed out in terms of how it applies to Dukane’s products:WarrantyDukane offers FIVE year warranty on most of its projectors. Most other carry either a two orthree year warranty. Since a one year extension of a warranty can cost as much as $400, thereis added value in each Dukane projector.
  18. 18. The full line of Dukane products can be found here :www.dukane.com/avBill McIntoshSchoolVision Inc.Authorized Dukane ConsultantPhone :843-442-8888Email :WKMcIntosh@Comcast.netTwitter : @OtisTMcIntoshSchoolVision Website on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/WKMIII

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