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WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 1
UHP and Abrasive Cutting
Applications
Short Course
By
Mohamed Hashish
Flow International ...
Waterjet System
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish
2
Water is Compressible
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 3
Intensifier
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 4
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 5
Video
Crosshead bushingPlunger seal
Plunger
Check Valve
Assembly
High Pressure
Cylinder
Crank case
Direct Drive Pump
WJTA Short ...
Actuato
r
Seal
Valve Orifice
(Seat)
Inlet
Valve Stem
(Poppet)
Outlet
Pneumatic
Actuator
On/Off Valve
WJTA Short Course ® M...
UHP Fittings & Tubing
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 8
Anti Vibe Thread Manual on/off Valve Various fittings
Pressure Loss
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 9
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 10
/2PVth 
thvVcV 
dn cPdKq 2
1
dn cPdKE 5.12
2
Basic Relations
• Theoretical
Waterjet...
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 11
Hydraulic Relationships
Hydraulic Relationships
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 12
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 13
Easy Unit Conversions
• 1 Ksi= 6.9 MPa
– So, 50,000 psi is 50 * 6.9 = 345 MPa
• 1 mm = 4...
Orifice
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 14
Waterjet Coherency
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 15
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 16
Types of Jets
Droplet Jet
Cryogenic Jet
Ice Jet
Hybrid Jet
Pulsed jet
Waterjet
(WJ)
Fan ...
Front viewSide view
Orifice shape
Nozzle
Fanjets
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 17
From
Pump
Nozzle
Abrasives
Abrasiv
e
Slurry
Jet
TO DRAIN
UHP WATER
FROM PUMP
CHECK
VALVES
NOZZLE
ABRASIVE
SLURRY JET
WATER...
Abrasive Waterjet
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 19
Air Flow in AWJ
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 20
General AWJ Cutting Trends
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 21
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550
Pressure (MPa)
CuttingSpeed(mm/s)
dn=0.23 mm, ...
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 23
Taper
Divergent ConvergentStraight
Speed
Divergent ConvergentStraight
Speed
0.00
0.10
0....
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 24
Trail Back
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 25
Bottom of the Cut
Cutting Speed
Taper Control Wrists
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 26
Video
-
5
10
15
20
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% 180%
Cutting Speed
Finish,Taper,andTrailback
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Finish
...
Motion
Systems
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 28
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 29
Large Systems
Large Systems
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 30
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 31
Robotic Waterjet Trimming
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 32
Machining Processes
Cutting
Trimming, Slitting, Shape cutting
Drilling (piercing)
Small ...
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 33
AWJ Trimming of Boeing 777&7E7
Composites
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 34
Inlay Shape Cutting
• Standard application
• Good edge quality
• Automatic cutter compen...
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 35
Glass - Thin Web Cutting
• Thin web ~ 0.01/inch
• Webs may be hour
glass shape
• Strut v...
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 36
Electronics - Thin Kerf Cutting
(Dicing – Singulation)
AWJ
• Kerf width
– Minimum ~ 0.5 ...
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 37
• 300-mm Steel
and Titanium
• 600mm GLASS
AND Aluminum
• Wall straightness
within 0.5-mm...
AWJ Drilling
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 38
Example Rapid Drilling
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 39
AWJ Milling
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 40
AWJ Turning
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 41
3D Cutting and Shaping
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 42
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 43
Waterjet Peening
Compressive
residual
stress
depth
depth
Work
hardening
HV
Water droplet...
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 44
Ceramic Coat Stripping
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 45
Surface Roughening
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 46
References
• Hashish, “The Waterjet as a Tool,” Proceedings of the 14th International Wa...
WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 47
References (cont.)
• Hashish, M., “Controlled-Depth Milling of Isogrid Structures with A...
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WJTA-IMCA 2013 - UHP and Cutting Applications

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WJTA-IMCA 2013 - UHP and Cutting Applications

  1. 1. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 1 UHP and Abrasive Cutting Applications Short Course By Mohamed Hashish Flow International Corporation Mhashish@flowcorp.com September 2013
  2. 2. Waterjet System WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 2
  3. 3. Water is Compressible WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 3
  4. 4. Intensifier WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 4
  5. 5. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 5 Video
  6. 6. Crosshead bushingPlunger seal Plunger Check Valve Assembly High Pressure Cylinder Crank case Direct Drive Pump WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 6
  7. 7. Actuato r Seal Valve Orifice (Seat) Inlet Valve Stem (Poppet) Outlet Pneumatic Actuator On/Off Valve WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 7
  8. 8. UHP Fittings & Tubing WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 8 Anti Vibe Thread Manual on/off Valve Various fittings
  9. 9. Pressure Loss WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 9
  10. 10. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 10 /2PVth  thvVcV  dn cPdKq 2 1 dn cPdKE 5.12 2 Basic Relations • Theoretical Waterjet velocity • Actual Waterjet Velocity • Water Flow Rate • Jet power ft/sec= 12.2 Psi cv = 0.98
  11. 11. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 11 Hydraulic Relationships
  12. 12. Hydraulic Relationships WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 12
  13. 13. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 13 Easy Unit Conversions • 1 Ksi= 6.9 MPa – So, 50,000 psi is 50 * 6.9 = 345 MPa • 1 mm = 40 thou – So, 0.5 mm = 0.020 inch • 1 thou = 25 microns – So, 0.002 inch = 50 microns
  14. 14. Orifice WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 14
  15. 15. Waterjet Coherency WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 15
  16. 16. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 16 Types of Jets Droplet Jet Cryogenic Jet Ice Jet Hybrid Jet Pulsed jet Waterjet (WJ) Fan Jet (FJ) Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Abrasive Suspension Jet (ASJ) Emerging Water Only Water +Abrasives Other
  17. 17. Front viewSide view Orifice shape Nozzle Fanjets WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 17
  18. 18. From Pump Nozzle Abrasives Abrasiv e Slurry Jet TO DRAIN UHP WATER FROM PUMP CHECK VALVES NOZZLE ABRASIVE SLURRY JET WATER OPEN CLOSED OPEN CLOSED ABRASIVE SLURRY IN ABRASIVE SLURRYISOLATOR MH006B a- Fluidized bed b- Isolator Abrasive Slurry (Suspension) Jets WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 18
  19. 19. Abrasive Waterjet WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 19
  20. 20. Air Flow in AWJ WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 20
  21. 21. General AWJ Cutting Trends WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 21
  22. 22. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 Pressure (MPa) CuttingSpeed(mm/s) dn=0.23 mm, dm= 0.79 mm, ma= 3.8 g/s 12.5-mm thick Steel 51-mm thick Aluminum Example AWJ Cutting Trend WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 22
  23. 23. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 23 Taper Divergent ConvergentStraight Speed Divergent ConvergentStraight Speed 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Width of Cut (inch) Depth(inch) Top Surface % Speed 1% 5% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Titanium 6Al-4V p= 54 Ksi dn=0.018 inch dm= 0.060 inch lm= 4.0 inch ma= 2.1 lb/min Garnet Mesh 50 sod=0.1 inch 100% speed = 11 inch/min
  24. 24. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 24 Trail Back
  25. 25. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 25 Bottom of the Cut Cutting Speed
  26. 26. Taper Control Wrists WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 26 Video
  27. 27. - 5 10 15 20 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% 180% Cutting Speed Finish,Taper,andTrailback - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Finish Taper Trailback dominant striations speed range u 3 maximum taper speed u 1 zero taper speed u 4 maximum cut-through speed u 2 striations start speed laterally stretched image to highlight striations t Benefit of Taper Control WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 27
  28. 28. Motion Systems WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 28
  29. 29. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 29 Large Systems
  30. 30. Large Systems WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 30
  31. 31. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 31 Robotic Waterjet Trimming
  32. 32. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 32 Machining Processes Cutting Trimming, Slitting, Shape cutting Drilling (piercing) Small holes, Turning Diameter turning, Slicing Milling Area milling, Grooving Surface modification Texturing, Coating removal, Paint removal, Peening, .. Other Deburring, Powder fabrication, Jet assisted machining,…
  33. 33. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 33 AWJ Trimming of Boeing 777&7E7 Composites
  34. 34. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 34 Inlay Shape Cutting • Standard application • Good edge quality • Automatic cutter compensation • Special piercing strategy
  35. 35. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 35 Glass - Thin Web Cutting • Thin web ~ 0.01/inch • Webs may be hour glass shape • Strut vibration • Cut-out handling • Piercing Glass Core 1.5-inch thick with 0.020-inch webs
  36. 36. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 36 Electronics - Thin Kerf Cutting (Dicing – Singulation) AWJ • Kerf width – Minimum ~ 0.5 mm – possible ~ 0.38 inch – Future ~ 0.1 mm • Process Cpk >1.3 can be met with AWJ • ASJ is a future process for kerf width < 0.25- mm
  37. 37. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 37 • 300-mm Steel and Titanium • 600mm GLASS AND Aluminum • Wall straightness within 0.5-mm • Special nozzle, High power Thick Materials
  38. 38. AWJ Drilling WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 38
  39. 39. Example Rapid Drilling WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 39
  40. 40. AWJ Milling WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 40
  41. 41. AWJ Turning WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 41
  42. 42. 3D Cutting and Shaping WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 42
  43. 43. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 43 Waterjet Peening Compressive residual stress depth depth Work hardening HV Water droplet _ + Surface roughness & erosion of material 
  44. 44. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 44 Ceramic Coat Stripping
  45. 45. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 45 Surface Roughening
  46. 46. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 46 References • Hashish, “The Waterjet as a Tool,” Proceedings of the 14th International Water Jet Cutting Technology Conference, BHR group, Brugge, Belgium, October 1998. • Knaupp, M., et. Al., “Dynamic Compensation of Abrasive Waterjet Properties through 3-Dimensional Jet Control,” Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Jet Cutting Technology, Aix-en-Provenece, France, P. Lake, ed., BHR Group Conference Series, October 2002, pp. 75-88. • Miller, D., “Micromachining with Abrasive Waterjets,” Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Jet Cutting Technology, Aix-en-Provence, France, P. Lake, ed., BHR Group Conference Series, October 2002, pp. 59-74. • M. Hashish, “Cutting and drilling at 690 MPa Pressure,” Proceedings of the 10th American Water Jet Conference, WJTA, Houston, Texas, 1999, 137-151.
  47. 47. WJTA Short Course ® M. Hashish 47 References (cont.) • Hashish, M., “Controlled-Depth Milling of Isogrid Structures with AWJs,” Manufacturing Science and Engineering, ASME, PED-Volume 68-1, 1994, pp. 413-419. • Hashish, M., “Drilling Deep Small Diameter Holes using Abrasive-Waterjets,” Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Jet Cutting Technology, Aix-en-Provenece, France, P. Lake, ed., BHR, October 2002, pp. 103-117. • Hashish, M., “Observations on Precision Turning with AWJ,” Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Jet Cutting Technology, Ronneby, Sweden, R. Ciccu, ed., BHR Group Conference Series, Publication No 41, September 2000, pp. 367-380. • Ramulu, M., Kunaporn, S., Alora, D., Hashish, M., and Hopkins, J., “Waterjet Machining and Peening of Metals," Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Transactions of the ASME V.122, No.1, 2000, ASME, pp. 90-95.

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