Governance 2.0 chile

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Realizing Governance 2.0: Capturing the Value of Networked Citizens and the Fifth Estate. Presentation for the Institute of Communication and New Technologies, University Mayor, Chile, 29 July 2011.

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Governance 2.0 chile

  1. 1. William H. Dutton Oxford Internet Institute (OII) University of Oxford www.ox.ac.uk Realizing Governance 2.0 Capturing the Value of Networked Citizens a nd the Fifth Estate Presentation for Instituto de Comunicación y Nuevas Technologías, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile, 29 July 2011.
  2. 2. The Problem <ul><li>Governments 1.0 – Informational Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens 0.0 – Apathy </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-sectional Surveys versus Panels </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Stage Probability Sample </li></ul><ul><li>England, Scotland & Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents: 14 years and older </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face Interviews, High Response Rates </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship for 2011 from the Nominet Trust, British Library, Ofcom, O2, and ITV.com </li></ul><ul><li>Component of World Internet Project (WIP) </li></ul>Oxford Internet Surveys
  4. 5. Innovations in Use <ul><li>Social Networking – User Generated Content (UGC) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of Next Generation Users </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Collaborative Network Organizations </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Collaboration of OII, INSEAD, and comScore for the World Economic Forum (WEF) </li></ul><ul><li>Online Global Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Completed by 5,400 Adult Internet Users </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted from Oct-Nov 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>13 countries: Australia/New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Mexico, South Africa, Spain, the United States, and the United Kingdom </li></ul>The Global Internet Values Project* *Dutta, S., Dutton, W. H. and Law, G. (2011), The New Internet World: A Global Perspective on Freedom of Expression, Privacy, Trust and Security Online . New York: The World Economic Forum, April. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1810005
  6. 10. Electronic Networks of Expertise <ul><li>The Emergency Management Information Systems And Reference Index (EMISARI) 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>PCs and Groupware, Group Decision Support </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Consultation: QUBE Columbus, Ohio 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Monica’s Public Electronic Network (PEN) early-1990s </li></ul>
  7. 11. Case Studies of ‘Distributed Problem Solving Networks’ Case study <ul><ul><li>News aggregators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sermo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seriosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASOA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Wikipedia </li></ul></ul>Source: OII What is it about? <ul><ul><li>Different paradigms to find, rate, and prioritize news available online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physicians sharing medical information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of multi-player game features to help prioritize use of e-mail and attention foci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregating judgments to predict public and private events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing and building a high energy physics (HEP) experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing and creating an Open Content Feature Film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making an Open Source web browser “Mom-and-Dad” friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve readability of Wikipedia </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. A Simple Typology of CNOs Collaboration on documents, data, objects 1.0. Sharing: hypertextual 2.0. Contributing: hypertextual + user-generated 3.0. Co-creating: hypertextual + user-generated + cooperative work <ul><li>Atlas </li></ul><ul><li>Bugzilla </li></ul><ul><li>Innocentive </li></ul><ul><li>Digg News </li></ul><ul><li>Information Markets/ Prediction Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Seriosity </li></ul><ul><li>Sermo </li></ul><ul><li>Firefox </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Swarm of Angels </li></ul>
  9. 13. Enabling Institutional Change <ul><li>Governments 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Sourcing of Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen’s as Sources of Information </li></ul>
  10. 14. Wider Conceptions of the Public: <ul><li>Public as Citizens: Voters within a Constituency supported by e-consultation, Voting and Polling, … </li></ul><ul><li>Public as Advisors: Experts Distributed around the World </li></ul>
  11. 15. Citizen Opinion Expert Advice Engaging Networked Individuals Citizen Consultation, Polling, ePetitions Distributed Intelligence through Collaborative Network Organizations Individuals, Interest Groups and Lobbies Meetings, Hearings, Letters, Petitions, Elections Paid Consultants, Representatives of Interest Groups
  12. 16. Many Reasons to Avoid CNOs: <ul><li>Risk Aversion </li></ul><ul><li>Concern over Levels of Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Quality: Focus on Evidence-based Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming of Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Revealing Problems or Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Control over Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Concern over Civility </li></ul><ul><li>Concern over Committing Politicians and Officials </li></ul>
  13. 18. Strategies for Government Champions: <ul><li>Don’t reinvent the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Start small, but with scalable design </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible in where you go for expertise </li></ul><ul><li>No one solution to all problems </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate bottom up development of projects </li></ul><ul><li>Get colleagues involved in distributed collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Capture, reward and publicize best practice </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>Networked Individuals versus Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Fifth Estate’ </li></ul>Empowering Networked Individuals
  15. 20. <ul><li>Networked Institutions, such as in e-Health </li></ul><ul><li>Networked Individuals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>going to the Internet for health and medical information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>networking physicians via Sermo </li></ul></ul>Networked Institutions v Networked Individuals
  16. 21. Sermo
  17. 23. <ul><li>How is the Internet being used to ‘reconfigure access’? Are there discernable patterns? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the Internet enable key actors to reconfigure access in ways that enhance their ‘communicative power’? </li></ul>Key Questions Concerning the Politics of the Digital Age
  18. 25. “ [Edmund] Burke said there were Three Estates in Parliament; but, in the Reporters’ Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth Estate more prominent far than they all. It is not a figure of speech, or witty saying; it is a literal fact – very momentous to us in these times.” Thomas Carlyle (1831), Heroes and Hero-Worship , at www.gutenberg.org.etext/1091 The Fourth Estate
  19. 26. Feudal Estates into the 21 st Century Estates Feudal Modern Clergy Public Intellectuals Nobility Business, Industry and Economic Elites Commons Government ‘ 4 th Estate’ Press Journalists and the Mass Media Mob Civil Society, Individuals, … ?
  20. 27. The Fourth Estate Depends on an Independent Press – Independent in Relation to Other Estates The Fourth Estate : News of the World Case
  21. 28. <ul><li>Press since the 18th Century - the ‘Fourth Estate’ </li></ul><ul><li>Internet in the 21st - enabling a Fifth Estate </li></ul><ul><li>−− </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling people to network with other individuals and with information, services and technical resources in ways that support social accountability in business and industry, government, politics, and the media. </li></ul>The Fourth and Fifth Estates
  22. 29.
  23. 30.
  24. 31. Pattern of Findings Supporting Conception of Networked Individuals
  25. 33. “ Wael Ghonim, a 30-year-old executive from Google, was the administrator of an anti-torture page on Facebook, the social networking website, that is widely credited with organising the first day of protest [in Egypt] on January 25.” Jon Swaine, The Telegraph, 11 Feb 2011
  26. 34. Networked Institutions v Networked Individuals of the Fifth Estate Arenas: Networked Institutions Networked Individuals News Online journalism, BBC Online, Live Micro-Blogging Citizen Journalists, Bloggers, Netizens Posting Videos Democracy E-Democracy, E-Consultation, e-Voting Obama campaign, Networking the Pro-Democracy Protests Education Online Learning, Multimedia Classrooms Backchannels, informal learning Health and Medical NHS Direct, e-mailing safety alerts Going to the Internet for health information, Sermo
  27. 35. <ul><li>Networked Institutions: greater ubiquity, universal access </li></ul><ul><li>Networked Individuals of the Fifth Estate: require a critical mass, not universal access </li></ul>Networked Institutions v Networked Individuals of the Fifth Estate
  28. 36. Percentage of Internet Users Across Regions of the World
  29. 37. Regions as Percentage of the Worldwide Population of Users
  30. 38. 18th Century Estates: 21st Century Enemies 18th Century Estates 21st Century: Enemies of the 5th Estate Attacks Clergy Public Intellectuals ‘ Culture of Amateurism’, individualist consumerism Nobility Business, Industry and Economic Elites Vertical Integration; Monopoly over Search; Three Strikes Commons Government and Regulatory Agencies Filtering; Content Regulation; Identification; Surveillance; Disconnection Press Journalists and the Mass Media Echo Chambers; but Co-opting, Imitating, Competing, and Supporting Mob Spammers, Fraudsters, Cyberstalkers, … Undermining Trust and Confidence; Fostering Regulation of Content
  31. 39. Centrality of the Internet, Trust in Government and Attitudes toward Internet Regulation over Time OxIS 2003: N=2,029; OxIS 2005: N=2,185; OxIS 2007 N=2,350. OxIS 2009: N=2,013
  32. 42. <ul><li>Understanding the Potential </li></ul><ul><li>The Fifth Estate </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Sourcing Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging versus Resisting </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate Regulation of the Internet </li></ul>Capturing the Value
  33. 43. Selected References: Dutton, W. H. (2008), ‘The Wisdom of Collaborative Network Organizations: Capturing the Value of Networked Individuals’, Prometheus , 26(3), September, pp. 211-30. Dutton, W. H. (2009), ‘The Fifth Estate Emerging through the Network of Networks’, Prometheus , Vol. 27, No. 1, March: pp. 1-15. Dutton, W. H. (2010), ‘Networking Distributed Public Expertise: Strategies for Citizen Sourcing Advice to Government’, Occasional Paper Series in Science & Technology, Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI), Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington DC.

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