Freedom unesco-2011


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Presentation for book launch of 'Freedom of Connection - Freedom of Expression' (UNESCO 2011) at the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris on 30 May 2011.

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Freedom unesco-2011

  1. 1. Freedom of Connection – Freedom of Expression:<br />The Changing Legal and Regulatory Ecology Shaping the Internet<br />William H. Dutton, Anna Dopatka, Michael Hills, Ginette Law,andVictoria Nash<br />Oxford Internet Institute (OII) <br />University of Oxford<br /> <br />Presentation for Launch Event, UNESCO, Fontenoy Building, Paris, 30 May 2011. <br />
  2. 2. UNESCO Request to Critically Review Status of Research on Freedom of Expression:<br /><ul><li> Some Pioneering Studies
  3. 3. More Advocacy v Research
  4. 4. Politically Sensitive (e.g., the McBride Commission established in 1977)
  5. 5. Too Narrowly Focused, e.g., Internet Content Filtering</li></li></ul><li>
  6. 6. The Internet Reconfigures Access in Ways that Can Empower Networked Individuals <br />
  7. 7. Ecology of Choices Shaping Free Expression<br />
  8. 8. Digital Rights<br />Access – Freedom of Connection<br />Freedom of Expression<br />Censorship<br />Equality (media literacy)<br />Freedom of Information<br />Privacy & Data Protection<br />
  9. 9. Technical Innovations:Worldwide Diffusion of Technologies of Connection<br />Internet <br />World Wide Web<br />Mobile and Mobile Internet <br />
  10. 10. Percentage of Internet Users Across Regions of the World<br />
  11. 11. Regions as Percentage of the Worldwide Population of Users<br />
  12. 12. The Global Internet Values Project*<br /><ul><li>Collaboration of OII, INSEAD, and comScore for the World Economic Forum (WEF)
  13. 13. Online Global Survey
  14. 14. Completed by 5,400 Adult Internet Users
  15. 15. Conducted from Oct-Nov 2010
  16. 16. 13 countries: Australia/New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Mexico, South Africa, Spain, the United States, and the United Kingdom</li></ul>*Dutta, S., Dutton, W. H. and Law, G. (2011), The New Internet World: A Global Perspective on Freedom of Expression, Privacy, Trust and Security Online. New York: The World Economic Forum, April. Available at SSRN:<br />
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  22. 22. Emerging Pattern of Findings Supporting Conception of a ‘New Internet World’<br />
  23. 23. Four General Themes and Findings<br /> New online nations are becoming the dominant nations in the Internet world;<br /> Users are developing a global Internet culture: sharing similar concerns, values and attitudes toward expression, privacy, trust, and security; <br /> Newly adopting countries are as liberal, if not more so, in their attitudes, such as support for freedom of expression;<br /> Users in the newly adopting nations are more innovative in their patterns of use, e.g., social networking.<br />
  24. 24. Technical Innovations: <br />Technologies of Disconnection<br />Meta-analysis of Internet filtering surveys:<br /><ul><li> Global growth of filtering
  25. 25. No single country
  26. 26. Variety of Objectives:
  27. 27. Political
  28. 28. Moral
  29. 29. Commercial</li></ul>BUT: Potential to Decentralize, e.g., <br />Home Hubs<br />
  30. 30. Industrial Policy and Regulation<br /><ul><li> Technology-led Industrial Strategies, support economic growth
  31. 31. ICT for Development (ICT4D)
  32. 32. Competition Policy
  33. 33. IPR: Copyright
  34. 34. IPR: Patents</li></li></ul><li>Industrial Policy and Regulation<br />Copyright enforcement:<br /><ul><li> ‘Three Strikes’ policy in France
  35. 35. Digital Economy Act (UK)</li></ul>Countered by:<br /><ul><li> The Pirate Party
  36. 36. Brazilian Copyright Reform Bill</li></ul>Copyright Mot<br />
  37. 37. User-Centric Policy<br /><ul><li>Child Protection Policy
  38. 38. Decency: Pornography
  39. 39. Libel: Defamation
  40. 40. Prevention of Hate Speech
  41. 41. Consumer Protection: Fraud
  42. 42. …</li></ul>Copyright Mugley<br />
  43. 43. Internet Policy<br /><ul><li>Internet Governance and Regulation
  44. 44. Domain Names and Numbers
  45. 45. Net Neutrality
  46. 46. Licensing, Regulation of Service Providers: Intermediaries
  47. 47. Internationalised Top-level Domain Names</li></li></ul><li>Internet Policy:<br />Standard-setting: Identity<br />
  48. 48. Security<br /><ul><li>Secrecy, Confidentiality
  49. 49. Security against Malware
  50. 50. Counter-Radicalisation</li></ul>National Security<br />Blackberry Use<br />WikiLeaks: Confidentiality-Security<br />
  51. 51. Ecology of Choices Shaping Free Expression<br />
  52. 52. Encouraging Themes for Freedom of Expression<br /><ul><li> Internet Empowering Networked Individuals – Enhancing Freedom of Connection and Expression
  53. 53. Worldwide Diffusion andSupport for Expressionin a New Internet World
  54. 54. Major Issues of Human Rights are Increasingly Being Centered on the Internet and Web
  55. 55. The Internet Space is not the ‘Wild West’ – much regulation exists</li></li></ul><li>Countervailing Themes<br /><ul><li>Freedom of Expression is not an Inevitable Outcome of Technological Innovation
  56. 56. Continuing Global and Local Digital Divides in Access and the Production of Content
  57. 57. Global Increase in Content Filtering and Censorship
  58. 58. Freedom Shaped by Choices in the Wider Ecology of Actors, Objectives and Policies
  59. 59. Use of Inappropriate Models for Internet Governance and Regulation threatens to Foster ‘Over-Regulation’, e.g., fear or complacency of the ‘Old Internet World’</li></li></ul><li>Directions for Policy<br />Reduce Digital Divides <br />Broaden Perspectives on Freedom of Expression – the Larger Legal and Regulatory Ecology<br /> − ways to democratize content control<br />Renew and Inform Debates over:<br />Appropriate Regulatory Models for the Internet<br />Global and Local Approaches to Internet Governance<br />Ways to Inform the Public and Elected Officials about the Internet and Legal-Regulatory Issues<br />
  60. 60. Renew Research on Freedom of Expression<br />More Systematic and Sustained Monitoring ofInnovations in, and Use of, Internet Filtering<br />Need to Track an Expanded Range of Policies and Regulatory Issues in this Ecology<br />Critically Explore Relationships between Freedom of Expression and other Core Values and Rights<br />Study Impacts on the Ground, including Public Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior <br />Understand Assaults on Freedom of Expression as efforts to protect other Values and Interests<br />
  61. 61. Freedom of Connection – Freedom of Expression:<br />The Changing Legal and Regulatory Ecology Shaping the Internet<br />William H. Dutton, Anna Dopatka, Michael Hills, Ginette Law,andVictoria Nash<br />Oxford Internet Institute (OII) <br />University of Oxford<br /> <br />Presentation for Launch Event, UNESCO, Fontenoy Building, Paris, 30 May 2011. <br />