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Community-based fish culture experiences

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Presented by Natasja Sheriff at the 2nd International Forum on Water and Food, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia November 2008

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Community-based fish culture experiences

  1. 1. Community-based Fish Culture in Seasonal Floodplains Natasja Sheriff WorldFish Center
  2. 2. Community-Based Fish Culture <ul><li>Assumption that seasonally flooding areas can be communally managed for increased fish production during the flood season </li></ul>
  3. 3. Seasonal Flooding of Rice Fields Dry Season – rice fields – individual Flood season – fisheries – open access
  4. 4. Nov – Jan/ Feb June - Dec Winter April - May Photos: MC Hong
  5. 5. <ul><li>Benefits observed: </li></ul><ul><li>10% lower cost of rice production </li></ul><ul><li>Net returns from fish production of $220-400 per ha </li></ul><ul><li>No reduction in the wild fish catch </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Gap: </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the options for community-based fish culture in other social and environmental contexts </li></ul>Fish and Rice in Flood-prone Ecosystems Vietnam/Bangladesh Previous work......
  6. 6. Aims Enhance fish production in seasonal floodplains to improve well-being of rural households in seasonally flooding areas Promote efficient and equitable use of floodplain resources in the context of floodplain development
  7. 7. Project Implementation <ul><li>2005-2010 </li></ul><ul><li>3 basins: Indus-Ganges, Mekong, Niger </li></ul><ul><li>Action research </li></ul><ul><li>5 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Local NARES partners </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive management approach </li></ul>
  8. 8. China – Jiangsu Province 2 sites e.g. Liang Zhuang village Irrigation canals Individual caretaker Carps incl. Grass carp 2.4ha 11 months stocking 36 HH China – Yunnan Province 2 project cites Flooded Rice nurseries Individual Caretaker 6-10 ha Carps incl. Grass carps 6 months stocking – low temp. Vietnam –Mekong Delta 10 project sites 7 discontinued Flooded, bunded rice fields 20-100ha Approx. 30 HH per site 5 months stocking Mali China Vietnam Cambodia Bangladesh Southeast Cambodia 4 sites 2 sites discontinued Flooded rice fields and reservoirs c. 10ha 10 HH Mali – Niger Inner Delta 2 project sites Floodplain depressions ( ‘ mares ‘) c. 100 ha 80-100 HH 4 months stocking Bangladesh 3 sites Flooded rice fields Government leased land and private land 30-40ha c. 150HH per site Multiple villages
  9. 9. Success variable in different countries Discontinuance and conflict Complexity of benefit sharing
  10. 10. Research Questions <ul><li>What is the contribution of collective approaches to aquaculture for sustainable development of floodplain resources and irrigation systems? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the most appropriate models for collective aquaculture under different socio-ecological contexts? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conditions supporting and constraining collective approaches Livelihood profile Power -Influence Institutions Socio-cultural Historical-political Social Ecological Economic Socio-ecological context Participant expectations Incentives & motivation Discontinuance analysis Process & implementation
  12. 12. The importance of Context <ul><li>Need to consider development of community-based approaches within a continuum, influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PAST - socio-political and historical context, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The PRESENT - present policies and current situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The FUTURE – development trajectories </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Importance of Context – Vietnam <ul><li>The past </li></ul><ul><li>History of collectivization </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural cooperatives </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement and war </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Present Context <ul><li>Daily realities Global drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Social cohesion vs local conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and government preferences </li></ul><ul><li>The pursuit of solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>The role of individuals </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Floodplain development </li></ul><ul><li>Policies for economic development – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in fisheries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of fishers into industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased commercialization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How equitable and appropriate is community-based aquaculture in this context? </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of Pangasius ponds, Dong Thap province, Vietnam </li></ul>The Future
  16. 16. Conditions for collective approach to aquaculture – initial observations Small group size (c. 10 HH) Small culture area (2-3 rice fields) 2 rice crops – deep flooding area Supportive local authorities Strong group leadership +ve Land not available for use during flooding Remote from urban centers Strong livelihood incentives C o mpe t i t i on for la n d an d w at e r use w it h ot h e r m o r e v a l ua b l e /political crops i.e.rice Large water bodies with large numbers of surrounding communities -ve
  17. 17. Lessons Learned – Understanding Context <ul><li>Need to understand context </li></ul><ul><li>Historical and social context in commons and collective action literature (Agrawal 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Local conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Caution in out-scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based approaches to aquaculture – complex and resource intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Time and resource intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions cannot be created </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based management - complex. Appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Need for effective M&E </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility for responsiveness, adaptation and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Still learning..... </li></ul><ul><li>…… </li></ul>
  18. 18. On-going work <ul><li>Contextual analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive and Discontinuance Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Power and influence </li></ul><ul><li>Access and rights </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative models of collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape level analysis of floodplains as multiple use system </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood contribution of CBA </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution and adaptation of culture systems </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative M&E </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thank you

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