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  1. 1. INTERVIEW | Unilever: “Changing mentalities” FIELD REPORT | Pakistan floods and their causes IN FOCUS | Educational partners sign agreement ONLINE | Hope in a changing climateUPDATEMAGAZINE UNESCO-IHE INSTITUTE FOR WATER EDUCATION 2011 JANUARY 1
  2. 2. EDITORIAL Welcome to the January issue of UPDATE Magazine. Allow me to take you back to the beginning of the year 2010 when the Institute was on the brink of an Institute-wide informal consultation process with a view towards building consensus concerning a step-by-step comprehensive reform process of the Institute. At recently held board meetings in Delft, the IHE Delft Foundation Board and the UNESCO-IHE Governing Board endorsed the need for a new response strategy to further increase the impact of UNESCO-IHE in meeting the challenges of the rapidly expanding global, regional and national needs of the water sector in terms of human resources, relevant knowledge and institutional effectiveness. New players and potential competitors have appeared. With a growing market for water education, these new challenges will require a 300 percent increase in the number of water leaders in Africa, 250 percent in Asia and 50 percent in Latin America. The Institute has reached its delivery limits in Delft. The 8/10 syndrome whereby eight out of ten qualified candidates were not admitted each academic year entails that annually 1800ARE YOU AN potential students are not admitted due to the lack of resources, including that of physical space. Clearly, the 1800 aspiringALUMNUS? young professionals cannot all be brought to Delft at the sameWe are living in an international time. But perhaps we could bring Delft, or rather the spirit andworld where email is the fastest the water knowledge of Delft, to the world, particularly to theway of keeping in touch across developing world where most of the pressing water issues are,the globe. UNESCO-IHE follows whether one speaks of Africa, Asia or Latin America.this trend and we are increasinglysending you information by email. Working closely with partners who operate in the context ofDo not hesitate to get in touch the Institute is an important mechanism for the institute towith us and send us your most fulfil its functions. The signing of a vision document with 18up-to-date contact details. Your key educational institutes in the world recently paves the waydetails will only be used to send forward towards achieving our ambitious mandate. In theyou information about UNESCO- coming months we will present a ‘Comprehensive StrategyIHE. We will respect your privacy for UNESCO-IHE 2010-2020’ that will guide the processat all times and will not share your that lies ahead. Your invaluable comments and support in thisinformation with others without transitional period will be highly appreciated.your prior consent. Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy Rector, UNESCO-IHEeditorial board graphic design In UPDATE freedom of expression and opinion about the magazine unesco-ihe institute for water educationAndrás Szöllösi-Nagy Peter Stroo is encouraged. Opinions need to be expressed UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education UNESCO-IHE is the largest internationalJoop de Schutter Manuela Porceddu fully and clearly in the content. It should also be produces a biennial magazine called UPDATE. postgraduate water education institute in theErwin Ploeger clear whose opinion the article represents. The We print 12,000 free copies per issue, which world and the only institution in the UN system print Editorial Committee reserves the right to refrain are sent to our counterparts across the world. authorised to confer accredited MSc degrees andeditorial committee Prints & Proms/Rotterdam from publishing articles, editorial contributions UPDATE features institutional information promote PhDs. The mission of UNESCO-IHEJan Herman Koster and letters to the editor or to publish them in related to water education, research and capacity is to contribute to the education and trainingAnn van Griensven published by unesco-ihe consultation with the author. development activities undertaken by UNESCO- of professionals and to develop the capacity ofHenk Lubberding PO Box 3015 The Editorial Commitee encourages editorial IHE, its alumni and partners. sector organisations, knowledge centres and 2601 DA Delft contributions from readers. The sections known We have tried to make this issue of UPDATE other institutions active in the fields of water, theeditor-in-chief The Netherlands as The Column, Op-Ed and Report from the Magazine as eco-friendly as possible. The paper, environment and infrastructure, in developingAlida Pham Field are intended to provide a platform for such Cocoon Offset, is a high-quality, uncoated offset countries and countries in transition. t +31 15 215 1715 contributions. Please note that editorial sections paper. The range is produced using ecological Since 1957, the Institute has providededitorial f +31 15 212 2921 are subject to change. technology at the company’s Greenfield S.A.S. postgraduate education to over 14,500 watercontributions e UPDATE Magazine is interested in hearing more mill in France from 100%-recycled and professionals from 162 countries, the vastAbraham Mehari Haile i from the Institute’s alumni, especially about FSC-certified de-inked pulp. The plastic that majority of whom come from the developingEllen Brandenburg projects they are currently undertaking and the is used to cover UPDATE Magazine is made world. Currently over 100 candidates areEwoud Kok organisations to which they are affiliated. Please of environmentally biodegradable polymers registered PhD fellows, and numerous researchArthur Mynett send your updates to the editor by sending an by the company A.V.I. B.V. in Volendam, the and capacity development projects are carriedMichael van der Valk email to Netherlands. out throughout the world.Jehangir ShahMaria Sorrentino about the cover photoLaura Kwak A woman waters young seedlings at the Burka Jalala Tree nursery in the Deder district in the Eastern Highlands in Ethiopia. The area is a community plantation site, which has been developed in order to provide trees for the regeneration of a badly eroded local hilly area. Photo: Panos/Crispin Hughes2
  3. 3. CONTENTS 6 6 | Interview with John Verbakel, Vice- President Supply Chain at Unilever about changing mentalities.12 | Flood Resilience: Advancing scientific knowledge and practical application to manage floods in urban areas 12 13 13 | Pakistan floods and their causes, a report from the field 14 | Interview with Jude Mathooko, Professor of Aquatic Science at Egerton University in Kenya about partnership, joint education programmes and limnology 14 16 16 | Presenting representatives from 19 universities, research institutes and international entities as part of the UNESCO-IHE Global Partnership for Water Education and Research 4| Short news 9| Interview Arjen Hoekstra 9| Column 10 | New Beadle & Mace 11 | Interview Alumnus 15 | Partnership agreement 18 | Partners AIT & ICID ALUMNI TRACER SURVEY 20 | Capacity Development Lake Victoria In an effort to better understand the relevance 22 | Capacity Development Mediterranean and impact of our study programmes, and in view of further improving our services for future 23 | Opinion generations of water professionals, we ask all 24 | Alumni Refresher Seminars alumni of (UNESCO-)IHE to participate in a tracer survey. The survey contains questions about the 26 | Past events educational profile, career development, and 28 | Staff news professional networks of alumni. Ten book coupons of US$300,- will be made available 29 | Online water resources for ten randomly selected respondents. Visit 31 | Course information 2011 to take part. 32 | New publications 3
  4. 4. SHORT NEWS sURveY UNesCo-ihe mAsteR pRogRAmmesWoRld WAteRCoUNCil Students who recently graduated in the spring of 2010sUppoRts ACAdem- were asked to share their experiences and give their opinioniC ChAiR oN WAteR about the Institute, its services and facilities as well aspoliCY answer questions about marketing issues and their studyThe World Water Council programme in general.announced that it will • 91.5% of the graduates stated that they would recom- support the mend UNESCO-IHE to prospective participants. creation of • Reasons for choosing UNESCO-IHE included its interna- a special eNhANCiNg iNstitUtioNAl CApACitY tional environment and global recognition, the availability ‘chair’ on iN soUth AfRiCA of fellowships, its fast response, and recommendations water policy UNESCO-IHE was recently granted two projects under made by alumni. at UNESCO- the NICHE Programme. NICHE stands for the Netherlands • The overall opinion that graduates had of their respective IHE to help Initiative for Capacity building in Higher Education and MSc programmes showed that about 92% considered it bridge the falls within the scope of the Netherlands’ development satisfactory to and water policy cooperation activities and aims to support the expansion of • Almost 98% of all graduates expected that what they had communities. In this way knowledge, skills and technology in developing countries. learned would be directly relevant for their work and 85% the Council will, in close One project is Enhancing Institutional Capacity in Water thought that the programme had improved their profes-collaboration with its mem- and Waste Water Treatment with Tshwane University of sional capability.bers and partners, support Technology (South Africa), and the other project is Capacity • Additionally, 85% finds the MSc research work relevant strategies for enhancing the Building for Integrated Water Resources Management in or very relevant for their future employment.capacities of water manag- South Africa with Cape Peninsula University of Technology • Nearly 92% finds quality of UNESCO-IHE building and ers and decision-makers to and the University of the Western Cape. These two projects the lecture rooms satisfactory to excellent.address emerging challeng- will allow the Institute to further strengthen its ties with the • And 87.5% gave the qualification satisfactory to excellent es in water management. water sector in South Africa. in terms of IT facilities.oNe hUNdRed ANd eightY-five (185) NeW AdAptiNg to ClimAte River Basin. Programme DirectormAsteRs of sCieNCe stUdeNts ChANge iN the mekoNg Professor Stefan Uhlenbrook elabo-On Thursday 14 October 2010, 185 students from 25 countries Eight post-doctoral research fellows rates: “To address the knowledgereceived a warm welcome during the Opening of the Academic Year from Viet Nam, Thailand and China gaps in Climate Change Adaptation2010-2011. The Rector, Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy, welcomed who are taking part in the UNESCO- in the Mekong basin a multi-the new batch of students to the UNESCO-IHE family and said that IHE Post-doctoral Programme disciplinary approach is needed.instead of calling them on Climate Change Adaptation Eight post-doctoral researchers with`students’, he would rather (PRoACC) recently started their backgrounds in various disciplinescall them `colleagues’ as research on various topics related to embedded in a coherent frameworkthey will soon become Climate Change Adaptation in the can definitely make a difference innewly graduated water Mekong River Basin. This 18-month addressing such important issues.”professionals. He stressed integrated post-doctoral programme The project is funded by DGIS, thethat hard work lies ahead is organised by UNESCO-IHE in Dutch Development Cooperationof them in the coming 18 collaboration with partner institutes. Programme. More information,months during which they The research outputs from the pro- such as an overview of post-docwill address the most criti- gramme are intended to facilitate the researchers and the scope ofcal water issues, learn from development and implementation of their work, can be found on theeach other’s experiences, effective adaptation strategies in the UNESCO-IHE website: www.and discover new and countries surrounding the Mekong approaches tomeet global and local water challenges. Guest speaker Mr. Wim Kuijken,Government Commissioner for the Delta Programme and member ofthe IHE Delft Foundation Board, then addressed the students about theimportance of finding the right combination between academic excel-lence and developmental relevance; the main drivers for the institute’sactivities. The full text of the presentation can be found on the UNESCO-IHE website: © Panos, Chris Stowers4
  5. 5. eRAsmUs mUNdUs sCholARships Starting in 2011, UNESCO-IHE will offer three Joint Master of Science programmes © Panos, Tim Smith under the European Erasmus Mundus framework. These are the Environmental Technology and EngineeringsUstAiNAble WAteR results to a wider audience, considering the specialisation under the MSc Programme inmANAgemeNt iN Cities different development contexts and regional Environmental Science, and the EcohydrologyCoNfeReNCe characteristics. The Conference is being and Flood Risk Management specialisations un-The Sustainable Water Management in organised by the United Nations Office to der the MSc Programme in Water Science andCities Conference is a four-day conference Support the International Decade for Action Engineering. The European Commission willscheduled to take place in Zaragoza, Spain ‘Water for Life’ 2005-2015, the city of make full fellowships for all three programmesfrom 13 to 17 December 2010. More than Zaragoza in Spain, and the SWITCH con- available. See the website for more information200 experts, local government officials, sortium including both UNESCO-IHE and the about the partners, programme structure, andmedia specialists, key water operators and IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. fellowship admission procedure.political representatives of cities and stake- It draws on the approaches of the SWITCHholder groups will discuss sustainable water project and the Learning Alliances. Some in cities. The meeting will also specific outcomes of the meeting – especiallypropose practical ways to move forward to case studies – will be presented as part of themeet the challenges of disseminating World Water Day on 22 March 2011. SHORT NEWSNeW libRARYCAtAlogUe sYstem lAtest RoUNd of UNesCo-keizo obUChi felloW-From October onwards the UNESCO-IHE ships foR YoUNgLibrary presents its collection via a new ReseARCheRsplatform provided by OCLC software. The CollAboRAtioNcatalogue can be accessed online through With UNESCO is calling on young researchers from developing coun-the UNESCO-IHE website: http://www. hidRoeX tries to apply for a series of grants under the UNESCO-Keizo The Brazilian International Research Fellowships Programme (UNESCO/Japan Young Researchers’The UNESCO-IHE Library Catalogue Center Foundation of Fellowships Programme) funded by Japan.contains all the bibliographical data of the Education, Capacity Building The programme, named in honourLibrary collection including the abstracts and Applied Research in of a former Prime Minister of Japan,and PDF of PhD dissertations and MSc Water (HIDROEX) and provides twenty research fellow-theses. Due to copyright restrictions one UNESCO-IHE have agreed ships worth between US$6,000 –can only access the PDFs of documents that to jointly work towards United Nations Supported by US$10,000 each. Eligible candidates Educational, Scientific and Japanese Funds-in-Trustare contained in the Library collection on a large capacity develop- Cultural Organization to UNESCO are postgraduate researchers (holdingthe UNESCO-IHE premises at Westvest ment project in the coming a Masters degree or its equivalent) inor through login authentication via the four years. Activities will four areas – the environment (with particular emphasis on water sciences),UNESCO-IHE portal. include the training of intercultural dialogue, information and communication technologies, andThe former version of the Library Catalogue Brazilian water profession- peaceful resolution of conflicts.(BIBIS) will remain operational until the end als as well as HIDROEX Young researchers from 140 countries are invited to apply to theirof December 2010 and will be discontin- staff members through a respective National Commissions, which will select a maximum of twoued after this date. UNESCO-IHE alumni number of short courses candidates. All applications must reach UNESCO’s Paris Headquarters bywill be provided with a new username and and Masters of Science and 7 January 2011. A special committee comprising experts from the four password to access the new UNESCO-IHE PhD programmes in various research fields will study the applications and present the donor countryLibrary Catalogue upon request. Please disciplines. with their short-list.address your request to library@unesco- Cecilia Tamara Avellán from Uruguay was awarded the fellowship in An instruction manual of the new Avellán used this fellowship in 2009 to carry out research at UNESCO-IHELibrary Catalogue is embedded in the soft- in constructed wetlands for use in Uruguayan dairy farm waste waters.ware itself under the ‘HELP’ function. 5
  6. 6. BOARD MEMBER INTERVIEW UNILEVER “CHANGING MENTALITIES” On any given day, 2 billion people use Unilever products. Unilever is one of the leading suppliers of fast-moving consumer goods with products on sale in over 170 countries. Products range from foods to home and personal care brands, trusted by consumers all over the world. Unilever’s top 13 brands account for total sales of over 23 bil- lion Euros. The Unilever business and brands have impacts at every stage of their life cycle: in sourcing raw materials, packaging, manufac- ture, distribution, consumer use and disposal.6
  7. 7. The Unilever “Unilever has a long tradition and great ambition in sus- soCietY demANds CoRpoRAte RespoNsibilitY business and tainability. We have learned that the only way to succeed But where does Unilever draw the line in taking responsi- brands have in this field is to work in partnership with governments, bility for impacting the environment, climate change and impacts at NGO’s, knowledge institutes and other companies. Unile- economic development? “ We fully recognise the impact every stage ver stimulates its staff to play an active role far beyond the of our products and critically assess our entire value chain, of their life borders of the company. As part of the Governing Board of from the sourcing of raw materials, production and trans- cycle: in sourcing raw materi- UNESCO-IHE I can play a bridging role between the Insti- port to consumer end-use and waste,” Verbakel elaborates. als, packaging, manufacture, tute and Unilever or other companies. Within the board, In November 2010, the company announced the Unilever distribution, consumer use and I can perform what I call ‘reality checks’ to see if a certain Sustainable Living Plan, to decouple growth from its envi- disposal. UPDATE Magazine concept works in a commercial environment.” ronmental footprint. Under the sweeping plan, by 2020, interviewed John Verbakel, Verbakel continues: “As sustainability issues become more the company has committed to halve its environmental Vice-President Supply Chain at and more important worldwide, we need many highly footprint of its products; help more than 1 billion people Unilever and since July 2009 a motivated and educated people who can contribute to take action to improve their health and well-being and member of the UNESCO-IHE addressing these challenges. All efforts within UNESCO- source 100% of our agricultural raw materials sustainably. Governing Board about these IHE have to focus on the continuation of being a centre of “ This commitment follows on Unilever’s vision an- developments and his commit- academic excellence, and being able to deliver scientists nounced by CEO Paul Polman in 2009 that Unilever will ment to help Unilever get a bet- and water professionals who can conduct state-of-the-art double the size of the company whilst reducing its impact ter understanding of the entire research as well as top leading figures who understand how on the environment. “ With this goal,” says Verbakel, supply chain and contributing to to apply these research outcomes in the water sector and in “we want to be at the forefront of taking corporate social making even quicker and better communities.” responsibility. Not only do we believe in the importance of innovations in the Research and it, society also demands it.” Development department. RedUCiNg eNviRoNmeNtAl impACt “ The ambition has been defined. Now we are in the “ We spend a large amount on Research & Development,” process of making it happen. This is a daunting but very By Ewoud Kok Verbakel explains. “ The budget comes close to one billion challenging task, especially since technology plays such US Dollars. This is not the most important factor though, a fundamental role and the Research and Development but rather where one puts the focus. We continuously department is tasked to come up with the innovative solu- measure our impact so that we can register improvements. tions. Luckily everyone is extremely motivated to work on With every new product or newly built factory we have to achieving these ambitions.” show how we can reduce environmental impact, forcing innovation in every little detail of what we do. This cannot ACCoUNtAbilitY ANd metRiCs be done all at once but gradually we have to improve our In 2009 Unilever developed a set of metrics covering performance.” social impacts. These metrics seek to measure the benefits Unilever brings to society. In the November 2010 an- ChANgiNg meNtAlities nouncement, Unilever has put forth 50 separate metrics “In addition, our outspoken ambition generates a snow- addressing economic, environmental and social targets. It ball effect. For example in the United States, the retailer involves amongst others slashing the carbon, water and Walmart approached us to help us co-produce environ- waste impact of its products in half – primarily through mentally sound goods. In fact, we pioneered concentrated innovation in the way the company sources, manufactures laundry detergent and launched “Small & Mighty” with and packages its products. this retailer. In 2007, Walmart announced it would sell Verbakel noted that in 2010, the Lifebuoy hand washing only concentrated liquid laundry detergents in its US soap brand became the first among the many Unilever stores. So, if we develop more environmentally friendly brands to pilot the new metrics, helping track the impact products, we can partner with retailers such as Walmart of Lifebuoy programmes on hand washing behaviours over to help us sell those products, increasing the products’ a five-year period. The development of these metrics will chances of success so more resources can be spent develop- allow Unilever to track performance across all products and ing it. Such examples generate a positive wave that really enable the company to show consumers how their small, changes mentalities within companies.” individual actions can make a big difference.© Photo: Michel de Groot Unilever’s impacts occur mainly in the growing of raw materials and in consumer use of their products. © Unilever Sustainable Development Overview 2009 7
  8. 8. Verbakel explains: “In order to be held accountable we can- children to turn off the water tap when brushing their a new visionnot develop our own set of rules and use internal measure- teeth or to demonstrate the best way to wash one’s hands. 2009 saw the launch of a newment systems. Official recognition and the right quantifica- We use role-model stars to make strong statements in our vision for Unilever – to doubletion are very important in this process. UNESCO-IHE, the commercials. We have noticed that people tend to pick up the size of the company whileWater Footprint Network and other knowledge institutes messages through these stars much faster than when read- reducing the overall impact onare instrumental in developing these measurement tools to ing it from a government-distributed leaflet.” the environment. The commit-measure high relevancy in society.” ment presents Unilever with a CoNsUmeR Use major challenge. The reductionsCARCe CommoditY “In water-scarce countries, 40% of Unilever’s domestic wa- they are talking about is an“For the production of Unilever’s personal care products ter footprint comes from washing clothes, usually by hand. absolute one. It incorporates alland (agricultural) food products much water is needed. As an example, our Comfort One Rinse fabric conditioner impacts right across the valueWith water being such a scarce commodity we need to find enables users to need only one bucket to rinse rather than chain – from the sourcing ofeven more innovative solutions to minimise the uptake of three, saving time and money. Some 500 billion litres of our raw materials through tothis resource – even though we’ve managed to reduce our water would be saved if all our Unilever laundry product consumer use and disposal ofown water usage in our factories by 67% since 1995. In users in Asia and South Africa used Comfort One Rinse. the products. In short, Unileverthe past two to three years, we have treated the measure- “ We collaborate closely with various consumer organisa- intends to decouple growthment of these figures with equal importance to our profit tions in almost every country where we have an active from environmental impact.targets.” presence. Multiple assessments and polls provide us withVerbakel explains the segmentation of the water footprint good estimates of consumer use. Among many other unilever factsinto three segments of the value chain: the production companies, Unilever is an active partner within the Water • Unilever is the global market of raw materials, the manufacturing of the products and Footprint Network. We think that our experiences with leader in all the Food categoriesconsumer use. “At the supply side (raw material) of our the methodologies and the ways we measure should be in which it operates: Savoury,products, we use the concept of sustainable agriculture. For shared with anyone, with governments and institutes but Spreads, Dressings, Tea andexample, in 2015 all Lipton tea (the world’s best-selling also with businesses. Ice Cream. They are also globaltea brand) will be certified according to the standards set “Sustainability is not merely a nice-to-have business market leader in Mass Skin Careby the Rainforest Alliance, an international environmental feature but an integral part of all businesses. Often it is and Deodorants, and have veryNGO. In this way, the continuous improvements in worker difficult to share this belief with other companies, but the strong positions in other Homewelfare, farm management and environmental protection, trend to realise the need and importance for corporate so- and Personal Care categories.including wise water use is guaranteed. A similar set-up is cial responsibility is increasing in every way, and we hope • In 2009 Unilever invested used in sustainable palm oil sourcing where we work with to be a real catalyst in this regard. We don’t have all the €891 million in Research andGreenPalm certification. To date, 30% of our palm oil pur- answers, but we know we must work in partnership with Development.chases are covered by sustainable GreenPalm certificates. customers, suppliers, governments and Ngo’s to achieve • Unilever has 264 manufac-“ With regard to the operations side, we have established our goals.” turing sites worldwide. Arounda leading position in lowering CO2 production and water 50% of the raw materials thatuse for many years now. Currently, with the establishment they use for their productsof new factories in the US, we aim at zero landfill, which originate from agriculture andis highly stimulated by the US government. It is interest- forestry. The company buys ap-ing to see that also in developing countries now the most proximately 12% of the world’ssophisticated factories are built, mainly because of the new black tea, 6% of its tomatoesinsights in minimal water use and zero landfill goals can and 3% of its palm applied.” Verbakel also noted that Unilever has been • The top 13 brands of the Food Industry Leader in the Dow Jones Sustainability Unilever account for totalWorld Indexes for the 12th year running. sales of more than €23 bil- lion. These brands are Axe/CoNCeNtRAted deteRgeNts Lynx, Blue Band, Dove, Flora/“On the consumer side, when taking into consideration Becel, Heartbrand ice creams,that per day an estimated two billion people make use of Hellmann’s, Knorr, Lipton, Lux,our products, the impact we leave behind is enormous,” Omo, Rexona, Sunsilk and Surf.says Verbakel. “One of our best practices includes the • In 2009 Unilever’s sales concentrated detergents, which use less energy to produce, were €39.8 billion. Theirpackage and transport. In addition, this product allows share of sales in developingconsumers to do their laundry using less water and at and emerging markets reachedlower temperatures. 49% in 2009, up from 47% in“Another example is taking responsibility in changing us- 2008. These markets includeer’s behaviour. This is a major component of the Unilever all countries in Latin America,Sustainable Living Plan, and we know we have much work Central & Eastern Europe,to do in this area to achieve our goals. We believe we’ve Africa and Asia, except Japanmade some inroads, but have a way to go. For example, in Water use 1995-2009 (m3/tonne of production) and Australia.cooperation with local or central governments, we instruct © Unilever Sustainable Development Overview 20098
  9. 9. INTERVIEW ARJEN HOEKSTRA According to the Water Footprint Network, reducing Waterfootprint assessments have become mandatory in the water footprint should be part of the environmental Spain, as part of the national implementation of the EU strategy of every business, just like reducing the carbon Water Framework Directive, a framework established in footprint. Addressing the issues of freshwater scarcity 2000 for community action in the field of water policy. It and pollution is also part and parcel of corporate social is expected that in the future, more governments will carry responsibility. out water footprint assessments, to better understand how different final consumer commodities put different claims turning risks into opportunities on limited water resources. The interest is largest in water- Considering and mitigating the water footprint can scarce regions where water is being used for export prod-Arjen Hoekstra is Professor turn risks into opportunities for those companies that ucts. “Companies see these new developments as a majorin Multidisciplinary Water proactively respond to the challenge of global freshwater risk,” Hoekstra says. “Not only is their corporate image atManagement at the University scarcity. Front runners who create product transparency stake, there is a looming threat that governments will startof Twente in the Netherlands before others do, who formulate specific and measurable regulating more and more. This risk can be brought downand Scientific Director of the targets with respect to water footprint reduction, and who when companies start to look for other opportunities, suchWater Footprint Network. can demonstrate actual improvements, can turn this into a as market advantages in terms of producing ‘greener’ prod-Hoekstra is creator of the water competitive advantage. Professor Arjen Hoekstra, Scientific ucts, thereby adhering to corporate social responsibility.footprint concept (2002) Director at the Water Footprint Network and creator of thethat originates from research water footprint concept explains: “I am seeing a trend in towards a global standardhe started when working at the awareness, recognition and importance of the concept “In the next five years this could translate into govern-UNESCO-IHE. More informa- of corporate water footprinting in many countries around ments even adjusting their development policies based ontion can be found on the web- the world.” He continues: “Companies can start by reduc- the water footprint data. The pitfall is that everyone willsite: ing their water footprint in the supply chain. The Water use it to their own benefit; so much so that it will become Footprint Network sets global standards, definitions and a meaningless metaphor. The challenge is to try to regulate calculation methods. Now more relevant and internation- the corporate water footprint and mainstream it as a global ally recognised organisations are joining our network standard,” explains Hoekstra. of professionals. Unilever, for instance, is also a partner “It will take many more measures and significant changes within the Water Footprint Network. They are interested in attitudes and behaviour. The world has not suddenly in calculating their products’ water footprint (mostly become simplified. Labeling and certifying products are not agricultural produce) to see how this can be reduced in simple solutions to complex issues. What really matters is the entire supply chain. I believe that in the next few years sustainable water management, equitable and efficient wa- companies will increasingly use the water footprint as a key ter use, and solid communication tools to reach consumers performance indicator. at a national, regional and eventually local level.”COLUMN Then came the days of the multiple So what’s in store? What is our I’s and multiple E’s: the International future in the era of real-time globalWhat’s in Institute for Infrastructure, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering. Manuscripts communication, video conferencing, Skype sessions, distance learning, virtuala name – iHE …? of lecture notes were handed to qualified secretaries and skilfully entered into the state-of-the-art word processors lecturing, Twitter, Facebook and more? Should we stick to chopping down trees and sending out thousands of flyers to that filled the Typing Room. Perhaps embassies, in the hope that someone mayWhen the international course in computers were being used by some of just stop by and apply for admittance?Hydraulic Engineering started way back the younger staff for calculations, but the Or should we be developing appsin 1957, the means of communication seniors preferred blackboard and chalk for smartphones, connectingwere quite simple. Letters were sent via – who in the developing world would alumni worldwide, providingsurface mail (or airmail if really urgent) be using computers after all? So the electronic invitations to applyand course notes were hand typed using abbreviation remained – IHE … for our continued education,a “fresh carbon ribbon” and white-out What followed may be familiar to many interact online with our staffliquid eraser for correcting mistakes. of us: the World Wide Web boomed and – and perhaps, following theThose of you who remember these days became a tool for communication – also trend set by Apple: iPod,are probably close to retirement now, in the developing world. More computers iPhone, iPad, and changethose of you who don’t may experience entered the buildings and the institute the Institute’s abbreviationeven greater changes during your own enhanced its international profile by into – iHE …?professional lifetime. In any case, transferring into a UNESCO Categorywith this the abbreviation was readily I Institute for Water Education. But the Arthur Mynett is Professor ofestablished ... IHE. abbreviation remained – IHE … Environmental Hydroinformatics 9
  10. 10. NEW BEADLE & MACE The academic scepter, or mace, was one of the earliest distinctive signs of medieval university officials. The mace was originally a wooden staff carried by royal messengers. The early wooden staff evolved in the 14th century into an elaborate silver mace. It was carried by the beadle during processions and graduation ceremonies, and was displayed as a symbol to command order during classes. In the 15th century it became symbolic of academic dignity. The UNESCO-IHE mace was hand-crafted by artist Hans Karreman with inlaid durable woods from 5 continents, with the shaft made of wood and a Anique Alaoui-Karsten began as silver globe on top splashing in a drop of water. The mace was first introduced at UNESCO-IHE UNESCO-IHE’s new beadle at the as a symbolic farewell gift to Professor Richard beginning of August 2010. Her tasks Meganck who was Rector of the Institute from 2003 to 2009 and was officially handed over to include organising academic ceremonies, acting Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy during his inaugu- as master of ceremonies at MSc and PhD grad- ration as Rector of the Institute in November 2009. uations, and facilitating PhD students and their promotors in the logistics of PhD defences and the production of theses. She maintains close contacts with partner universities and helps in further developing the Institute’s academic pro- file. Alaoui-Karsten will succeed Laura Kwak as beadle.10
  11. 11. INTERVIEW ALUMNUS“Knowledge is forever; no one can take that away from you.” On 30 June 2010, the Nicaraguan National Congress designated Luis Angel Montenegro as first Water Minister of Nicaragua. Montenegro who obtained an MSc degree in Water Management from UNESCO-IHE in 2010, talks about the challenges in Nicaragua and young people making a difference in the world. “I remember getting a call from UNESCO-IHE offering me a the impoRtANCe of NegotiAtiNg ANd mediAtiNg scholarship when I was in Honduras. I picked up the phone It is a matter of taking responsibility. Individuals but also large sleepily and had to decide on the spot whether I would take it corporations have to understand that they are consumers and or not. By that time I had not even received permission from have to pay for their water. I am now thankful for the skills I the President yet. I just said “yes” and was luckily also granted obtained from the course on Negotiation and Mediation for permission.” Water Conflict Management as I will be able to put them into immediate practice in dealing with large corporations and The National Congress Committee said: “Next week you negotiating the price for the extraction and supply of water. may be appointed Minister. This is not the right time to Another challenge in Nicaragua is to see how we can allow leave, especially not for two years!” Of course I realised that for more tourism to enter the country without causing too I was jeopardising being appointed minister, but I made up much substantial impact to the country’s ecology. my mind and decided to pursue a Master degree. I thought: “knowledge is forever; no one can take that away from me.” tRemeNdoUs Need foR CApACitY developmeNt Fortunately in my case, politics in Latin America does not Our country’s natural resources are extensive, we have forests change overnight and I was elected within one month after that are bigger than the whole of the Netherlands, but we returning to Nicaragua. have not been able to manage them properly. We really need more people in countries like Nicaragua to attend courses gAiNiNg kNoWledge such as the ones being given at UNESCO-IHE to help guide Now I am so thankful for having made that decision as I have better integrated water resources management; a concept learnt so much during my time at the Institute. I learnt a lot that is quite new here in Nicaragua. from the lecturers at the Institute and shared experiences with my fellow classmates who came from so many diverse back- “I believe that if you want to make a change in the world, grounds and cultures. Also, I gained a great deal of knowl- study well and try to become a decision-maker and obtain a edge simply from being in the Netherlands; a country that place in the field of politics where you can make a change,” is constantly dealing with and managing a diverse range of Montenegro explains. “Hierarchies and culture can be barri- water issues. Without doubt, it was the Institute that gave me ers to achieving change. Young people are sometimes afraid the technical background to assume my new duties as Water that they will not be taken seriously. But with their efforts to Minister of my country. change the region, country and city in which they live, they will contribute to making a better and more modern world.” The main challenge in Nicaragua, but also in many other parts of the world, is to create awareness in people. It is not only the awareness of how to properly use and preserve water. It is also the mere fact that people never had to pay for water before, and therefore think it is free of charge. An infrastruc- ture and hydraulic projects need to be installed and managed properly to ensure the right quality and to assure the quantity needed. This requires financial resources which need to be borne by those who use them. 11
  12. 12. Urban floods cannot be managed in isolation at city scale and responsesto potential flood impacts are further complicated by overlapping politi-cal, socio-economic and environmental changes. To reverse the trend ofincreasing flood risk in urban areas, a major rethink of current planningand flood management policies and practices at different spatial and tem-poral scales is required.To this end, the Flood Resilience Group (FRG) was (UK), Beijing (China), Mumbai (India), Dhakainitiated by UNESCO-IHE and the Delft University of (Bangladesh), Seattle (USA), Saint Louis (Senegal),Technology. The group consists of a multi-discipli- and Porto Alegre (Brazil).nary team of scientists that aims to advance scientific The Flood Resilience Group has co-authored aknowledge and practical applications into integrated textbook on Urban Flood Management for studentsapproaches to cultivate flood resilience in urban and professionals, which was recently published. Seecommunities and built-up areas. page 32 for more information about this publication.The activities carried out by the group are threefoldand consist of: (i) quantifying the impacts of chang- Unknown factorsing drivers for urban flood risk, (ii) assessing the The concept of resilience provides guidance forrestorative and adaptive resilience of urban flooding an overarching approach towards managing urbansystems, and (iii) transition management and adap- floods which devises strategies to cope with changetive management for urban flooding systems. and uncertainty. Moreover, various insights into, and methods from, system and complexity theoryLearning and research provide hands-on methods to create such a frame-Since its establishment in 2007, the Flood Resilience work. The transition towards a resilient approachGroup has been involved in a number of national is still beset by many unknown factors; ‘activeand international research projects. In the majority learning’ can help us to better understand theseof these studies learning and research is imple- factors and develop and implement appropriatemented together with local, regional, and national responses. These trends pose huge challenges forstakeholders. The cities that are currently targeted flood research, especially in the field of co-creationinclude Dordrecht, Rotterdam, Haarlemmermeer, and action research in flood management related toBergen (Norway), Hannover (Germany), Sheffield urban planning and design.Flood Resilience GroupSOME SAMPLE PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN bY THE FLOOD RESILIENCE GROUPthe mARe pRoJeCt floodpRobe the CoRfU pRoJeCtMARE stands for Managing Adaptive REsponses to changing FloodProBE is an EU-funded project that aims to provide The Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areasflood risk in the North Sea region. The project sets out to cost-effective solutions for flood risk reduction in urban areas. (CORFU) is an interdisciplinary EU-funded project that looks atdevelop and demonstrate a transnational approach to local Flood FloodProBE develops technologies, methods and tools for flood advanced and novel strategies and provides adequate measuresRisk Management (FRM) through the following parallel areas of risk assessment and for the practical adaptation of new and for improved flood management in cities. Adopting a long-termactivity: setting up Learning and Action Alliances, develop- existing buildings, infrastructure and flood defences leading perspective, the project not only focuses on the possible effectsing a Climate Proofing Toolbox, and demonstration (Bergen, to a better understanding of vulnerability, flood resilience and of climate change, but also incorporates anthropogenousDordrecht, Hannover, and Sheffield/Rotherham). The FRG is defence performance. factors. By coupling a socio-economic model with a physicalresponsible for the development of the toolbox and guidance This research supports the implementation of the Floods urban growth model, urban development is taken into accountfor climate-proofing the local adaptive measures. The Learning Directive* through the development of more effective flood as a dynamic factor in the sensitivity, exposure and vulnerabilityand Action Alliances will demonstrate and evaluate the Climate risk management strategies. The work is being undertaken in to flooding. Another important factor is the incorporation ofProofing Toolbox by applying it to real FRM demonstration close partnership with industry, and is utilising pilot sites across growing Asian megacities (Beijing, Mumbai, Dhaka) as well asprojects. These projects will contribute to the development of Europe to help provide practical industry guidance and cost- relatively stable European cities (Hamburg, Nice, Barcelona).local FRM plans, as well as validating or helping to enhance the effective construction solutions. The role of the FRG is to focus This should ultimately lead to different responses (e.g. smartClimate Proofing Toolbox. on technologies and concepts for improving the performance of growth policies vs flood-sensitive redevelopment). FRG focuses existing and new (i.e. multi-functional) flood defences and for on the development of the urban growth and redevelopment increasing the flood resilience of urban systems. model which provides the platform for hydraulic modelling, flood vulnerability analysis and the response framework. * The Floods Directive was proposed by the European Commis- sion in 2006 and aims to reduce and manage the risks that floods pose to human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity. The Directive requires Member States to first carry out a preliminary assessment by 2011 to identify the river basins and associated coastal areas that are at risk of flooding. http://www.floodprobe.eu12
  13. 13. The severity of flooding was in- creased due to the following factors: High population growth The high population growth rate in Pakistan contributed to the rapid deterioration of the country’s natural environment. This includes extensive deforestation and the building of dams for irrigation and power gen- eration across tributaries of the Indus River. Trees have been wrongfully cut down and sold by opportunists. These trees used to slow down flood waters but are no longer there to serve this purpose. Urbanisation near the riverbanks Throughout history, humans have found it desirable to construct cities along streams. In heavily populated areas, people have constructed their REPORT FROM THE FIELD houses in the natural passage of the stream, thereby leading to the block- age of floodwater. The overflow of Pakistan floods floodwater in these streams resulted in such heavy losses. Soil Erosion The flood carried billions of tons of sediment to lower elevations and and their causes produced sedimentary rocks in the river bed and has thus diverted the flow of water towards residential areas, which caused massive damage. Besides, these rivers carried dis- solved ions, the product of chemical By Jehangir Shah weathering, into the lower part of the country thereby making it salty and therefore unreliable as a source for freshwater.Jehangir Shah is a UNESCO- The deadliest floods of 2010 started when the clouds burst open on 29 July overIHE alumnus (1999-2000)and holds a Master of Science the upper parts of Pakistan and heavy, concentrated monsoon rains, augmentedin Environmental Science andTechnology. Please contact by snowmelts came pouring down. The additional contribution to the floods washim directly through email: caused by weather systems from the Arabian and Mediterranean or telephone 0092-3005884194 if you wish tomake a financial contribution to Twenty million people affected harsh reality is that waterborne diseases are linked to floodsthe flood victims. According to Pakistani government data, the floods directly — and with cholera outbreaks already reported in the north- affected about 20 million people, mostly through the de- ern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, this flooding struction of property, livelihoods and infrastructure, with a event seems to be no exception. The lack of sanitation causes death toll of close to 2,000 people. The number of individu- the fatal diarrhea disease to spread rapidly. Stagnant water als affected by the flooding exceeds the combined total of poses other threats, such as an increase in the number of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the malaria cases. 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The death toll may climb to several thousand more as flood- Climate change to blame ing has spread throughout the country and countless people Climate change is considered to be the root cause of the remain missing due to flash floods and landslides. To com- current flooding in Pakistan. This is down to the unusual pound the problem further, millions of homes in thousands of climate-change-led seasonal cycle of land temperatures in villages and towns were also destroyed. Pakistan which has exacerbated the monsoon rainfall and produced the largest volume of water in the northern moun- Infrastructure destroyed tainous region of the country ever recorded in history. This Key elements of the country’s Infrastructure such as dams, led to the flooding of the Indus river basin. Various scientific power stations, roads, bridges, schools, agriculture wells, studies have already shown that the monsoon regions in the and drinking water hand-pumps were severely damaged world will be affected by climate change more than any other or destroyed. Throughout the region, bridges have been regions on Earth. washed away leaving roads destroyed or rendered impassible A study in 2006 indicated that this trend may continue — by landslides. This makes it even more difficult for relief and although at the time the researchers did not unequivocally rescue efforts to reach many of the affected areas. link this to climate change. However, today many scholars now believe that the present flooding may be part of a Waterborne diseases longer-term trend. “Climate change will be a small but steady Waterborne diseases have also begun to appear, and these contributor to rainfall in the region,” says Jeff Knight, climate will push the number of deaths significantly higher. The variability expert at the UK Met Office Hadley Centre. 13
  14. 14. JOINT EDUCATIONBenefiting from the knowledge ex-change with partner institutes in theareas of research, capacity developmentand joint education programmes is in-valuable when responding to new globalchallenges. Egerton University in Kenyais an excellent example of one of thosepartner institutes with which UNESCO-IHE has a longstanding history.The current specialisation in Limnology and WetlandEcosystems is the result of a new approach towards thetraining of professionals in environmental research andeducation, whereby an international network was created,and several European and East African partners have agreed “Only the scientistto pursue the streamlining of selected post-graduate courseactivities. The specialisation is jointly given by UNESCO-IHE and the Austrian Academy of Sciences, in cooperation understands whywith Egerton University in Kenya. UPDATE Magazineinterviewed Professor Jude Mathooko, Deputy Vice-Chan-cellor of Egerton University in Kenya on this partnership the wildernessand his views for the future.“I come from an area where we do not have much water.My home place is a dry area but what surprised me mostis that the small streams I saw when I was young are nolonger there,” Mathooko explains. “ Water is an essentialresource. I just followed a dream to know more aboutwater. The more I knew about water, the more complicated explains human activity andit became.”dried out fills it with sense.”Limnology, the study of freshwater systems, includingsaline water systems and the resources therein, was not somuch known back then in Africa. Knowledge on limnol-ogy was mainly concentrated in Europe and in some partsof America. Scientists would come from Europe to collect Quote by Aldo Leopold (1948)samples from Africa, not even training people about lim-nology. In Africa large lakes and rivers used to exist. Peopleused to find the remains of aquatic animals there. Theserivers have now dried out completely. I strongly believethat limnology is the answer to questions on past climatechange and a solution to the current and future climatechange.Research of the stomachWhen we come to know the finer details of research in theSouth and the North the two are extremely far apart in theresearch continuum. Europe is looking at the finer detailsof nature, while the South is focusing on the resources forfood security. This is why in the South much more researchis done on fish and fisheries. In the North they can alsolook at bacteria in more detail. In the South no one reallywants to research this. I call it research of the stomach. Thegovernment will also understand researchers better whoare able to solve issues that give answers to questions onhow to satisfy our immediate needs. Food resources, water Jude Mathooko is a Professor of Aquatic Science atquality and quantity are key research areas for people in Egerton University, Kenya, where he has been teachingthe South. Our people and young students need to come in the Department of Biological Sciences for the last 20 years. Currently, he is the Deputy Vice-Chancellor inup with new and innovative solutions. They should be charge of Research and Extension at Egerton University.trained in an environment they are familar with wherethe solutions can also be found in the same environment.UNESCO-IHE can play a role in this by coming down and14
  15. 15. further developing their capacities. Limnology should Partnershipbe given a boost and a critical mass of students should betrained to meet this daunting challenge. signed with 18familiar environment“I was introduced to limnology in Austria. I immediatelysaw the opportunity to take the training to the South in a key educationmore familiar environment, rather than getting sophisti-cated material in Europe and sophisticated computers thatare available in the North. This equipment and hardwareshould work in a familiar environment, Egerton Universityfor instance. The equipment could then also be used bymore students,” explains Mathooko.“Of course, one can also gain from the positive effects of and research institutesgetting a different experience by interacting with otherstudents in an unfamiliar country. So, a wise decision wasmade by UNESCO-IHE, the Austrian government andEgerton University to team up and work together in thiscourse. This is the direction the world is heading in. Onecannot work in isolation. One needs to work with othersin mutual understanding, where everyone works as equals.This is how the world should be. And now we have beenworking at an equal level, it is now that we can talk about UNESCO-IHE signed a vision statement on strengthening collabora-success of the programme,” he says. tion in water education, research and capacity development with 18One of the advances in limnology is that the integrated key education and research institutes in higher learning from aroundresearch in this area has become so apparent. The holistic the world. High-level representatives from partner institutes assem-view is that we now combine the catchment with the bled in Delft in July 2010, to discuss the possibilities and opportunitieswater systems, whereas before they were treated indepen- for setting up joint educational programmes at the Master’s level indently. the water sector. The development of joint educational programmes with partner institutes is one of the cornerstones of UNESCO-IHE’simprove, diversify and expand policy to serve the world water sector with good quality, relevant edu-Mathooko explains: “In my view, UNESCO-IHE and cation and training at a scale required by the sector.Egerton University can improve, diversify and expand itscurrent programmes. Apart from limnology and wetland Ambitions and collaborationecosystems, there are elements of water engineering that Such programmes are based on a form of credit transfer systems be-may be interesting to either take over or join up with. In tween the (two) institutes and a joint responsibility in delivering partaddition, UNESCO-IHE could make a large impact in the of the educational programme. The aim of the conference was to learnarea of water and sanitation here, especially in rural and ur- better the ambitions of the different institutes and to explore the bestban areas. Also, I believe that further progress can be made approach to developing such programmes and other forms of collabo-in integrated project management and proposal writing to ration.request for funding. I find that my staff members are quiteweak in this area. If we could further develop this skill-set, Partner InstitutionsI believe it would really help us.” Participants included dignitaries from Addis Ababa University in Ethopia, Ain Shams University in Egypt, Asian Institute of Technologybridging the gap in Thailand, bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology,He continues by saying: “ The South and the North birzeit University in Palestine, Dundee University, School of Naturalresearch far apart from each other at the extreme ends of Resources, Law, Policy and Management in Scotland, Egertonan aquatic continuum. The South more on the fish and the University in Kenya, Hohai University in China, Kwame Nkrumahfisheries. The North more on the microbio loop. It is this University of Science and Technology in Ghana, Mondsee Universitydistance that we have to close. Offering joint education of Limnology in Austria, The University of the West Indies, Stprogrammes, jointly promoting publications, jointly dis- Augustine, Campus, Universidad del Valle in Colombia, Universitasseminating information and jointly forming policies to the Sriwijaya in Indonesia, University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania,benefit of both continents are important steps in bridging Universidade de Sao Paolo Engineering School of Sao Carlos in brazil,the gap.” University of Zimbabwe, Water Resources University in Viet Nam and the WaterNet Capacity building Programme in Southern Africa. Joint activitiesJoint MSc Programme in Limnology and Wetland Ecosystems The main objectives of the conference include the development of aThe joint programme in Limnology and Wetland Ecosystems is given as an (joint) vision on the establishment of joint educational programmesMSc programme. This specialisation is jointly given by UNESCO-IHE and (need, ambition, sense of purpose), having consultations on a com-the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Mondsee, Austria), in cooperation with mon framework for the delivery of joint educational programmesEgerton University (Egerton, Kenya). The duration of this joint programme (shape and layout, presentation, acknowledgement); discussing ma-is 18 months containing 14 three-week-modules, equally spread over thethree locations, followed by a research period of 6 months. Egerton Uni- jor operational principles for the delivery of joint programmes (creditversity teaches the modules on ‘Lake Ecology’, ‘Stream and River Ecology’, transfers, marketing, finances); formulating a road map for achieving‘Wetlands for Water Ecology’, and ‘Fisheries and Aquaculture’. medium-term objectives (objectives, milestones, activities, policy and operational decisions); and identifying support programmes forEgerton University, Kenya development (staff exchange, training of trainers, lecture material de-Egerton University was founded as a farm school in 1939 by Lord MauriceEgerton of Tatton, a British National. In 1950, the school was upgraded to velopment, online learning).a College. In 1986, the College was gazetted as a constituent college ofNairobi University. In 1987, Egerton was fully established as a University A full (photographic) report on the conference can bethrough an Act of Parliament. See more info: found at 15
  16. 16. UNESCO-IHE GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR WATER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 33 29 25 21 19 34 23 32 28 20 37 26 24 22 36 31 39 38 27 30 35 48 49 55 47 54 51 50 53 521. Pham Hong Nga | Water Resources University 16. Shah Alam Khan | Bangladesh University of 27. Sudip Rakshit | Asian Institute of Technology2. Hoda Soussa | Ain Shams University Engineering and Technology 28. Innocent Nhapi | University of Zimbabwe3. Wim Douven | UNESCO-IHE 17. Yiqing Guan | Hohai University 29. Pieter van der Zaag | UNESCO-IHE4. Jan Luijendijk | UNESCO-IHE 18. Monowar Hossain | Bangladesh University of 30. Adnan Yahya | Birzeit University5. Maarten Siebel | UNESCO-IHE Engineering and Technology 31. Marloes Mul | UNESCO-IHE6. Mukand Babel | Asian Institute of Technology 19. Zoran Vojinovic | UNESCO-IHE 32. Susanto Robbiyanto | Sriwijaya University7. Dano Roelvink | UNESCO-IHE 20. Yilma Seleshi | University of Addis Ababa 33. David Love | WaterNet Capacity Building8. Ioana Popescu | UNESCO-IHE 21. Jan Nonner | UNESCO-IHE Programme9. Chris Zevenbergen | UNESCO-IHE 22. Vincent Cooper | University of the West 34. Carlos Madera | Universidad del Valle10. Joop de Schutter | UNESCO-IHE Indies 35. F. Mtalo | Universty of Dar es Salaam11. Omar Adnan Yahya | Palestine 23. Stefan Uhlenbrook | UNESCO-IHE 36. Edgar Quiroga | Colombia Universidad del12. Maher Abu-Madi | Birzeit University 24. Nzula Kitaka | Egerton Valle13. Gerold Winkler | Mondsee Institute of 25. Eduardo Mendiondo | Universidad de Sao 37. Maarten van Rijn | Conference Facilitator Limnology Paulo 38. Kebreab Ghebremichael | UNESCO-IHE14. Biswa Bhattacharya | UNESCO-IHE 26. Kwasi Kwafo Adarkwa | Kwame Nkrumah 39. Hans van Bruggen | UNESCO-IHE15. Andreja Jonoski | UNESCO-IHE University of Science and Technology 40. Tadeu Malheiros | Universidad de Sao Paolo16