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technical featuressustainability                                                                                          ...
technical featuressustainability                                                                                          ...
technical featuressustainability                                                                                          ...
technical featuressustainability                                                                                          ...
technical featuressustainability                                                                               refereed pa...
technical featuressustainability                                                                                          ...
technical featuressustainability                                                                                          ...
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Irrigation futures - Water governance regimes in australia , implementing the national water initiative

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Water governance regimes in Australia: implementing the National Water Initiative

This article was written by Professor Jennifer McKay. It was published in the AWA Water Journal in February 2007.

www.awa.asn.au

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Irrigation futures - Water governance regimes in australia , implementing the national water initiative

  1. 1. technical featuressustainability refereed paper WATER GOVERNANCE REGIMES IN AUSTRALIA: IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL WATER INITIATIVE J M McKayAbstractGovernance is the process of decisionmaking in the community involving bothformal and informal actors at all levels.Government is just one of the formal actorsin governance. The institutions andorganisations it creates by laws andregulations are the formal actors in theprocess of extracting, distributing and usingwater. There are of course many informalinstitutions as well such as customs of thesociety with respect to water use andallocation and in relation to enforcement ofthe law.After the Council of AustralianGovernment reforms in 1994 there aremany laws creating many types oforganisations to extract, distribute and usewater in each State. This paper reports onwork to examine the formal legal processes. Figure 1. Representation of the institutions, formal and informal, impacting on waterThe work established that there are now 14 supply business organisations.different types of corporate organisationssupplying water in Australia. These formal here look at their responses to the new Water Governance in Australian -organisations and the informal institutions water policies in particular evaluating the Institutions and Organisationshave different responses to the formal effort put into ESD by the CEOs, thewater law and policy changes. The Governance always looks at how power isresponses of the formal organisations and difficulty in pleasing the regulators( both exercised in the management of economicinformal institutions are instrumental to environment and price ), the amount of and social resources for the society, alsothe success of the new water law and policy information they have about water policy how to mediate disputes between members.reforms under the National Water and whether they trust the State Often governance is about creating theInitiative. government. conditions for ordered rules and collectiveThe paper reports on some results from a action. Introductiontelephone interview with 183 of the Chief International literature has eightExecutive Officers of the largest water Governance, not a true scarcity of water, is characteristics in common for goodsupply businesses. The results presented the core of the world water crisis according governance -participatory, consensus to the UN 2nd World Water Development orientated, accountable, transparent, Report released in early 2006. The responsive, effective and efficient, equitable Australian Government has initiated the and inclusive and following the rule of law.Only one-third of water two waves of CoAG reforms to alter the (UNDP 2001, Global Water Partnership) supply chief executive governance structures to achieve efficient Australian Standard 8000 defines it …“as and more productive water use. This is seen being concerned with improving the officers surveyed across as increasingly important over the coming performance of companies for the benefit decades as water issues impact upon the of shareholders, stakeholders and economicthe nation are confident continued stability of Australia’s rural growth. It focuses on the conduct of and that their companies or sector, urban communities and the nation’s relationships between the board of the economic well-being. The Government is directors, managers and company enterprises can achieve determined to continue increasing shareholders.” sustainable water efficiency in water use and implementing Governance is considered in any society at reforms to achieve this national objective. any point of time as the sum of formal and management. (DAFF, 2006.) informal and organisations. In a sector such150 FEBRUARY 2007 Journal of the Australian Water Association
  2. 2. technical featuressustainability refereed paper Table 1. Corporate Governance legal types of major Water supply businesses in each State. ACT NSW1 NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA Total Local Government Regional Council (LGRC) 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Shire Council (LGSC) 0 46 0 92 0 17 0 14 169 City/Town Council (LGCC)2 0 0 0 15 0 5 0 0 20 Local Government Owned Corporations (LGOC) 0 14 0 4 0 0 0 0 18 Joint Local Government Organisation (JLGG)3 0 5 0 1 0 3 0 0 9 Water Boards {Includes Rural Water & Drainage Boards} (WB) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Government Departments Licenser (GD) 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 3 Government Owned Corporation (GOC) 1 5 1 1 1 0 6 1 16 Statutory Bodies (SB) 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 18 Corporations Law Companies (CLC) 0 3 0 1 2 0 0 1 7 Irrigation Trusts (IT) 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 6 Undetermined4 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 6 Hybrid – (SB/CLC)5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Hybrid – (IT/CLC)6 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Total 1 74 - 797 1 115 7 29 24 22 278 1. NSW councils that generate turnover of > $2m are classified by the National Competition Policy and Local Government Act 1993 (NSW) as category 1 businesses. If < $2m then category 2. Category 1 businesses are subject to more stringent reporting/auditing requirements and must be privatised corporations. In effect, category 1’s are/may be semi autonomous subsidiaries or completely autonomous privatised corporations. Thus, the level of turnover is crucial to the character of the entity and its classification. 2. Includes Local Government Town Councils and Local Government City Councils. 3. Includes Organisations that are owned by a collective of LGAs and organisations owned by a collective of LGAs with State Government. 4. Typology has not been determined due to insufficient materials to make a definitive assessment. 5. West Corurgan Irrigation apparently exists as both a Statutory Body and a Corporations Law Company. 6. Western Murray Irrigation Ltd is identified as an Irrigation Trust within legislation but is structured and operating as a Corporations Law Company. 7. NSW had extensive council mergers and redrafting of Council boundaries during the period that this research examines. As such, the material collected reflects the rapidly shifting face of the NSW Water Industry. At the beginning of the researched period, there were 79 distinct WSBs, within the year; however, amalgamations had reduced this number to 74.as water, governance allows different within statutes in each State and between Supply businesses. There are institutionsarrangements of the institutions and the States. (McKay 2006, Table 2). Whilst such as the general law which are coerciveorganisations to be mapped and examined. the overarching goals are set federally in the i.e. structures of property rights to waterThe formal coercive obligations imposed by NWI, the means to achieve them is left to and informal aspects such as the willingnessthe institution of the law in Australia the States which, as in all federations, chose of person entrusted to enforce the law suchrequire all organisations to achieve ESD. to do things differently. This can create a as local police to actually use their powers.Originally this was done through a variety laboratory of policy experiments which All of these have an impact on the eventualof State-based Acts because of section 100 offer learning opportunities but also can performance of the organisationsand the paramountcy of State law over create confusion. (Brandies 1932) Figure 1 expresses the arrangementswater for conservation (impounding) and Previous international research has between the formal and informalirrigation (McKay 2005). The States then described how the form of organisation has institutions and the water supply businessceased to co-operate on water, devised a great influence on achievements of any organisations and Catchment Managementintrospective State policies and formed policy (North 1990, Young 2000). The Boards (Natural Resources Managementdifferent institutions and organisations to imposition of laws to achieve ESD is an Boards in South Australia). There isdistribute water for the sole purpose of outcome of societal pressures, bio-diversity interplay within and between all theseeconomic development. Over time but catastrophes and drought. Laws have been organisations and the institutions.especially since the early 1990s the aims of imposed on the organisations in order forthe State schemes broadened to encompass the organisations to maintain their Typology of Australian Waterother goals and include environmental and legitimacy with some influential sectors of Supply Businessessocial sustainability as parts of modern modern Australian society. (Di Maggio and In the past in Australia, the mainwater policies. This was done by the Powell 1983). Thus the policy to achieve organisations were public sector but sinceadoption of ESD into the water laws and ESD is coercive on each organisation as it is the 1994 Council of Australianpolicies and by institutional and part of the law of each State. Government Reforms the organisationsorganisational adoption of ESD. In 1990 Governance derives from society and is involve more private sector roles in allthere were more than 100 statutes which made up of formal and informal aspects and place government in arequired ESD in Australia at local State and institutions and organisations. Such actors regulatory role on price and environmentalfederal level. (Stein 2000) but now there reflect local political, cultural and impacts. Governance arrangements forwould be over 400. There are differences in administrative traditions and are water in Australia are complex with over 14the coverage of the ESD definitions both represented in Figure 1 in relation to Water different types of legal forms of water Journal of the Australian Water Association FEBRUARY 2007 151
  3. 3. technical featuressustainability refereed papersupply businesses (Table The CEOs were first Table 2. Relative ranking of width of ESD definition in four Australian1). The mosaic of different contacted to make a time States and through MDBC template legislation in each State.forms each have multiple to have 30 minutes free toreporting arrangements as Rank of ESD definition width do the interview. Thedetermined by the relevant interviews took placeActs. The different Acts MDBC Template* 1 (Equal) between September 2005also create an informal SA (downstream) 10% in MDB area 1 (Equal) and January 2006 and wereinstitution around what Qld (upstream) 25% in MDB area 2 conducted by 3 trainedcould be called ’reporting NSW (upstream) 90% in MDBC area 3 professional interviewers atculture’. For example, the Vic (midstream) 60% in MDB area 4 Ehrenberg Bass Institute atreporting cultures for University of South *Legislation inserted into State law of Queensland, New South Wales, Vic, SA.organisations empowered Australia. The respondentsunder a Local Government were all sent a projectAct are very different from those existing for at the macro state level financially but also a information sheet and advised that theira body reporting to the Australian Securities huge role with respect to the achievements responses were confidential. There wereand Investment Commission (ASIC). of NWI. These State bodies and others such over 100 questions and the average time forAt the ground level, different legal forms for as Catchment Management Boards are the interview was 27 minutes with no-oneadjacent water supply businesses make co- front line implementers of NWI. stopping the interview. Respondentsoperation and data sharing more difficult. The aim was to determine if the reported that they liked the survey as theyFurthermore, the culture of the organisation organisational type was a factor in attitudes had a chance to explore issues and report onguides its implementation of the NWI in a to selected NWI reforms and hence whether issues that concerned them. The results forprofound way and its understanding of implementation of selected NWI goals was all but the first questions are reported bysustainability and the procedures it can more or less likely in different organisation State (as there is only a single authority inplace in its strategic planning framework to types. This process has been defined as the ACT and NT, their responses will notimplement Environmentally Sustainable Evaluation of law and policy by implementers be published to protect confidentiality) andDevelopment (ESD). The fundamental (McKay 2006) is a strategic way to conduct corporate governance type.premise of ESD is that economic processes of law reform. In Australia, the The respondents were selected to representdevelopment must be balanced against the processes of law reform rarely take this the types of organisations listed in Table 2.protection of biological diversity, the systematic approach often responding to The CEOs were distributed as such; 86 outpromotion of equity within and between acute crises (Opeskin 2001) of 115 from Queensland, 38 from 78 ingenerations, and the maintenance of NSW, 24 from 29 in Tasmania, 13 from 24 The goals selected were aimed at evaluatingessential ecological processes The culture is in Victoria, 20 from 22 in WA and the only the effort put into ESD by the CEOs, theiroften guided by the way the organisation is one from each of the ACT and NT. Therun, e.g. some water supply bodies are run ability to please the regulators( environment distribution by typology type reflected theby grower/users elected from regions in the and price ), the amount of information they proportions with local governmentarea, yet others (most of the big urban and have about water policy and if they trust predominating. In the charts below therural bodies) have board members their State government. results for the two single authorities in theappointed by the State Government An earlier part of this study assessed the Northern Territory and Australian Capital(McKay 2005) Local governments which content of annual reports for all water Territory have been omitted.supply much water have elected officials and supply bodies under 10 themes including All the sample CEOs were male and all hadtheir region may cover urban and rural ESD actions. The results suggested that the been in the job for at least 6 months. Overareas. 24 Victorian utilities (all single mission 50% has been in the same organisation forThis typology was created from the Annual water suppliers) reported the most ESD 5 years or less, with 15% there for betweenReports of the bodies for 2003/4, classifying actions. The vast majority of other water 6 months and 1 year, 20 % for between 1them according to legal type. The decision supply businesses are empowered by a Local and 2 years and 14% for 5 years or less. Justwas made to look only at major water Government Act, and have water as only over one third 34% had been CEO forsupply businesses i.e. those supplying more one of many missions. (Gray and McKay between 5 and 11 years i.e. post CoAGthan 250 customers. There was very little 2006) 1994 and 22% for greater than eleven yearsother research to guide this process at the which means pre and post CoAG 1994.time and subsequent data confirms the Evaluation of selected NWI policies However it was found that the time ofVictorian figures and suggests that there are by CEOs service was not significantly related to the125 bodies in Queensland and 120 in NSW The method was to identify the relevant answers to the questions.in 2005 (Australian Government 2006). policies and laws from State and federalThe forms of the bodies listed here exclude instruments and from conversations with CEOs and ESD implementationthe small mining company or indigenous CEOs and others. After the issues were What does sustainable development reallywater supply schemes which exist under identified the next step was design an mean? Sustainable development as aspecial acts. instrument to evaluate (on an eleven point concept is notable for its lack of consistencyTable 1 shows that Government at State scale) perceptions, understandings and in its interpretation (Sharachchandra 1991).and local level still has a major role in the attitudes to the policies and laws by the key It dates from 1987 (Brundtland 1987)water industry and the State-owned actors. As the respondents were Whilst on the political level the fact that itcorporations contribute significant amounts sophisticated, the interview schedule was is so broad is appealing but that is also itsto revenue of the State and the local long with 100 questions and respondents weakness as the problems of poverty,governments in the forms of dividends. were contemporaneously emailed lists of environmental degradation, economicHence these bodies have an important role items to rank order. growth and participation are not well152 FEBRUARY 2007 Journal of the Australian Water Association
  4. 4. technical featuressustainability refereed paperarticulated. Such a lack of clarity mayhamper the debate and certainly theimplementation.In Australia, Intergovernmental agreementson the environment imposed the 7principles of ESD (National Strategy onEcologically Sustainable Development 1992,1993)Despite the above, each State has definedESD in a number of acts, totalling about400 in the whole nation. These acts apply toall actions of the Water Supply businessesand other institutions and organisations.The definitions of each of these spans overmany sections of each of the Acts/ The rulesof interpretation of Acts (in each State) are Figure 2. Effort and difficulty in achieving ESD.also different. Table 2 ranks the width of thevarious definitions of ESD. collective thinking of governments in the few of these. The votes were then tallied asThe fundamental premise of ESD is that formulation of contemporary water policy. shown in the figures.economic development must be balanced Responses to the first question indicate that The first two questions reported here wereagainst the protection of biological diversity, the CEOs thought that it was most difficult emailed to the respondents so they could seethe promotion of equity within and between to achieve global dimensions and least the full text and they were asked to rate eachgenerations, and the maintenance of difficult to achieve broad community one from 1 not at all difficult to 10 extremelyessential ecological processes. The involvement. difficult. In the second question, they wereCommonwealth Government working asked to rate them according to the effort In relation to effort, most effort went into 3groups on ESD drafted these principles to they have put in from 1 least effort to 10 dimensions broad community involvement,guide ESD in 1992 (Hamilton and Throsby1998). Namely: most effort. In all the questions #11 was cost effective policies and integrated ‘don’t know and refused’ but there were very decision making processes.Decision making processes should effectivelyintegrate both long and short termeconomic, environmental,social and equityconsiderations, in seven principles:1. Lack of full scientific certainty should not C&S BRANDbe used as a reason for postponing measuresto prevent environmental degradation (the AUSTRALIANPrecautionary Principle),2. The global dimension of environmental FILTER COALimpacts of actions should be recognised andconsidered, FOR DEEP BED3. The need to develop a strong, growing COARSE DUALand diversified economy which can enhancethe capacity for environmental protection MEDIA FILTRATIONshould be recognised,4. The need to enhance and maintain “More UFRVs for your money,international competitiveness in an and better quality water”environmentally sound manner should berecognised,5. Decision making processes shouldeffectively integrate both long and short C&S BRAND GRANULAR &term economic, environmental social and POWDERED ACTIVATEDequity considerations,6. Cost effective and flexible policy CARBONSinstruments should be adopted; and7. Broad community involvement should befacilitated. JAMES CUMMING & SONS PTY LTDThis statement has been accepted by CoAG 319 Parramatta Rd QUALITYand reflects that economic efficiency is not AUBURN NSW 2144 ENDORSED COMPANYthe main goal of water institutions but Phone: (02) 9748 2309 AS/NZS ISO 9001rather that there is a need to achieve ESD Fax: (02) 9648 4887 STANDARDSand balance between the social, economic, Email: AUSTRALIAand the environmental needs. These seven jamescumming@jamescumming.com.au Licence no: 1628principles have accordingly guided the Journal of the Australian Water Association FEBRUARY 2007 153
  5. 5. technical featuressustainability refereed paperIn relation to the transparency of the ESDprocess Figure 3 indicates that mostorganisations have a neutral view. All hadheard of the process. Hence they wereneutral at to whether the process in theirState is transparent. The Water Boardsperceive the process as transparent. Localgovernment are clearly of the neutral view.In relation to ability to achieve ESD,(Figure 4) the local governments were mostlikely to be neutral; Water Boards andGovernment Owned Corporations weremore likely to agree that they could achieveit. In relation to work on local governmentand participation in Regional NRM Plandevelopment it was reported that mostcouncils were not active because of a lack ofresources with 56 per cent of councilshighlighting a lack of human or financialresources to effectively participate. Only 31 Figure 3. Is the ESD Process Transparent?per cent of councils believe they have a goodor comprehensive capacity to develop andimplement the regional plans. (AustralianLocal Government Association 2005)The Environmental and PriceRegulatorsSocial capital theory in relation toenvironmental matters has often focussed onunderstanding how various actors interactwith one another in relation to the waterpolicy environment. By understanding thesocial capital of different environmentalactors, for example water users and waterpolicy implementers, we can understandwhy some policies end up beingimplemented and why noble aims often fail.The questions asked aimed at finding whichof the regulators was the more difficult toplease. Figures 5 and 6 show that theenvironmental regulator is seen as harder toplease in New South Wales and also for Figure 4. Ability to achieve ESD.local governments. The price regulator isseen as hardest in Victoria and by StatutoryBoards.Relationship with Relevant StateGovernmentQuestion 12 asked whether they felt theywere kept informed by their StateGovernment: the results are shown inFigure 7.The results differed markedly between theStates. Water supply businesses in Victoriawere most likely to trust and the lowest trustlevel was found in the NSW A study inQueensland of stakeholders in smallcatchment found that there was little trustof the State government over NRM.(Rickson 2006)The CEOs also reported low levels of trustin relation to the relevant State government.There was also a massive variation between Figure 5. The Environmental Regulator.154 FEBRUARY 2007 Journal of the Australian Water Association
  6. 6. technical featuressustainability refereed paperCorporate governance types as well withStatutory Boards and Government-ownedcorporations most trusting and localgovernment least.In support of the above the CEOs alsoreported that they don’t generally feelnested in a mutually supportive policyenvironment except in Victoria and thisrelated directly to the corporate governancetype of Government owned corporations,as shown in Figure 8.Summary and ConclusionsThere have been massive reforms of Statewater laws, policies, institutions andorganisations in Australia over the last 12years. These reforms have created manynew bodies and completely restructuredownership of assets and management in allWater Supply businesses. The reforms aim Figure 6. The Price Regulator.to achieve ESD but each State defined itdifferently and has implemented it indifferent ways. There are 14 types of water Commerce and benefited from feedback Other support was made available fromsupply businesses in Australia with NSW given by the respondents and also from Jolyon Burnett, Irrigation Association ofhaving 9 types spread over 79 major water comments by George Warne (NSW), Geoff Australia, and Stephen Mills, Australiansupply businesses. The different types of Parish (SA), Tony Thompson (SA) and the National Committee on Irrigation andlegal organisation means that there are opportunity to present some of this to Drainage and Chris Davis of the Australiandifferent organisational cultures processes meetings organised by ACIAR and ANCID. Water Association.and regimes to satisfy from coerciveinstitutions such as the plethora of lawswithin and between States.Most reforms require partnerships betweenCommonwealth and State agencies and alsopartnerships between different sectors ofthe community to achieve ESDimplementation, as defined by the relevantacts. This paper has shown that the ESDpolicy implementers, the CEOs, have madeconsiderable effort. However, thepartnerships between sectors of thecommunity and between them and Stategovernments are impaired by a lack of trustand a perception that the water policies arenot mutually supportive. Many of them arealso puzzled as to how to achieve ESD andwith acute differences between the States indefinitions there is a limited scope for themto learn from each other. Notably theenvironmental regulator is seen as harder toplease in New South Wales and also forlocal governments. The price regulator isseen as hardest in Victoria and by StatutoryBoards.AcknowledgmentsThis work was conducted as part of aproject for the CRC Irrigation Futures. Itwas supported in kind by members of theCRC especially Matthew Durack, GlenStarkey, John Bourne, Eddie Parr, PeterSmith, John Williams, and BernadetteZerba.The project was also supported by theUniversity of South Australia, School of Journal of the Australian Water Association FEBRUARY 2007 155
  7. 7. technical featuressustainability refereed paperThe project employed Adam Gray who dida great job in liaising with manyorganisations and drawing these charts.Michael Griffin and Fiona Partingtonchecked the typology by reference to theAnnual Reports of the water supplybusinesses. Kirsty Willis co-ordinated theinterviewing with good humour despite thisbeing one of the longest and technicallychallenging surveys in the experience of theEhrenberg-Bass Research Institute. RexJones and Kathryn Pickering providedmuch support in the financial managementand other members of the Centre collectedarticles and checked the results especiallyGanesh Keremane, Anna Hurlimann,Arthur Spassis and Diwakara Halanaik.The Author Figure 7. Relations with State Governments.Jennifer Mackay is Professor of BusinessLaw, School of Law, University of SouthAustralia. Email:jennifer.mckay@unisa.edu.auReferencesAustralian Government 2006 A discussion paper on the role of the Private Sector in the supply of water and Waste water services, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, AugustAustralian local Government Association 2005 NRM Survey of Local Government 2004-5, Angela Shepherd http://www.alga.asn.au/policy.environment. nrm/surveyAustralian Standard 8000 2003 Corporate Social responsibility as amended 2004, www.standards.com.auAustralian Water Resource Assessment 2000 - surface and groundwater availability and quality, a report of the National Land and Figure 8. Mutually supportive policy environment. Water Resources Audit (Audit).Brandeis JUSTICE (1932) New State Ice Co. v Sciences and Graduate Program in Public Opeskin B ( 2001) Law reform in a federal Liebmann 285 US 262 AT 311 Policy Australian National University system, Reform Journal of the Australian lawBrundtland Report (1987) Our Common Future, Workshop, ANU, Published by the Academy reform Commission, issue 78, p29-34 and 72. Report of the UN World Commission on of Social Sciences in Australia Powell, J. (1999). Victoria, in Broughton, W. Environment and Development, Oxford McKay JM 2005 Water Institutional reforms in (ed.), A Century of Water Resources University Press, Oxford Development in Australia,The Institution of Australia in Special issue of Water PolicyDaff (2002/03) Department of Agriculture Engineers Australia, Sydney. Water Institutional reforms; Theory and Fisheries and Forestry National Government. Rickson S (2006) Linking the social with the practice, p 35-53. http://www.daffa.gov.au/about/annualreport/ environmental; Identifying Community McKay 2006 Issues for Ceo’s of Water Utilities capacity in the South East Queensland 02-03/appendices/app6 with the implementation of Australian Water Western Catchments Group, in Whelan JDi Maggio and Powell 1983 ‘The iron cage Laws, Journal of Contemporary Water Research 2006 ( Ed) Partnership based social research revisited: Institutional isomorphism and and Education, vol 135, pp 120-137. for sustainable natural resource management collective rationality in organisational fields, McKay 2007 The legal framework of Australian in Queensland. National Action Plan for American Sociological Review, vol 48, no 2, Salinity and Water Quality pp147-160 water in Crase L (ED) Water Resources in Australia, Issues in Water Policies Series, Saleth, R. M. & Dinar, A. (2004). TheGlobal Water Partnership web site Institutional Economics of Water: a cross- series editor A Dinar, Resources for the www.gwpforum.org country analysis of institutions and Future, www.RFFPress.org/waterGray A and JM McKay Are Utility attitudes to performance, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar the environment shaped by corporate National Strategy on ecologically sustainable Publishing Pvt. governance? Assessing the evidence from development 1992, 1993 Australian Sharachchandra 1991, Sustainable Australian Utility reports, Water Utility Government Publishing service Development: A critical Review, World Management International, Vol 1 pp8-11. National Water Initiative web site Development vol 19, no 6. p 607-621Harris, S and D. Throsby 1997 The ESD www.nwc.gov.au UN 2nd World Water Development Report Process: Background, implementation and North, D. (1990). Institutions, Institutional 2006 aftermath, in Hamilton C and D Throsby Change and Economic Performance, Young M (2000) The Institutional Dimensions (eds) The ESD Process evaluating a Policy Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, of Environmental Change fit interplay and Experiment, p 1-21, Academy of Social Massachusetts. scale MIT Press.156 FEBRUARY 2007 Journal of the Australian Water Association

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