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Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 1 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 2 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 3 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 4 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 5 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 6 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 7 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 8 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 9 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 10 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 11 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 12 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 13 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 14 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 15 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 16 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 17 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 18 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 19 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 20 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 21 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 22 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 23 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 24 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 25 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 26 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 27 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 28 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 29 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 30 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 31 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 32 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 33 Nuclear weapons (a brief history) Slide 34
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Nuclear weapons (a brief history)

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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter.
Today, nine states have nuclear weapons and many more can easily acquire those, although only five states are officially recognized as possessing nuclear weapons by the 1968 nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Those are
• The United States (1945)
• Russia (1949)
• The United Kingdom (1952)
• France (1960) and
• China (1964)
Four states never joined the NPT but are known to possess nuclear weapons:
• Israel
• India (1974)
• Pakistan (1998) and
• North Korea (2006)

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Nuclear weapons (a brief history)

  1. 1. Nuclear Weapons 1
  2. 2. 2 Presented By: IHSAN ALI WASSAN (14CH18) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT In the respect of Sir Hafiz Anees Rehman QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY NAWABSHAH, SINDH, PAKISTAN
  3. 3.  What is a nuclear weapon?  Why people want to develop nuclear weapons?  Why Nuclear weapons are so important?  The history of nuclear weapons from 1940 to 2017  Countries with the biggest Nuclear Arsenals  Conclusion Presentation Outlines 3
  4. 4. What is a Nuclear Weapon? A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. 4
  5. 5. Why people want to develop Nuclear Weapons?  They were made for National Defense  They are powerful  For intimidating other countries  It is a statement of development and power 5
  6. 6. Why Nuclear Weapons are so Important?  Nuclear weapons are tools of mass destruction. They are also a possible danger to our would and you have to understand the consequences of using them.  It also very dangerous, The uranium can get into the skin and damage your blood, cells and organs.  The nuclear energy can damage whole city and wipe out entire country in just few seconds. 6
  7. 7.  Scientist discovered how to create a chain reaction in the 1930s.  Robert Oppenheimer led an operation known as The “Manhattan Project.”  The Manhattan Project is the code name for the US government's secret project that was established before World War II and culminated in the development of the nuclear bomb. 7 The History of Nuclear Weapons
  8. 8. Today, nine states have nuclear weapons and many more can easily acquire those, although only five states are officially recognized as possessing nuclear weapons by the 1968 nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Those are • the United States (1945), • Russia (1949), • the United Kingdom (1952), • France (1960) and • China (1964) 8 The History of Nuclear Weapons
  9. 9. Four states never joined the NPT but are known to possess nuclear weapons: • Israel (1986) • India (1974) • Pakistan (1998) and • North Korea (2006) The History of Nuclear Weapons 9
  10. 10. August 1942  The US sets up the Manhattan Project to develop the first nuclear weapon.  It eventually employs more than 130,000 people and costs US$2 billion. 16 July 1945  The US government tests its first nuclear weapon, code-named “Trinity”, in New Mexico. 24 January 1946  UN calls for elimination of atomic weapons. 10 United States (1945)
  11. 11. Potsdam Declaration  The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender is a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II.  On July 26, 1945, United States President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Clement Attlee, and Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China Chiang Kai- shek issued the document, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference.  This ultimatum stated that, if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction" 11
  12. 12. The destruction of Hiroshima  On August 6, 1945, Paul W. Tibbets and his crew dropped the Uranium-based Atomic bomb on Hiroshima.  The bomb was code named “Little Boy.”  It killed or wounded nearly 130,000 people. 12
  13. 13. Aftermath 13
  14. 14.  Three days later, the United States bombed “Fat Man” on Nagasaki.  Of the 286,00 people living there at the time of the blast, 74,000 were killed and another 75,000 sustained severe injuries. The destruction of Nagasaki 14
  15. 15. Aftermath 15
  16. 16.  Japan surrendered to the Allied Powers on August 14, 1945.  Emperor Hirohito accepted the Potsdam Declaration. Peace 16
  17. 17. Hiroshima 17
  18. 18. Nagasaki 18
  19. 19. Russia (1949) 19 29 August 1949  the Soviet Union conducted its first nuclear test, code-named 'RDS-1', at the Semipalatinsk test site in modern-day Kazakhstan.  The device had a yield of 22 kilotons.  The Soviet device was therefore also a plutonium-based implosion device.  The Soviet Union conducted 456 of its tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, with severe consequences for the local population, including high cancer rates, genetic defects and deformations in babies.
  20. 20. United Kingdom (1952) 20 3 October 1952  The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon "Hurricane “ in 1952 at Montebello Islands off the coast of Western Australia.  The United Kingdom was the third country in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union, to develop and test a nuclear weapon.  It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1957 (Operation Grapple).
  21. 21. 1 November 1952  The US raises the stakes in the nuclear arms race by detonating the first hydrogen bomb at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands.  It is 500 times more powerful than the Nagasaki bomb. 1 March 1954  The US detonates a 17-megaton hydrogen bomb, “Bravo”, at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, contaminating a Japanese fishing boat, Lucky Dragon, and residents of Rongelap and Utirik. 21 During 1950s
  22. 22. France (1960) 13 February 1960  France explodes its first atomic bomb in the Sahara desert.  It has a yield of 60–70 kilotons.  France tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1968 "Opération Canopus”.  It later moves its nuclear tests to the South Pacific.  These continue up until 1996. 22
  23. 23. 30 October 1961  The Soviet Union also explodes the most powerful bomb ever: a 58-megaton atmospheric nuclear weapon, nicknamed the “Tsar Bomba”, over Novaya Zemlya off northern Russia. 23 During 1960s
  24. 24. China (1964) October 1964  China entered the "nuclear arms club" in October 1964 when it conducted its first test.  China explodes its first atomic bomb at the Lop Nor testing site in Sinkiang Province.  It tested its first hydrogen bomb "Test No. 6” in 1967.  In total, China conducts 23 atmospheric tests and 22 underground tests at the site. 24
  25. 25. India (1974) 18 May 1974  India conducts an underground nuclear test at Pokharan in the Rajasthen desert.  Code named the “Smiling Buddha”.  The government falsely claims it is a peaceful nuclear test.  22 September 1979, a nuclear test explosion occurs over the South Indian Ocean. 25
  26. 26. Israel (1986) 30 September 1986  Israel’s nuclear programme revealed  The Sunday Times publishes information supplied by Israeli nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu, which leads experts to conclude that Israel may have up to 200 nuclear weapons. 26
  27. 27. Pakistan (1998) 27 May 28, 1998  Pakistan became a nuclear power when it successfully carried out five nuclear tests at Chaghi, in the province of Baluchistan.  President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto promised in 1971 that if India could build nuclear weapons then Pakistan would too, according to him: "We will develop Nuclear stockpiles, even if we have to eat grass."
  28. 28. North Korea (2006) October 9, 2006  North Korea tested a nuclear weapon with the approximated power of the Hiroshima bomb.  North Korea announced to the world that it has become the world's eighth declared nuclear weapons state.  Its missiles have the range to hit targets in South Korea, Japan as well as U.S., Chinese, and Russian territories. 28
  29. 29. Countries with the biggest Nuclear Arsenals 29
  30. 30. Countries with the biggest Nuclear Arsenals 30
  31. 31. Conclusion In the 70 years since, nearly 2,000 nuclear tests have been performed and about 125,000 nuclear bombs have been built. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Reference  http://asiasociety.org/education/brief-history-nuclear-weapons-states  http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear weapons/issues/proliferation/Proliferation_History.pdf.  A Brief History of Nuclear Proliferation By Volha Charnysh, NAPF Intern  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEhY6lButrs  https://www.statista.com/chart/3653/the-countries-with-the-biggest-nuclear-arsenals/  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvkxkZ-yWos  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_states_with_nuclear_weapons 33
  34. 34. 34
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. Today, nine states have nuclear weapons and many more can easily acquire those, although only five states are officially recognized as possessing nuclear weapons by the 1968 nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Those are • The United States (1945) • Russia (1949) • The United Kingdom (1952) • France (1960) and • China (1964) Four states never joined the NPT but are known to possess nuclear weapons: • Israel • India (1974) • Pakistan (1998) and • North Korea (2006)

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