Role of biosaline agriculture Faisal Taha

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Role of biosaline agriculture Faisal Taha

  1. 1. THE ROLE OF BIOSALINEAGRICULTURE TO COPE WITH WATER SCARCITY IN THE WANA REGION Faisal Taha and Shoaib Ismail International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE. International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  2. 2. Water Resources of the World… International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  3. 3. MIDDLE EAST & NORTHAFRICA Region among the driest in the world International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  4. 4. Actual Renewable FreshWater Resources per Capita Per Region International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  5. 5. Annual renewable water resources worldwide Aus/NZ LACN America ECA SSA EAPW Europe SA WANA 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1000 m3 / year International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  6. 6. Extent of Salinity North/Central Europe 51 m ha Asia 299 mhaAmerica: 21 mha South America 129 mha Africa 81 mha Australasia 357 mha International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  7. 7. Alternative water resources ……… Why & Where? RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES Agriculture consumption of water resources0 25 50 75Re-used Water- Prospects of additional waterresources…….Management- Alternatively, need to use marginal water International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  8. 8. Extent of Saline Water in the WANA RegionCountry Usable Brackish Salinity Basin (s) Equivalent Potential Land for Total Percent Potential Water Resources Ranges Fresh Water Biosaline Irrigated Area Land for Biosaline (million m3/year) (ppm) Volume Agriculture (Hectare) Agriculture of Total (million m3/year) (Hectare) Irrigated Area Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4 Col 5 (1-LR) x Col 1 Col 1/WR Col 3/ Col 4Jordan 246 3,000-10,000 Jordan Valley, 197 25,900 63,000 41% Wadi Araba, Southern GhorsSyria 768 4,000-8,000 Palmyra, 640 74,600 693,000 11% SewwanahOman 320 6,000-15,000 Najd, Central 256 25,200 58,000 43% RegionYemen 300 3,000-8,000 Tihama Plain 250 38,500 348,000 11%Algeria 470 4,000-16,000 South Valley, 392 87,000 384,000 23% Ouargla Basin, Oued Rhir ValleyLibya 208 >5,000 Ghadames Area 173 33,000 470,000 7%Tunisia 333 5,000- >7,500 South and 278 47,600 300,000 16% Central RegionsTotal 2,645 3,000-16,000 2,185 331,800 2,316,000 14% International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  9. 9. Biosaline AgricultureBrackish and Marginal andsaline water saline land Salt-tolerant plant production systems Irrigated/ supplementary irrigated agriculture International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  10. 10. The Challenge…….The challenges of managing salinity is twofold:(i) Finding ways to use marginal water and saline land to feed the increasing population(ii) Ensuring the sustainability of natural resources (saline water and land)Develop integrated approach of soil, water and cropsThis approach has to be economically viable,environmentally safe and sustainable International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  11. 11. Saline water that can be used….. Water Class EC TDS Type of Water (dS/m) (ppm)Non-saline < 0.7 < 500 Drinking and irrigation waterSlightly-saline 0.7 - 2 500 – 1,500 Irrigation waterModerately-saline 2 - 10 1,500 – 7,000 Primary drainage & groundwaterHighly-saline 10 - 25 7,000 – 15,000 Secondary drainage & groundwaterVery highly saline 25 - 45 15,000 – 35,000 Very saline groundwaterBrine > 45 > 35,000 SeawaterBrackish water: 2 – 25 dS/m 1,500 – 15,000 ppm International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  12. 12. Targeted Salinity Ranges Salinity Salinity Range ProductionClassification System(s) Slightly saline <5 dS/m GlycophytesModerately saline 5-15 dS/m Salt-tolerant glycophyte crops Highly saline 15-25 dS/m Salt-tolerant (glycophytes) and halophyte cropsVery highly saline >25 dS/m Halophyte crops Seawater 40-60 dS/m Halophyte crops International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  13. 13. The Chain………..RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MARKET’SSalt-affected Production systems Productsenvironments International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  14. 14. Approaches to Combating Salinity……………1. Improved salt tolerant varieties of forage/fodder, dates, bioenergy trees and others.2. Improved management of saline water for irrigation.3. Support capacity building and agricultural institutions.4. Strong partnership with Donors, Private sectors and National Research & Development programs. International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  15. 15. Case Studies…. Salt tolerant crops improvementForage Project for WANA region1. Establishment of national demonstration sites in each country2. Screening and evaluation of summer and winter annual forages and perennial grass and shrub forages3. Identification of annual and perennial salt-tolerant forages suitable for each partner country4. Participation of more than 120 farmer in the project from partner countries5. Seed multiplication of key species for scaling up and adoption of limited number of farmers6. Extensive capacity building took place at the project level and at the country levels including field and farmers days7. Several countries adopted the strategic approaches to the use of marginal water and supported several in- country projects International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  16. 16. Case Studies…. Salt tolerant crops improvement Pearl millet Total yield over four harvests at 5 dS.m-1 ranged from 30-35 t/ha, and 17-30 t/ha at 15 dS.m-1SorghumYield at 5 dS m-1 ranged from 13 to37 t ha-1; at 10 dS m-1 from 10 to 31t ha-1; and at 15 dS m-1 from 8 to27 t ha-1. International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  17. 17. Case Studies…. Saline Water ManagementProtecting water resourcesand combating salinity inOman The national strategy aims at conserving water resources in Oman from pollution and salinization• Assessment salinity of groundwater resources• Assess the economic costs due to salinity• Identify technical and management practices• Develop sustainable IWR management practices• Capacity building of Omani institutions International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  18. 18. Case Studies…. Saline Water ManagementBIOSAFOR (Agroforestry)system for wastelands Identified available wastelands (salt-affected soils) International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  19. 19. Case Studies…. Saline Water Management Mapping salt affected areas for growing potential Case history of Bio-Energy tree potential species Screening & plantationsevaluation of salt- tolerant tree species Macro Level Mid Level Micro Level International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  20. 20. Case Studies…. Saline Water ManagementBiosaline Agriculture DevelopmentProgram at the NPC Site, Al-Laith,Saudi ArabiaUtilization of return seawater for the production ofhalophytes for forage, environmental beautification,biomass energy and organic fertilizers. International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  21. 21. Case Studies…. Saline Water ManagementSea water based agriculture in coastal desert areas International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  22. 22. Case Studies…. Salinity ManagementPhyto-remediation of oil polluted water inOman OIL H2 O H2 O H2 O H2 O H2 O Each barrel of oil produces 7-13 barrels of polluted water Daily water production exceeds 300,000 m3 Water contains oil and heavy metals residues International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  23. 23. Case Studies…. Salinity Management Improvement in the existing system International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  24. 24. Case Studies…. Salinity ManagementProduction system(s) using Returned Water International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  25. 25. ConclusionsBiosaline agriculture has great potential in the aridand semi-arid regions faced with scarcity of freshwater and availability of marginal water.There is a big demand for fodder/forage, bioenergyand other cash crops in the region to meet the localand regional demands.Fresh water need to be diverted for cash crops andother important sectors, whereas, marginal resourcesand lands can be used effectively to meet part of theagriculture demands.R&D work done by ICBA in partner countries/regionshas shown the technical and commercial viability ofthe technologies. Some of these are now in the phaseof up-scaling by national partners. International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   
  26. 26. Thank You! International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.   

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