Chicago-Milwaukee area - Chicago has been usinggroundwater since at least 1864 and groundwater hasbeen the sole source of drinking water for about 8.2million people in the Great Lakes watershed. This long-term pumping has lowered groundwater levels by as muchas 900 feet.This map shows contours of water-level declines, in feet,in the Chicago-Milwaukee area from 1864 to 1980. AQUIFER DECLINE MAP IN THE UNITED STATES source:The Water Campws
carbon dioxidenitrogen oxidesulfur dioxide CHICAGO 2005 Data heat
We must define theecology of the urbancore area and treat itaccordingly.
We must be able tocreate bio-diverseenvironments in theurban context wheretraditional methods ofrestoration ecologycannot be employed.
Chicago River looking west - 2004Appending eco-panels to building facadesthat don’t have significant architectural Future sitevalue of Trump building Direct architectural eco-link to the river Appending eco-structures to Floating platform ecosystem the seawall anchored to seawall
VIEW STATION KIOSK ANCHORING UNITSFLOATINGSUPPORTFRAME ISLAND FRAMEFISHCRIB
2005 2006Installation as envisioned by Domenico D’Alessandro
BA PLACE FOR ALL I R D S I N S BIRDS AND E INSECTS R C REPTILES E T P S AND T AMPHIBIANS I L E A S M P H I FISH B I A N S F I S H M O L L MOLLUSKS U S K S
Vertical habitat creation along riverwalls will change the overallexperience for boaters andpaddlers.
Book and artisans fairs along river walk. Thesummer booths may be rented for periods ata time. The area above the boothsdemarcated by the gratings is open to allowairflow for Lower Wacker Drive.
A living wall system based on the use of tubular structures by cheremserrano arquitectos.Living wall system at Vancouver’s Aquarium,BC, Canada
Roof runoff is collected into fourwater storage tanks with acombined capacity of 12,000gallons.
Ms •Bulk Density (ρb) ρb = Vb Ms •Particle Density (ρp) ρp = Vs •Porosity (φ) ρb φ = 1 − 100%φ = volume of pores volume of soil ρp Mw–Soil water content θm = Ms•Volumetric water Vw content (θv) θv = Vbsoil water potential ψt = ψg + ψm + ψoFraction available θfc − θv fd = water depleted (fd) θfc − θwp θv − θwp Fraction available fr = water remaining (fr) θfc − θwp
The sequence of destinations of rainwater (Shaxson, 2001 after FAO, 1995b) 1. Direct evaporation from wetted leaf surfaces. 2. Surface runoff/stormflow. 3. Direct evaporation from the soil surface. 4, 5, 6. Plant-available soil moisture within root-range of existing weeds, crops, trees. 7. Soil moisture within root-range of existing plants but held at tensions unavailable to them. 8. Soil moistures held at all tensions, but below root-depth of existing plants. 9. Water not captured by roots and small pores, moving to groundwater and streamflow. 10. Leakage to deep groundwater beneath catchment floor
Bio- Shaft Concept Green roof is pitched so the access water will flow into the bio-shaft.The bio-shaft comprises ofa column of soil that allowsfor the establishment of aviable geochemical cycle. Itmay be designed to have a Bio-panels on façadevariety of soil stratification of building provideand include perched water food and shelter fortables if desired. migratory birds.Interior green walls arefed by the bio-shaft. The Biofiltration of airroots of the plantsprovide a suitableenvironment for Ledge drains collectmicrobiological activity. the access water fromThe plants help purify the the eco-panels and theair and create a healthier water that slides downworking environment. the façade during rain events and channel it into the bio-shaft.The interior walls may The filtered water isbe a combination of captured in a cistern anplants, sculpture and recycled throughout thelight shafts. building where needed.
•engineered vertical recharge system•above ground geochemical cycle•a variety of levels of saturation, and a healthycapillary action•zero runoff and a healthy live water resource•percolation process will not be compromisedwhen infrastructure repair or update work isneeded at ground level and will not succumb toall the various debris and chemical pollution ofstreet runoff, in particular salinity from winterroad maintenance.•help prevent overflows in already taxed waterreclamation systems by extending the flowperiod•self-cleaning, CO2 absorbing cement•walls fitted with sensors that monitorenvironmental conditions and makes appropriateadjustments•plumbing system control climate and moistureregimes within the shaft•smaller interconnected components or be astand alone structure that provides treatment ofrunoff from surrounding existing buildings.• extend green roof potential for creating habitatniches
HIGH ELEVATION NATURALIZED PONDBUILDINGENVELOPE BIOSHAFT GREEN ROOF BIOSHAFT BUILDING ENVELOPE UTILITIES TUNNEL CONNECTION UNMDERGROUND PARKING DEBRIS HAZARDOUS HIGHLY PLUMES COMPACTED SUBSTRATE SUBWAY
GREEN ROOF AS A COHESIVE SUSTAINABLE HABITAT DESIGN FROM THE SKETCHBOOK OF DOMENICO D’ALESSANDRO
Filtration TowerDesalination stage ofrunoff water- inner coreFiltration of leachatein middle corePlanted areas indouble-helix wingsTower composedof prefabricatedunits.
Plant material selectedto handle the leachatefrom the core andfurther neutralize thewater before it isreleased into theadjoining landscape.