Total Maximum Daily Loads
and
NR 151 Non-Point Rules
Kevin Kirsch, P.E.
Runoff Management Section
Department of Natural Re...
Learning Objectives
 Learn about the process for Total
Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in
Wisconsin
 Get information on how ...
Wisconsin’s Waters
 44,000 miles of streams
 15,000 lakes
 100 warm water fish species
 59 cold water fish species
 5...
Impaired Waters Process Overview
1. Evaluate Waterbodies
2. Establish Maximum
Allowable Pollutant
Load (TMDL)
3. Develop &...
What is an Impaired Water?
 Waters that do not meet designated uses
 Waters that do not meet water quality
criteria
Causes of Degraded Condition
2006 Impaired Waters List
28%
10%
10%
2%
13%
37%
NPS Dominated
NPS/Pt. Source
Blend
Other (Ba...
What are TMDLs?
 Evaluates how much of a pollutant will
exceed water quality standards
 Determines and allocates maximum...
Total Maximum Daily Loads
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
is the maximum pollutant load a
water body can allow and still ...
Potential Load Reduction Approach
WPDES Permitted
Point Sources Nonpoint Sources
Statewide
Requirements
Existing NR 217
re...
MS4s and TMDLs
 Since a MS4 is permited, EPA considers it
a point source. In a TMDL, an MS4 will be
assigned a WLA.
 TMD...
Linking TMDLs and MS4s
 SLAMM Modeling 40% TSS Reduction is
roughly 20-25% phosphorus reduction.
 If TMDL determines 40%...
Monitoring Vs Modeling
 Required monitoring for municipal outfalls has
been debated. DNR views it as cost prohibitive
and...
New TMDLs
• Rock River Basin
• Point and nonpoint source
blended waters
• Sediment and phosphorus
are pollutants
• Low dis...
Example: Rock River TMDL
3,600 Square Miles
62% Agricultural
 72 WWTP and
Permitted Industries
with Individual Permits
 ...
Point Source and NPS Phosphorus
Loads in Rock River
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1...
Status of NR 151 Nonpoint Rules
Rules through legislative review
Expect effective date January 2011
Purpose: Reduce Runoff Pollution
 Protect:
 surface waters
 drinking water
 Restore impaired
waters
 Benefits to heal...
Why Where Rules Revised?
 DNR directed by NRB and Legislature to
develop buffer standard
 Need to reflect law changes
 ...
Non-Ag Performance Standards
 Construction
 Post-Construction
 Developed Urban Area
Agricultural Runoff
Performance Standards
 New Performance Standards
 Phosphorus Index
 Tillage Setback
 Process Waste...
NR 151 Agricultural
Performance Standards
May 22, 2002 resolution from the Natural Resources
Board called on UW for agricu...
WBI Report: Buffers are part of a
system of management practices
WBI Findings and Concepts
 A disproportionate amount of the load can
be attributed to a small fraction of the
fields.
 O...
Phosphorus Index Standard
(NR 151.04)
 Evaluates a system of management practices over an
accounting period.
 PI = 6 add...
Phosphorus Index Standard
(NR 151.04)
 Wisconsin’s Phosphorus Index (PI) allows evaluation of
management practices quanti...
P Index Distribution in
SW Wisconsin Watershed
7% 9%84%
14% of fields (acres) PI>6
Moving these fields to 6 will
reduce TP...
Annual P Index Distribution from Mead Lake
Watershed (Draft TMDL)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8...
Average P- Index Values
Average: 4
Minimum: 0.1
Maximum: 45
16% of Fields PI > 6
84% of Fields PI < 6
Phosphorus Index Sta...
Watershed Summary
Before Addition of Cover Crop
SoE
KrE2
MdD2
KdD2
GwD2
DrD2
BoD2
KrD2
ScC2
MdC2
KdC2
GwC
DsC2
DnC2
ScB
Pn...
Watershed Summary
With Fall Cover Crop
SoE
KrE2
MdD2
KdD2
GwD2
DrD2
BoD2
KrD2
ScC2
MdC2
KdC2
GwC
DsC2
DnC2
ScB
PnB
DsB
DnB...
Tillage Setback (NR 151.03)
 Statewide 5 to 20-foot setback to minimize deposition of
soil into surface water and protect...
Performance Standards and
TMDL’s (NR 151.005)
 TMDLs are water quality plans that quantify the
amount of pollutant a wate...
TMDL = LA + WLA + MOS + …….
Where:
LA = Load Allocation
(Nonpoint Sources)
WLA = Wasteload Allocation
(Permitted Point Sou...
Changes to Nonpoint Rules:
TMDL Performance Standard
WPDES Permitted
Point Sources and
Municipalities
Agriculture and
Nonp...
NR 151.005 Example
Sheet and Rill Erosion
Control Standard (NR
151.02) is typically 3-5
tons/acre/year.
Originated as an
a...
Process Wastewater Handling
(NR 151.055)
Milk house waste Feed storage leachate
Changes to Ag Nonpoint Rules
 Other Modifications to
Ag standards
 Expands definition of
“Direct Runoff”
 Regulates pas...
Increase in CAFOs with Permits
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Year
Numberofpermittedopera...
CAFO Activities
(NR 243 - Large)
 Increased Monitoring Land Application
 Have added a NM specialist to staff
Andrew Crai...
CAFO Activities
(NR 243 - Large)
 Proposed GP for CAFOs
 One for large dairy CAFOs (1,000 – 5,720 au)
 One for small- m...
Changes to Nonpoint Rules
Urban standards
Sources of Urban Phosphorus
 Air Deposition
 Lawn Fertilizer
 Pollen in the spring and leaves in the fall
 Phosphorus ...
Developed Urban Area Performance
Standard
 Outlines policy for extending the compliance
deadline when 40% cannot be met b...
Photo by Nick Vande Hey
Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules:
Developed Urban Areas
•Time Extension Beyond March 2013 for MS4s ...
Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules:
Construction Sites
Commercial Buildings
Transfer of COMM 60 to
DNR.
This brings the <1acr...
Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules:
Construction Sites
 Changed 80% sediment reduction
to maximum of 5 tons/ac/yr.
 Applies...
Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules:
Redevelopment
 Eliminated exemption
 Changed standard from 40%
for entire site to just ...
Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules:
Redevelopment
Minor Road Reconstruction
Removed Existing Exemption
Vegetative Conveyance ...
Peak Flow Control
 Added 1-yr, 24-hr peak flow control requirement
to the 2-yr, 24-hr peak flow requirement
 2-yr event ...
Infiltration
 Standard now based on ability of sites to
infiltrate
 For MDR to HDR with minimal lawn,
the 90% goal was t...
Protective Areas
 Increased buffer for highly sensitive wetlands
from 50 to 75 ft.
Questions and Contacts
 CAFOS
Thomas.Bauman@Wisconsin.gov
 Agricultural
John.Pfender@Wisconsin.gov
Kevin Kirsch@Wisconsi...
Stormwater regulations and their relationship to tmd ls
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Stormwater regulations and their relationship to tmd ls

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Stormwater regulations and their relationship to tmd ls

  1. 1. Total Maximum Daily Loads and NR 151 Non-Point Rules Kevin Kirsch, P.E. Runoff Management Section Department of Natural Resources
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  Learn about the process for Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Wisconsin  Get information on how NR 151 rules will be implemented in MS4s and agricultural communities
  3. 3. Wisconsin’s Waters  44,000 miles of streams  15,000 lakes  100 warm water fish species  59 cold water fish species  5 million wetland acres  1.2 quadrillion gallons of ground water  643 waters are impaired (2006 Impaired Waters List)  Streams, stream segments, lakes, beaches
  4. 4. Impaired Waters Process Overview 1. Evaluate Waterbodies 2. Establish Maximum Allowable Pollutant Load (TMDL) 3. Develop & Implement Plan 1. Evaluate Waterbodies  Public input at each stage of process
  5. 5. What is an Impaired Water?  Waters that do not meet designated uses  Waters that do not meet water quality criteria
  6. 6. Causes of Degraded Condition 2006 Impaired Waters List 28% 10% 10% 2% 13% 37% NPS Dominated NPS/Pt. Source Blend Other (Bacteria) Physical Habitat Contaminated Sediments Atmospheric Deposition Hg
  7. 7. What are TMDLs?  Evaluates how much of a pollutant will exceed water quality standards  Determines and allocates maximum loads for nonpoint sources and point sources  Serves as a guide for implementation actions to meet water quality standards
  8. 8. Total Maximum Daily Loads Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is the maximum pollutant load a water body can allow and still meet water quality standards. TMDL = LA + WLA + MOS  LA = Nonpoint Source Allocation  WLA = Point Source Allocation  MOS = Margin of Safety
  9. 9. Potential Load Reduction Approach WPDES Permitted Point Sources Nonpoint Sources Statewide Requirements Existing NR 217 requirements Alternative limits Existing NR 151 requirements Target Values for Water Quality NR 151 agricultural reductions Permits Alternative NR 151 Performance Measures Implementation of TMDL Allocations (not to scale)
  10. 10. MS4s and TMDLs  Since a MS4 is permited, EPA considers it a point source. In a TMDL, an MS4 will be assigned a WLA.  TMDLs express pollutant discharges in mass/day or mass/year. NR 151 uses a percent reduction framework.
  11. 11. Linking TMDLs and MS4s  SLAMM Modeling 40% TSS Reduction is roughly 20-25% phosphorus reduction.  If TMDL determines 40% TSS reduction not sufficient than an alternative percent reduction will be stipulated in the TMDL.  Enforced through MS4 permit
  12. 12. Monitoring Vs Modeling  Required monitoring for municipal outfalls has been debated. DNR views it as cost prohibitive and has adopted a modeling strategy.  Some states require monitoring of storm sewer outfalls for TSS, nutrients, and other pollutants.  DNR utilizing a modeling approach. The 20% and 40% TSS reductions in NR 151 demonstrated by modeling.
  13. 13. New TMDLs • Rock River Basin • Point and nonpoint source blended waters • Sediment and phosphorus are pollutants • Low dissolved oxygen, degraded habitat and excessive turbidity are impairments • Lower Fox Basin • Point and nonpoint source blended waters Lower Fox River Basin Upper and Lower Rock River Basins
  14. 14. Example: Rock River TMDL 3,600 Square Miles 62% Agricultural  72 WWTP and Permitted Industries with Individual Permits  52 Permitted Municipalities  300 General Industrial Permits
  15. 15. Point Source and NPS Phosphorus Loads in Rock River 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 % PS % NPS
  16. 16. Status of NR 151 Nonpoint Rules Rules through legislative review Expect effective date January 2011
  17. 17. Purpose: Reduce Runoff Pollution  Protect:  surface waters  drinking water  Restore impaired waters  Benefits to health, fisheries and economy
  18. 18. Why Where Rules Revised?  DNR directed by NRB and Legislature to develop buffer standard  Need to reflect law changes  Need to incorporate lessons learned
  19. 19. Non-Ag Performance Standards  Construction  Post-Construction  Developed Urban Area
  20. 20. Agricultural Runoff Performance Standards  New Performance Standards  Phosphorus Index  Tillage Setback  Process Waste Water  TMDL  Modifications to existing standards and definitions including nutrient management and direct runoff
  21. 21. NR 151 Agricultural Performance Standards May 22, 2002 resolution from the Natural Resources Board called on UW for agricultural buffer research. The final report “The Wisconsin Buffer Initiative” used by the Department to initiate revision of NR 151.
  22. 22. WBI Report: Buffers are part of a system of management practices
  23. 23. WBI Findings and Concepts  A disproportionate amount of the load can be attributed to a small fraction of the fields.  On those fields, small changes can make large differences in the loads.
  24. 24. Phosphorus Index Standard (NR 151.04)  Evaluates a system of management practices over an accounting period.  PI = 6 addresses chronic water quality issues with an annual cap to minimize acute events.
  25. 25. Phosphorus Index Standard (NR 151.04)  Wisconsin’s Phosphorus Index (PI) allows evaluation of management practices quantifying nutrient losses from the edge of agricultural fields.  PI = 6 (lbs./acre/yr.) addresses chronic water quality issues with an annual cap of 10 to minimize the impact of acute run-off events.  PI standard expands on existing technical standards and relies on established tools for implementation.  PI = 6 can increase profitability for producers who over apply nutrients while also protecting water quality.
  26. 26. P Index Distribution in SW Wisconsin Watershed 7% 9%84% 14% of fields (acres) PI>6 Moving these fields to 6 will reduce TP load by 30%.
  27. 27. Annual P Index Distribution from Mead Lake Watershed (Draft TMDL) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 P Index values acres 67% acres, 35% P load 26% acres, 42% P load 7% acres, 23% P load
  28. 28. Average P- Index Values Average: 4 Minimum: 0.1 Maximum: 45 16% of Fields PI > 6 84% of Fields PI < 6 Phosphorus Index Standard
  29. 29. Watershed Summary Before Addition of Cover Crop SoE KrE2 MdD2 KdD2 GwD2 DrD2 BoD2 KrD2 ScC2 MdC2 KdC2 GwC DsC2 DnC2 ScB PnB DsB DnB BbB TrB Wa 25 100 175 300 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 PI Soil Type Bray1 PI surface for Corn Silage No-Till 72-78 66-72 60-66 54-60 48-54 42-48 36-42 30-36 24-30 18-24 12-18 6-12 0-6
  30. 30. Watershed Summary With Fall Cover Crop SoE KrE2 MdD2 KdD2 GwD2 DrD2 BoD2 KrD2 ScC2 MdC2 KdC2 GwC DsC2 DnC2 ScB PnB DsB DnB BbB TrB Wa 25 100 175 300 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 PI Soil Type Bray1 30-36 24-30 18-24 12-18 6-12 0-6
  31. 31. Tillage Setback (NR 151.03)  Statewide 5 to 20-foot setback to minimize deposition of soil into surface water and protect stream banks from tillage.  Maintain in self-sustaining vegetation that provides a minimum of 70% cover.
  32. 32. Performance Standards and TMDL’s (NR 151.005)  TMDLs are water quality plans that quantify the amount of pollutant a water body can assimilate and still meet water quality goals.  TMDLs are subject to public review process and are approved by EPA.  May require more stringent sediment reduction goals or lower PI targets to meet water quality goals which will be promulgated through NR 151.004.
  33. 33. TMDL = LA + WLA + MOS + ……. Where: LA = Load Allocation (Nonpoint Sources) WLA = Wasteload Allocation (Permitted Point Sources) MOS = Margin of Safety
  34. 34. Changes to Nonpoint Rules: TMDL Performance Standard WPDES Permitted Point Sources and Municipalities Agriculture and Nonpoint Sources Baseline Statewide Requirements Existing NR 217 requirements Alternative limits Existing NR 151 requirements Water Quality Standards Existing NR 151 With Cost Sharing Automatically placed in Permits Alternative NR 151 Performance Standards Through Rule Making Implementation of TMDL Allocations (not to scale)
  35. 35. NR 151.005 Example Sheet and Rill Erosion Control Standard (NR 151.02) is typically 3-5 tons/acre/year. Originated as an agronomic standard and is not a water quality based standard.
  36. 36. Process Wastewater Handling (NR 151.055) Milk house waste Feed storage leachate
  37. 37. Changes to Ag Nonpoint Rules  Other Modifications to Ag standards  Expands definition of “Direct Runoff”  Regulates pastures & feed bunk area for erosion and nutrients.
  38. 38. Increase in CAFOs with Permits 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Numberofpermittedoperations Dairy Poultry Swine Beef
  39. 39. CAFO Activities (NR 243 - Large)  Increased Monitoring Land Application  Have added a NM specialist to staff Andrew Craig (608-267-7695)  Field audits starting Fall 2010 to determine if individuals are following their NM plans
  40. 40. CAFO Activities (NR 243 - Large)  Proposed GP for CAFOs  One for large dairy CAFOs (1,000 – 5,720 au)  One for small- medium CAFOs (<1,000 au)  Will still use Individual Permit for others
  41. 41. Changes to Nonpoint Rules Urban standards
  42. 42. Sources of Urban Phosphorus  Air Deposition  Lawn Fertilizer  Pollen in the spring and leaves in the fall  Phosphorus attached to “street dirt” and in a soluble form.
  43. 43. Developed Urban Area Performance Standard  Outlines policy for extending the compliance deadline when 40% cannot be met by 2013  Use of SWMP  Cost-effectiveness  Allows up to 10 years
  44. 44. Photo by Nick Vande Hey Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules: Developed Urban Areas •Time Extension Beyond March 2013 for MS4s if Following a Storm Water Management Plan. •Still Need to meet 40% TSS Reduction •No Credit for New In-stream Ponds that are located in Perennial Waters •Existing ponds grandfathered.
  45. 45. Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules: Construction Sites Commercial Buildings Transfer of COMM 60 to DNR. This brings the <1acre requirement over to NR 151. EPA Non-Numeric Effluent Limit Guidelines added – prescriptive standards (NR 151.11) Photos by Jim Bertolacini
  46. 46. Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules: Construction Sites  Changed 80% sediment reduction to maximum of 5 tons/ac/yr.  Applies to all sites except UDC  Increases requirements on highly erodible sites  Fits better with TMDLs  Can use model to design
  47. 47. Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules: Redevelopment  Eliminated exemption  Changed standard from 40% for entire site to just parking lots and roads  Parking lots and roads are dirtiest source areas
  48. 48. Changes to Urban Nonpoint Rules: Redevelopment Minor Road Reconstruction Removed Existing Exemption Vegetative Conveyance System to Urban X- Section needs to get 40% TSS reduction. Photos by Jim Bertolacini
  49. 49. Peak Flow Control  Added 1-yr, 24-hr peak flow control requirement to the 2-yr, 24-hr peak flow requirement  2-yr event was not protective of bank full condition
  50. 50. Infiltration  Standard now based on ability of sites to infiltrate  For MDR to HDR with minimal lawn, the 90% goal was too high.  For commercial, industrial and institutional sites with lawn or open area, the 60% goal was too low.  Revised code resolves these problems
  51. 51. Protective Areas  Increased buffer for highly sensitive wetlands from 50 to 75 ft.
  52. 52. Questions and Contacts  CAFOS Thomas.Bauman@Wisconsin.gov  Agricultural John.Pfender@Wisconsin.gov Kevin Kirsch@Wisconsin.gov  Urban Stormwater MaryAnne.Lowndes@Wisconsin.gov Jim.Bertolacini@Wisconsin.gov

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