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Cone top Structures of
Cyst Nematodes
By :- VALLURI AVINASH
Nematodes
 Nematodes are tiny but complex unsegmented roundworms that are
anatomically differentiated for feeding, digestion, locomotion, and
reproduction.
 These small animals occur worldwide in all environments.
 Most species are beneficial to agriculture.
 They make important contributions to organic matter decomposition and
the food chain.
 Some species, however, are parasitic to plants or animals.
Cyst Nematodes
 One type of plant-parasitic nematode forms cysts that contain eggs from
which juvenile nematodes hatch to damage and reduce yields of many
agriculturally important crops.
 The cyst nematode genus Heterodera contains as many as70species
 Including a complex of 12 species known as the Heterodera avenae group.
 Species in this group invade and reproduce only in living roots of cereals and
many species of grasses
Nematode Cysts
 Three species in the H. avenae group (H. Avenae , andH. latipons) cause
important economic losses in small grain crops worldwide and are known as
the cereal cyst nematodes
 The infective stage of these cereal cyst nematodes can be seen only by using
specialized methods to remove them from soil and view them through a
microscope.
 The infective stage is transparent, eel- shaped, and about 0.5 mm (1/64 inch)
long.
 These nematodes puncture root cells, which reduces rooting depth, plant
vigor, and uptake of water and nutrients.
One-year life cycle of the cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera avenae
CYST Of a Nematode
Nematode Infestation
2
nd
stage Juvenile entering Root
Endo parasites in Root
Patch of St. Augustine grass declining from nematode damage
Wilting bean plants resulting from nematode damage to roots.
A- C Oats / D- F winter wheat -Heterodera avenae affected
Nematicidal Treat ment
Cone Top structures
 Cone top structure also known as Vulval cone
 What is a VULVAL CONE ?
 The prominence at the posterior end of lemon-shaped cysts is the vulval cone
 Its shape and degree of prominence differ thus, the cone may be obtuse (H.
galeopsidis) or narrow (H. schachtii) and it may be so insignificant that the
cyst at first glance seems spheroidal or ovoid (H.cruciferae).
Location of the vulval cone on an egg- Filled cyst of Heterodera avenae
Vulval cone
Photograph showing structures of the vulval cone of H. lipjevi
Micro Graphial Images of Vulval Cone
 At the apex of the cone is the vulval slit
 This is bordered by the vulval labia which form parapets of a 'bridge' (the
vulval bridge) which crosses a thin-walled area (fenestra) on the cone top.
 The vulval bridge thus divides the fenestra into two semi fenestrae
 On older cysts the semifenestrae break down, leaving holes with more or less
well-defined margins
 which provide an exit for the larvae that hatch within the cyst.
Three-dimensional drawing with a cut-away
Vulva slit
Fenestration
 The disintegration of the fenestra-'fenestration'-follows two basic patterns in
Heterodera
 In the first, the semi fenestrae break down to form two openings, one on
each side of the vulval bridge, when the cyst is said to be ambi fenestrate
 In the second, a single fenestra only is formed by the breakdown of a thin-
walled area surrounding the vulval slit; such cysts are circum fenestrate
 Cooper defined the terms ambi fenestrate and circum fenestrate and
also used 'bi fenestrate' and 'uni fenestrate' .
Underbridge
 In certain species the remnant of the vagina persists in the vulval cone; it is
flattened dorso-ventrally and ridges or folds
 In its walls may give it a striated appearance when it is viewed from a dorsal
or ventral aspect
 Proximally, the vagina appears to thicken to form the 'basal bulb' or 'cervix'
, which is linked to the cyst wall by two arms extending across the vulval
cone
 These arms lie directly beneath and parallel to the vulval bridge and form the
'under- bridge
Bullae And Under Bridge
Mulveys Bridge
 Mulvey (I959 ) recorded another bridge-like structure crossing the vulval
cone in newly-formed brown cysts of H. rrifalii.
 This bridge, possibly of hardened muscle tissue, ran at right angles to the
underbridge and was found just below the level of the fenestra
 It does not persist in old cysts
Bulla (Bullae)
 Bulla (pl. Bullae) A blister-like prominence near the vulval fenestra of
some Heterodera sps
 The ends of the underbridge (i.e., the junction of each arm with the wall of
the vulval cone) are sometimes forked, and often appear to join
conspicuous, single or branched, knob-like structures, termed 'bullae'.
 Bullae are scattered singly or in groups within the vulval cone
Special supporting System
 Thorne (1961) figured and described the vulval cone of
 H. avenae
 He showed a complex muscle system supporting
 The inner cone structures which included a peculiar
spheroidal vaginal chamber that forced the bullae against the
body wall and crowded them back near the fenestra
Anatomy of Vulval cone
BIO METRICS
The application of statistical analysis to biological data.
 The structures of the vulval cone are of considerable use in cyst
identification.
 The length of the vulval slit, type of fenestration, presence or absence of
bullae, vaginal remnant and underbridge are good, specific, features which
can be used with some confidence to identify a cyst or place It in a 'group' of
species.
 Limited morphometric studies on these features have confirmed their
usefulness-thus Goffart
 he showed that the ratio of fenestra length to fenestra breadth differed
between Heterodera species and could be useful in species diagnosis
 Mulvey (1957) showed that underbridge depth was
different in H. schachtii and H. Trifolii which Oootenbrink
and den Ouden (1954) claimaed to be separable by
measurement of fenestra length.
Origins and Functions
 The specific nature of the features of the vulval cone has prompted some
hypotheses, but little study, of their origin and function.
 Bullae were noted as 'tough brown knobs' byFranklin (1939) and by
Hirschmann (1956)
 Wieser (1953) showed endocuticular projections of the vulval region
 Franklin suggested that they were points of attachment for muscIes.
 Thorne (1961) claimed that the underbridge was composed of muscle
bands supporting the vagina which, with other tissues, prevented
eggs from being forced into the vulval cone presumably this
'prevention' is under the nematode's control
 It is to suppose that the underbridge and other structures
 which traverse the vulval end limit the cyst's expansion in this region
so that the vulval cone becomes outstanding and gives the cyst its
lemon shape;
 This thesis is supported by the fact that the underbridge is absent or
very inconspicuous in round and pear-shaped cysts.
REFERENCES
 MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE FISHERIES AND FOOD
 TECHNICAL BULLETIN EDITION 1 (PLANT NEMATOLOGY)
 IISR (CALICUT)

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cone top structures of cyst nematodes and their identification

  • 1. Cone top Structures of Cyst Nematodes By :- VALLURI AVINASH
  • 2. Nematodes  Nematodes are tiny but complex unsegmented roundworms that are anatomically differentiated for feeding, digestion, locomotion, and reproduction.  These small animals occur worldwide in all environments.  Most species are beneficial to agriculture.  They make important contributions to organic matter decomposition and the food chain.  Some species, however, are parasitic to plants or animals.
  • 3. Cyst Nematodes  One type of plant-parasitic nematode forms cysts that contain eggs from which juvenile nematodes hatch to damage and reduce yields of many agriculturally important crops.  The cyst nematode genus Heterodera contains as many as70species  Including a complex of 12 species known as the Heterodera avenae group.  Species in this group invade and reproduce only in living roots of cereals and many species of grasses
  • 5.  Three species in the H. avenae group (H. Avenae , andH. latipons) cause important economic losses in small grain crops worldwide and are known as the cereal cyst nematodes  The infective stage of these cereal cyst nematodes can be seen only by using specialized methods to remove them from soil and view them through a microscope.  The infective stage is transparent, eel- shaped, and about 0.5 mm (1/64 inch) long.  These nematodes puncture root cells, which reduces rooting depth, plant vigor, and uptake of water and nutrients.
  • 6. One-year life cycle of the cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera avenae
  • 7. CYST Of a Nematode
  • 11. Patch of St. Augustine grass declining from nematode damage
  • 12. Wilting bean plants resulting from nematode damage to roots.
  • 13. A- C Oats / D- F winter wheat -Heterodera avenae affected
  • 15. Cone Top structures  Cone top structure also known as Vulval cone  What is a VULVAL CONE ?  The prominence at the posterior end of lemon-shaped cysts is the vulval cone  Its shape and degree of prominence differ thus, the cone may be obtuse (H. galeopsidis) or narrow (H. schachtii) and it may be so insignificant that the cyst at first glance seems spheroidal or ovoid (H.cruciferae).
  • 16. Location of the vulval cone on an egg- Filled cyst of Heterodera avenae
  • 18. Photograph showing structures of the vulval cone of H. lipjevi
  • 19. Micro Graphial Images of Vulval Cone
  • 20.  At the apex of the cone is the vulval slit  This is bordered by the vulval labia which form parapets of a 'bridge' (the vulval bridge) which crosses a thin-walled area (fenestra) on the cone top.  The vulval bridge thus divides the fenestra into two semi fenestrae  On older cysts the semifenestrae break down, leaving holes with more or less well-defined margins  which provide an exit for the larvae that hatch within the cyst.
  • 21.
  • 24. Fenestration  The disintegration of the fenestra-'fenestration'-follows two basic patterns in Heterodera  In the first, the semi fenestrae break down to form two openings, one on each side of the vulval bridge, when the cyst is said to be ambi fenestrate  In the second, a single fenestra only is formed by the breakdown of a thin- walled area surrounding the vulval slit; such cysts are circum fenestrate  Cooper defined the terms ambi fenestrate and circum fenestrate and also used 'bi fenestrate' and 'uni fenestrate' .
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. Underbridge  In certain species the remnant of the vagina persists in the vulval cone; it is flattened dorso-ventrally and ridges or folds  In its walls may give it a striated appearance when it is viewed from a dorsal or ventral aspect  Proximally, the vagina appears to thicken to form the 'basal bulb' or 'cervix' , which is linked to the cyst wall by two arms extending across the vulval cone  These arms lie directly beneath and parallel to the vulval bridge and form the 'under- bridge
  • 29. Mulveys Bridge  Mulvey (I959 ) recorded another bridge-like structure crossing the vulval cone in newly-formed brown cysts of H. rrifalii.  This bridge, possibly of hardened muscle tissue, ran at right angles to the underbridge and was found just below the level of the fenestra  It does not persist in old cysts
  • 30. Bulla (Bullae)  Bulla (pl. Bullae) A blister-like prominence near the vulval fenestra of some Heterodera sps  The ends of the underbridge (i.e., the junction of each arm with the wall of the vulval cone) are sometimes forked, and often appear to join conspicuous, single or branched, knob-like structures, termed 'bullae'.  Bullae are scattered singly or in groups within the vulval cone
  • 31. Special supporting System  Thorne (1961) figured and described the vulval cone of  H. avenae  He showed a complex muscle system supporting  The inner cone structures which included a peculiar spheroidal vaginal chamber that forced the bullae against the body wall and crowded them back near the fenestra
  • 33. BIO METRICS The application of statistical analysis to biological data.
  • 34.  The structures of the vulval cone are of considerable use in cyst identification.  The length of the vulval slit, type of fenestration, presence or absence of bullae, vaginal remnant and underbridge are good, specific, features which can be used with some confidence to identify a cyst or place It in a 'group' of species.  Limited morphometric studies on these features have confirmed their usefulness-thus Goffart  he showed that the ratio of fenestra length to fenestra breadth differed between Heterodera species and could be useful in species diagnosis
  • 35.  Mulvey (1957) showed that underbridge depth was different in H. schachtii and H. Trifolii which Oootenbrink and den Ouden (1954) claimaed to be separable by measurement of fenestra length.
  • 37.  The specific nature of the features of the vulval cone has prompted some hypotheses, but little study, of their origin and function.  Bullae were noted as 'tough brown knobs' byFranklin (1939) and by Hirschmann (1956)  Wieser (1953) showed endocuticular projections of the vulval region  Franklin suggested that they were points of attachment for muscIes.
  • 38.  Thorne (1961) claimed that the underbridge was composed of muscle bands supporting the vagina which, with other tissues, prevented eggs from being forced into the vulval cone presumably this 'prevention' is under the nematode's control
  • 39.  It is to suppose that the underbridge and other structures  which traverse the vulval end limit the cyst's expansion in this region so that the vulval cone becomes outstanding and gives the cyst its lemon shape;  This thesis is supported by the fact that the underbridge is absent or very inconspicuous in round and pear-shaped cysts.
  • 40. REFERENCES  MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE FISHERIES AND FOOD  TECHNICAL BULLETIN EDITION 1 (PLANT NEMATOLOGY)  IISR (CALICUT)