From the Web to the Cloud
• Computing history – pre 1993
• Web 1.0 - 1993 world-wide-web
• Web 2.0 - 2001 - user-created content
• Web 3.0 – 2009 – utility/cloud computing?
• Cloud Computing
– What’s under the hood?
– Where are we now?
– Where are we going?
Pre 1993 Computing
• Mainframes 1960s
– IBM, CDC, HP, DEC, Amdahl
• Mini-Computers 1970s
– DEC, Xerox
– ARPANET, UNIX, email
• Personal Computer 1980s
– IBM, Compaq, Apple
– spreadsheets, graphics, word processors,
hypertext, C++, computer games, TCP/IP
– 1982 Time’s “Man of the Year”
1970s-80s machine room
The Columbia Computer Center IBM Machine Room, about 1980. Visible at right center is some of the
last surviving punch-card equipment. Off to the far right is the Gandalf PACX terminal switch. Tape drives
to the left and the rear; printers in the foreground; the operator terminal area in the center.
Photo: Bob Resnikoff.
First IBM PC
The main features that the IBM PC initially
gave were as follows:
•One or two 360k 5.25" floppy drives (early
models had 120k byte single sided drives).
•BASIC in ROM with cassette tape support.
•Option of CP/M-86 or IBM PC-DOS.
•Wide range of off-the-shelf software eg
VisiCalc, Wordstar, SuperCalc, dBase II,
which were easily ported from 8-bit CP/M.
•Open platform for new software
developments, from 8086 Assembler to a
wide range of programming languages (eg
PL/M, C, Basic).
•Choice of either a high-quality monochrome
text display or colour display capable of 2-
colour medium resolution or 4-colour low
•Published hardware bus and layout design,
allowing 3rd party add-ons.
•Options of serial and parallel printer ports.
•IBM on the front, hence world-class sales
and marketing support.
• 1984 – GNU project to develop and promote Open Source
Software launched by Richard Stallman
• 1990 – HTTP protocol and first WorldWideWeb interface
designed and released by Tim Berners-Lee, CERN
• 1991 – Linux released by Linus Torvalds
• 1993 – First browser – Mosaic – Marc Anderson NCSA, later
became first commercial browser – NetScape – then open-
sourced as Mozilla (now Firefox)
• Search engines – 1990 – Archie; 1993 – Excite; 1994 – Lycos,
AltaVista, Webcrawler; 1996 – Intomi; 1997 – Ask Jeeves (now
ask.com); 1998 – Google launched; 2004 – Google went public
Web 2.0 - User Created Content
• 2001 – Wikipedia
• 2002 – Friendster
• 2003 – MySpace
• 2004 – Facebook
• 2005 – YouTube
• 2006 – Blogger fully supported by
Google (blogging started in 1980s-1990s)
• 2006 – Twitter started
What is Cloud Computing?
CLOUD: Common, Location-independent, Online Utility provisioned on-Demand
• Common, in that it multiplexes demand from multiple customers and
applications into a shared, common pool of computing resources.
• Location-independent, because data accessibility should follow you no matter
where you are.
• Online, in the sense that it is accessible over an agile, geographically dispersed
network, that is available anytime.
• A Utility because it provides value and offers usage-sensitive, pay-per-use
• on-Demand in that the ability to provision capacity or service should be as fast
as possible to meet variable demand requirements, enhancing business agility
and providing capacity and scalability at the lowest total cost.
adapted from original quote by Joe Weinman, VP Strategic
Solutions, AT&T, November 2008
Three Layers of Clouds
All offered as SERVICES UTILITIES
Cloud Computing – Applications
• Google Applications – gmail, calendar, word
processing, spreadsheets, presentations
• Salesforce.com – customer relationship
• Basecamp, Huddle – group collaboration
• Replicon - timesheets
• WordPress – web sites, blogs
• Medical applications – you will see many
• Operating Systems
– Red Hat Enterprise, Linux, Windows Server 2003, Oracle Enterprise Linux, OpenSolaris, openSUSE
Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Fedora, Gentoo Linux
– IBM DB2, IBM Informix Dynamic Server, Microsoft SQL Server Standard 2005, MySQL Enterprise,
• Batch Processing
– Hadoop, Condor, Open MPI
• Web Hosting
– Apache, HTTP IIS/Asp.Net IBM Lotus Web Content Management , IBM WebSphere Portal Server
• Application Development Environments
– IBM sMash, JBoss Enterprise Application Platform, Ruby on Rails
• Application Servers
– IBM WebSphere Application Server, Java Application Server, Oracle WebLogic Server
• Video Encoding & Streaming
– Wowza Media Server Pro, Windows Media Server
Instances Linux/UNIX Usage Windows Usage
Small (Default) $0.10 per hour $0.125 per hour
Large $0.40 per hour $0.50 per hour
Extra Large $0.80 per hour $1.00 per hour
High CPU On-Demand
Linux/UNIX Usage Windows Usage
Medium $0.20 per hour $0.30 per hour
Extra Large $0.80 per hour $1.20 per hour
Instances 1 yr Term 3 yr Term Usage
Small (Default) $227.50 $350 $0.03 per hour
Large $910 $1400 $0.12 per hour
Extra Large $1820 $2800 $0.24 per hour
High CPU Reserved
Instances 1 yr Term 3 yr Term
Medium $455 $700 $0.06 per hour
Extra Large $1820 $2800 $0.24 per hour
Tuesday, September 15, 2009 Announcement:
"Today, I am excited to announce that we have
launched Apps.gov to help continue the
President’s initiative to lower the cost of
government operations while driving innovation
What’s under the hood?
– SaaS – Software as a Service
– PaaS – Platform as a Service
– IaaS – Infrastructure as a Service
• Enterprise and/or open or hybrid
• Distributed connected data centres
• Green IT
Where are we now?
• Many SaaS applications, some PaaS
• Amazon, Rackspace, VrSTORM IaaS
• Apps.gov – launched Sept 15, 2009
• Websphere (IBM), Sharepoint (Microsoft), VMware,
Citrix – big corporate support for common portals and
• VrSTORM – first open Canadian cloud solution
• Alberta cloud-based companies: Replicon, MoboVivo,
Clinitrust, Kanata Health Solutions, Calgary Scientific,
• High on hype cycle
• Lots of creative destruction
Where are we going?
• Most businesses and applications only
need very lightweight end-point devices
• Almost all applications will be deployed
to the cloud
• Consider moving your applications to
• Decreased capital costs and operations
• Cloud utilities will provide competitive
packages based on pay-per-use