Task one glossary


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Task one glossary

  1. 1. Task One GlossaryPixel–To explain fully what pixels are, first raster image needs to be explained, raster images are images that arestored in image files in various formats such as jpeg, and also are made up of something called a “dot matrixdata structure” in the form of pixels, this means that an image can have thousands of pixels in differentshades and varieties of colour that are joined together to make an altogether bigger image, furthermore if youwere to zoom in on a raster image, you would come upon the individual pixels. Furthermore, the more pixelsin an image, the more detailed it will be. Here are two examples.As shown in the two images, one is a highly defined image while the other is highly pixelated, where it isprobably possible to count how many pixels make up the image. A way to find out whether an image is a rasterimage (uses pixels) the programme Photoshop allows the user to zoom in that much on the image that you cansee the individual pixels.Resolution –The word resolution has many different meanings, specific to the format that can be meant, for example thereis video resolution, image resolution, graphic display resolution and many others. The general meaning of thetechnical term is that of the amount of detail in an image, the higher the resolution, the more detail there isin the image. For example when it comes to a raster image, when high resolution is said, it refers to therebeing a high pixel count in the image.Screen ratios -Screen ratio refers to the ratio between length and width of the screen, ratio meaning the relationshipbetween two different numbers, degrees. For example if a screen had a ratio of 16:9 then this means that thevideo is the high definition standard. There are many different standard screen ratios that are seen as theindustry standard in film, DVD, Blu ray and television. To achieve the desired effect of equalising unequalimages many different things can be done such things can be cropping, zooming or even enlarging the image,this will then automatically change the screen ratio as you have manually changed it through a tool to changethe screen ratio, or it can be done in other ways if you are using a programme that allows this such asPremiere Pro in which it is possible to type in a specific ratio.Frame rate -Frame rate, often referred to as FPS (frames per second) or hertz (on progressive scan monitors) is the rate(frequency) in which an image producing device can produce images in a specific consecutive order, which areoften and most commonly referred to as frames. This can be referred to in many different formats such as filmand video, and also video games, motion capture and is a highly popular and source of competition incomputer gaming. With a slow frame rate, the video or film is choppy and has the look of “jumping” or “lag”in game terms, for example, it can be viewed visually as say someone picking up a ball, if the frame rate is
  2. 2. low, then this means that it will jump from the person bending down, to them being stood up with the ball intheir hand, being perceived to people as if there is some sort of “jump” in the images, whereas if there was ahigh fps then this means that the video would run smoothly, in some cases it would look very realistic. Thereare many different frame rates for example 25FPS is the industry standard for films and television, there wasthe rare case in which Peter Jackson the director of The Hobbit, ran the film at 48FPS, this was controversialbecause some people thought that it broke the illusion of disbelief, and made it realistic, although it could beargued that it is not a bad thing. Frame rates can go up to so far as 300FPS, in computer games fps is a veryimportant thing to gamers, if the fps is too low this is referred to as lag and is viewed as a negative in thegaming community, with gamers going so far as to buy better equipment to get the best fps they can.Video formats -Video formats are the form in which the video takes, one of them being analog, for the transmission of theformat (transmission being the term which means in which the video file is converted and changed) there issomething called a physical connector (e.g. a wire) and a signal protocol, the wire can only transmit certainvideo formats which are in turn related to the videos display standard (1080p, 720p etc…) it also specifies thetype of display resolution of the eventual video and also the “colour space” (e.g. RGB, CMYK)there are a vastamount of formats in which the video can be transmitted to a display in, and there are different ones foranalog and digital televisions. This also applies to computer screens and also digital and also there are anumber of discontinued video formats, these being EVD (a Chinese government sponsored format) HD DVD, D-VMD, and laserdisc.Compression –With compression, there are a number of ways in which the term can be applied in information science, someof these ways are. Data compression, Audio compression, image compression, video compression, the actualdefinition of compression is a noun, the action of compressing or to be compressed. For example in theterminology in which it is used here, it means a group of data which is compacted into a form that takes upless space, making it easier to store or transmit it. Another way compression can be described as is the act ofcoding a piece of data, to fit the needs of the space in which it is being used in. With data compression, it isthe act of encoding information to a smaller size. Encoding is a term that means changing an objects form sothat it may not actually be the same type of object that it used to be (e.g. video format).