Middle east uprisings (arab spring)


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Middle east uprisings (arab spring)

  1. 1. FROM: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring#cite_note-2In accordance with Federal Laws provided For Educational and Information Purposes – i.e. of PUBLIC InterestArab SpringFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Arab Spring ‫يال عرب ال رب يع‬ Clockwise from top left: Protesters gathering in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt; Demonstratorsmarching through Habib Bourguib Avenue in Tunis, Tunisia; Political dissidents in Sanaa, Yemen, demanding the resignation of the president; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama, Bahrain; Hundreds of Thousands inDouma, Damascus, Syria; Demonstrators in Bayda, Libya. 18 December 2010 – present Date (0 years, 357 days) Location Arab World (see list of countries) Ongoing (as of 1 December 2011)  Tunisian President Ben Ali ousted, and government overthrown. Status  Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak ousted, and government overthrown. Continued popular protest against military provisional government.  Libyan leader Muammar
  2. 2. Gaddafi killed after a civil war with foreign military intervention, and government overthrown.  Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh agrees to step down within days after months of popular protests.  Civil uprisings against the governments of Syria and Bahrain, despite government changes.  Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman implementing government changes in response to protests.  Morocco, Jordan implementing constitutional reforms in response to protests.  Ongoing protests in Algeria, Iraq, and other countries.  Demographic structural factors[1](see section Motivations)  Authoritarian states  Extreme poverty  Government corruption Causes  Human rights violations  Inflation  Kleptocracy  Sectarianism  Unemployment  Democracy  Human rights Goals  Free and fair elections  Regime change  Civil disobedience  Civil resistance  Demonstrations  Online activism  Protest camps  RebellionCharacteristics  Revolution  Self-immolations  Strike actions  Uprising  Urban warfare Casualties 30,634–37,228+ (International estimate;Death(s) see table below)
  3. 3. The Arab Spring (Arabic: ‫ ال رب يع ال عرب‬ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabiyy), otherwise known as the Arab Awakening, is arevolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18December 2010. To date, there have been revolutions in Tunisia[2] and Egypt;[3] a civil war in Libya resulting in thefall of its government;[4] civil uprisings in Bahrain, [5] Syria,[6] and Yemen, the latter resulting in the resignation ofthe Yemeni prime minister;[7] major protests in Algeria,[8] Iraq,[9] Jordan,[10] Kuwait,[11] Morocco,[12] and Oman;[13]and minor protests in Lebanon,[14] Mauritania, Saudi Arabia,[15] Sudan,[16] and Western Sahara.[17] Clashes at theborders of Israel in May 2011 and the Palestine 194 movement are also inspired by the regional Arab Spring.[18]The protests have shared techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations,marches and rallies, as well as the use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face ofstate attempts at repression and Internet censorship.[19]Many demonstrations have met violent responses from authorities,[20][21][22] as well as from pro-governmentmilitias and counter-demonstrators.[23][24][25] A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam ("the people want to bring down the regime").[26]Contents[hide]  1 Overview o 1.1 Summary of protests by country  2 Background o 2.1 Motivations o 2.2 Recent history  3 Tunisian revolution  4 Egyptian revolution  5 Libyan civil war  6 Syrian Civil War  7 Yemeni uprising  8 Bahraini uprising  9 Concurrent incidents o 9.1 Algeria o 9.2 Iraq o 9.3 Israeli border areas o 9.4 Jordan o 9.5 Kuwait o 9.6 Morocco o 9.7 Oman o 9.8 Saudi Arabia o 9.9 Others  10 Analysis o 10.1 Ethnic scope o 10.2 Impact of the Arab Spring o 10.3 International reactions  11 See also  12 References  13 Further reading  14 External links[edit] Overview
  4. 4. The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa has become known as the "ArabSpring",[27][28][29] and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter",[30] "Arab Awakening"[31][32][33] or "ArabUprisings"[34][35] even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first proteststhat occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 following Mohamed Bouazizis self-immolation in protest of policecorruption and ill treatment.[36][37] With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by theTunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen,[38] then spread to other countries. The largest,most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday after noon prayers.[39][40][41]The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.As of November 2011, governments have been overthrown in three countries. Tunisian President Zine El AbidineBen Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President HosniMubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. TheLibyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council(NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTCtook control of the city.During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of theircurrent terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015,[42] as didIraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014,[43] although there have been increasingly violentdemonstrations demanding his immediate resignation.[44] Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of twosuccessive governments[45][46] by King Abdullah.[47] Another leader, President Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen,announced on 23 April that he would step down within 30 days in exchange for immunity,[48] a deal the Yemeniopposition informally accepted on 26 April;[49] Saleh then reneged on the deal, prolonging the Yemeni uprising.[50]The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention,[51] including the suggestion that someprotesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.[52] Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of thethree laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring.AlgeriaLibyaEgyptSudanMauritania—TunisiaMorocco
  5. 5. WesternSaharaSaudi ArabiaJordanLebanon—Israeli border—SyriaIraq—Kuwait—BahrainOmanYemen Government overthrown Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes Protests and governmental changes Major protests Minor protests Protests outside the Arab world[edit] Summary of protests by country Status of Country Date started Outcome Death toll Situation protests • Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; • Government Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia overthrow on 14 January • Resignation of Prime Minister 2011 Ghannouchi • Protests 18 December • Dissolution of the political police[53] Government Tunisia ended March 223[56][57] 2010 • Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling overthrown 2011 party of Tunisia and liquidation of its • Pressure on assets[54] elected • Release of political prisoners government • Elections to a Constituent Assembly on continues 23 October 2011[55] 28 December Subdued since • Lifting of the 19-year-old state of Major Algeria 8[60] 2010 April 2011 emergency[58][59] protests 17 (non Protests and 12 January Lebanon Limited • A 40% increase in wages [61] government governmental 2011 related)[62][63] changes Jordan 14 January Ongoing • King Abdullah II dismisses Prime 1 [66][67] Protests and
  6. 6. Status of Country Date started Outcome Death toll Situation protests 2011 Minister Rifai and his cabinet[64] governmental changes • Months later, Abdullah dismisses Prime Minister Bakhit and his cabinet after complaints of slow progress on promised reforms[65] 17 January Subdued since Mauritania 1[68] Protests 2011 May 2011 17 January Subdued since • President Bashir announces he will not Sudan 1[70] Protests 2011 April 2011 seek another term in 2015[69] • Economic concessions by Sultan Qaboos[71][72][73][74] Protests and 17 January Ended May Oman 2–6[78][79][80] governmental 2011 2011 • Dismissal of ministers[75][76] changes • Granting of lawmaking powers to Omans elected legislature[77] • Economic concessions by King Abdullah[81][82] Large Protests Saudi 21 January • Male-only municipal elections to be held [85][86] in Eastern 2 ProtestsArabia 2011 22 September 2011[83][84] Saudi Arabia • King Abdullah announces womens approval to vote and take part in next Shura Council and municipal elections, in 2015 • Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak charged for killing unarmed protesters • Resignation of Prime Minister(s) Nazif and Shafik[87] • Government • Assumption of power by the Armed overthrown on Forces[88] 25 January 11 February Government Egypt • Suspension of the Constitution, 875[95] 2011 2011 overthrown dissolution of the Parliament[89] • Protests • Disbanding of State Security ongoing Investigations Service[90] • Dissolution of the NDP, the former ruling party of Egypt and transfer of its assets to the state[91] • Prosecution of Mubarak, his family and his former ministers[92][93][94] • Resignation of MPs from the ruling party[96] • President signs transition Sustained • On 4 June, President Ali Abdullah Saleh deal on 23 civil disorder 3 February is injured in an attack on his compound in 1,784- Yemen November and 2011 the Yemeni capital Sanaa. Saleh returned to 1,870[100] 2011 governmental Yemen on 23 September 2011[97] • Protests changes • On 23 November, Saleh signed a power- ongoing transfer agreement brokered by the Gulf Cooperation Council in Riyadh, which will
  7. 7. Status of Country Date started Outcome Death toll Situation protests end his 33-year reign[98][99] • Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term;[101] 10 February Subdued since Major Iraq 35[103] 2011 August 2011 protests • Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities[102] • Economic concessions by King Hamad;[104] Sustained civil disorder 14 February • Release of political prisoners;[105] Bahrain Ongoing 51[107] and 2011 • Negotiations with Shia governmental representatives;[106] changes • GCC intervention at the request of the Government of Bahrain • Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by NTC forces on 20 October • Opposition forces seize control of all [108][109][110] • Government major Libyan cities. overthrown on 23 August 2011 • Formation of the National Transitional • War ended Council[111][112] 17 February 25,000[117]– Government Libya 23 October 2011 30,000[118] overthrown 2011 • UN-mandated NATO, Jordanian, Qatari, • Intervention Swedish, and Emirati military ended on 31 intervention[113] October 2011 • Civil war ended with an NTC victory on 23 October 2011.[114][115][116] • Intervention ended with NATO withdrawal on 31 October 2011 Subdued since 31 March 2011, • Resignation of Cabinet[120] Protests and 18 February resumed in Kuwait 0[122] governmental 2011 September and • Resignation of the Government[121] changes ended in November.[119] • Political concessions by King Mohammed VI;[123] Protests and 20 February Subdued since [125] Morocco 1 governmental 2011 July 2011 • Referendum on constitutional reforms; changes • Respect to civil rights and an end to corruption[124]Western 26 February Subdued since 0 ProtestsSahara 2011 May 2011 • Release of some political Sustained 15 March 3,045– Syria Ongoing prisoners;[126][127] civil disorder 2011 4,300[135] • End of Emergency Law; and
  8. 8. Status of Country Date started Outcome Death toll Situation protests government • Dismissal of Provincial Governors; [128][129] changes • Military action in Hama, Daraa, Homs and other areas;[130] • Resignations from Parliament;[131] • Resignation of the Government;[132] • Large defections from the Syrian army and clashes between soldiers and defectors;[133] • Formation of the Free Syrian Army • Formation of the Syrian National Council[134] • Syria suspended from the Arab LeagueIsraeli border Ended 5 June 30– Major 15 May 2011areas 2011 40[136][137] protests 30,634– 37,228+ Total death (International toll: estimate, ongoing)[edit] Background[edit] MotivationsNumerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, humanrights violations, government corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),[138] economic decline,unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,[139] such as a large percentage ofeducated but dissatisfied youth within the population.[140] Also, some[who?] attribute the 2009 Iranian protests as oneof the reasons behind the Arab Spring.[141] The catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulfcountries have been the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficienttransparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.[142]Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor, as they involve threats to foodsecurity worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.[143] AmnestyInternational singled out Wikileaks release of US diplomatic cables as a catalyst for the revolts.[144]In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education,have resulted in an improved human development index in the affected countries. The tension between risingaspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests.[142][145][146]Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years, been viewing autocrats andabsolute monarchies as anachronisms. A university professor of Oman, Al-Najma Zidjaly referred to this upheavalas youthquake.[142]Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nationssuch as Algeria and Libya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions tocalm the masses.[142][edit] Recent history
  9. 9. The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissidentactivists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years inTunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.[147]Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area ofGafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes,during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests.[147][148] TheEgyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004.[149] Oneimportant demonstration was an attempted workers strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kabra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country,promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.[149]A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilizedto break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful inforestalling a strike, dissidents formed the "6 April Committee" of youths and labor activists, which became one ofthe major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.[149]In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United StatesAmbassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is unhappy with long-standing politicalalienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week;that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corruptand fragile.[150] Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as 9,700 riots and unrests throughout thecountry.[151] Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampantcorruption.[152]In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 km south-east of El Aaiún by a group of youngSahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment,looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[153] The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, buton 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forcesfaced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other townswithin the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in theaftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the ArabSpring.[154]The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of individuals such as MohamedBouazizi, which brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including manyunemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, andothers.[147] These groups have become an unprecedented movement that has built sufficient momentum to engenderthe current scope of events.[citation needed][edit] Tunisian revolutionProtesters in downtown Tunis on 14 January 2011
  10. 10. Main article: Tunisian revolutionFollowing the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, a series of increasingly violent streetdemonstrations through December 2010 ultimately led to the ouster of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Alion 14 January 2011. The demonstrations were preceded by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption,[155] lackof freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom,[156] and poor living conditions. The protests constitutedthe most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades,[157][158] and have resulted inscores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces againstdemonstrators. Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power.[159][160]Following Ben Alis departure, a state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government wascreated, which included members of Ben Alis party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), as well asopposition figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almostimmediately.[161][162] As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchireshuffled the government, removing all former RCD members other than himself, and on 6 February the formerruling party was suspended;[163] later, on 9 March, it was dissolved.[164] Following further public protests,Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister.[edit] Egyptian revolutionMain article: 2011 Egyptian revolutionSee also: Supreme Council of the Armed Forces#ActionsCelebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleimans statement concerning Hosni Mubaraks resignationFollowing the uprising in Tunisia and prior to his entry as a central figure in Egyptian politics, potentialpresidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei warned of a Tunisia-style explosion in Egypt.[165]Protests in Egypt began on 25 January and ran for 18 days. Beginning around midnight on 28 January, theEgyptian government attempted, somewhat successfully, to eliminate the nations Internet access, in order toinhibit the protesters ability to organize through social media.[166] Later that day, as tens of thousands protested onthe streets of Egypts major cities, President Mubarak dismissed his government, later appointing a new cabinet.Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years.On 10 February, Mubarak ceded all presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman, but soon thereafterannounced that he would remain as President until the end of his term.[167] However, protests continued the nextday, and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to theArmed Forces of Egypt.[168] The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament, suspended theConstitution of Egypt, and promised to lift the nations thirty-year "emergency laws". It further promised to holdfree, open elections within the next six months, or by the end of the year at the latest. [citation needed] A civilian, EssamSharaf, was appointed as Prime Minister of Egypt on 4 March to widespread approval among Egyptians in TahrirSquare.[169] Protests have continued through the end of 2011, however, in response to Sharaf and the SupremeCouncil of the Armed Forces perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms.[170]
  11. 11. [edit] Libyan civil warThousands of demonstrators gather in BaydaMain article: 2011 Libyan civil warAfter the success of the revolution in Tunisia, a protest on living conditions began on 14 January in Bayda, Libya,where protesters clashed with police and attacked government offices.[171][172] Anti-government protests began inLibya on 15 February 2011. By 18 February, the opposition controlled most of Benghazi, the countrys second-largest city. The government dispatched elite troops and mercenaries in an attempt to recapture it, but they wererepelled. By 20 February, protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television address by Saif al-IslamGaddafi, who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. The rising death toll,numbering in the thousands, drew international condemnation and resulted in the resignation of several Libyandiplomats, along with calls for the regimes dismantlement. [citation needed]On 26 February 2011, amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli fromthe Jamahiriya, the opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi to oppose Colonel Muammar Gaddafisrule.[173][174] However, despite initial opposition success, government forces subsequently took back much of theMediterranean coast.On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted, authorising a no-fly zone overLibya, and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. Two days later, France, the United States and the UnitedKingdom intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. A coalition of 27 states fromEurope and the Middle East soon joined the intervention. The forces were driven back from the outskirts ofBenghazi, and the rebels mounted an offensive, capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. The offensivestalled however, and a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns, until a stalemate was formedbetween Brega and Ajdabiya, the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels.Focus then shifted to the west of the country, where bitter fighting continued. After a three-month-long battle, aloyalist siege of rebel-held Misrata, the third largest city in Libya, was broken in large part due to coalition airstrikes. The four major fronts of combat were generally considered to be the Nafusa Mountains, the Tripolitaniancoast, the Gulf of Sidra,[175] and the southern Libyan Desert.[176]In late August, anti-Gaddafi fighters captured Tripoli, scattering Gaddafis government and marking the end of his42 years of autocracy. Many institutions of the government, including Gaddafi and several top regime officials,regrouped in Sirte, which Gaddafi declared to be Libyas new capital.[177] Others fled to Sabha, Bani Walid, andremote reaches of the Libyan Desert, or to surrounding countries.[178][179] However, Sabha fell in lateSeptember,[180] Bani Walid was captured after a grueling siege weeks later,[181] and on 20 October, fighters underthe aegis of the National Transitional Council seized Sirte, killing Gaddafi in the process.[182][edit] Syrian Civil WarMain article: 2011 Syrian Uprising
  12. 12. Tens of thousands prayed at the Central Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad.Protests in Syria started on 26 January, when one case of self-immolation was reported. Protesters have beencalling for political reforms and the reinstatement of civil rights, as well as an end to the state of emergency, whichhas been in place since 1963.[183] A "day of rage" was set for 4–5 February, but it was uneventful.[184][185]On 6 March, the Syrian security forces arrested about 15 children in Daraa in Southern Syria for writing slogansagainst the regime. Children were tortured brutally. Daraa is the first city to protest against the Baathist regime,which has been ruling Syria since 1963.Thousands of protestors gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, al-Hasakah, Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, and Hama on 15March,[186][187][188] with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial spokesperson for the"Syrian revolution".[189] The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few martyrs, but thereare no official figures on the number of deaths.[190] On 18 April 2011, approximately 100,000 protesters sat in thecentral Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. Protests continued through July2011, the government responding with harsh security clampdowns and military operations in several districts,especially in the north.[191]On 31 July, Syrian army tanks stormed several cities, including Hama, Deir Ez-Zour, Al-Bukamal, Daraa,Medmah. At least 136 people were killed in the most violent and bloody day since the uprising started.[192][edit] Yemeni uprisingMain article: 2011 Yemeni uprisingProtests in Sana‘aProtests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen starting in mid-January. Demonstratorsinitially protested against governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen, unemployment andeconomic conditions,[193] and corruption,[194] but their demands soon included a call for the resignation of PresidentAli Abdullah Saleh,[195][194][196] who had been facing internal opposition from his closest advisors since 2009.[197] Amajor demonstration of over 16,000 protesters took place in Sanaa on 27 January,[198] and soon thereafter humanrights activist and politician Tawakel Karman called for a "Day of Rage" on 3 February.[199] According to Xinhua
  13. 13. News, organizers were calling for a million protesters.[200] In response to the planned protest, Ali Abdullah Salehstated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013.[201] On 3 February, 20,000 protesters demonstratedagainst the government in Sanaa,[202][203] others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden[204] that was called for byTawakel Karman,[199] while soldiers, armed members of the General Peoples Congress, and many protestors held apro-government rally in Sanaa.[205] Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak, Yemenis againtook to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February, in what has been dubbed a "Friday of Rage".[206] Theprotests continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates.[207] In a "Friday of Anger"held on 18 February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the major citiesof Sanaa, Taiz, and Aden. In the capital, Sanaa, the crowd marched towards the Presidential Palace, chanting anti-government slogans, despite the attempts of riot police to stop them. Three people were killed in thedemonstrations, one of whom was killed by a hand grenade in Taiz. There were also reports of gunfire in Adenduring a rally, and as the riots continued overnight protesters set fire to a local government building. Securityforces killed one demonstrator, and killed another demonstrator during protests the following day. [208] Protestscontinued over the following months, especially in the three major cities, and briefly intensified in late May intourban warfare between Hashid tribesmen and army defectors allied with the opposition on one side and securityforces and militias loyal to Saleh on the other.[209]After Saleh pretended to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan allowing him to cede power inexchange for immunity only to back away before signing three separate times,[210][211] an assassination attempt on 3June left him and several other high-ranking Yemeni officials injured by a blast in the presidential compoundsmosque.[212] Saleh was evacuated to Saudi Arabia for treatment, but he handed over power to Vice President Abdal-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, who has largely continued his policies[213] and ordered the arrest of several Yemenis inconnection with the attack on the presidential compound.[212] While in Saudi Arabia, Saleh kept hinting that hecould return any time and continued to be present in the political sphere through television appearances fromRiyadh starting with an address to the Yemeni people on 7 July.[214] On 12 September, Saleh issued a presidentialdecree while still receiving treatment in Riyadh authorizing Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi tonegotiate a deal with the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.[215] On 23 September, three months since theassassination attempt, Saleh returned to Yemen abruptly, defying all earlier expectations.[216] Pressure on Saleh tosign the GCC initiative eventually led to his signing of it in Riyadh on 23 November, effectively ending his 33-year-old rule of Yemen and setting the stage for the transfer of power. [217] Tawakul Karman got 2011 Nobel PeacePrize for her role in supporting women rights and involvement in the Arab Spring.[edit] Bahraini uprisingMain article: 2011 Bahraini uprising
  14. 14. Hundreds of thousands of Bahrainis taking part in the "March of Loyalty to Martyrs", honoring political dissidents killed bysecurity forces, on 22 February.The 2011 protests in Bahrain were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for humanrights, and were not intended to threaten the monarchy.[218] Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority withbeing ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as theinspiration for the demonstrations.[219][220] The protests began in Bahrain on 14 February[218] and were largelypeaceful, until a raid by police on the night of 17 February against protestors sleeping at the Pearl Roundabout inManama, in which police killed three protestors.[221][222] Following the deadly raid, the protestors aims expanded toa call for the end of the monarchy. [223] On 18 February, government forces opened fire on protesters, mourners, andnews journalists,[224] prompting protesters to begin calling for the overthrow of the Bahraini monarchy andgovernment.[225] On 19 February, protesters occupied Pearl Roundabout after the government ordered troops andpolice to withdraw.[226][227][228] On 22 February, an estimated one hundred thousand people, one fifth of the nationspopulation, marched. On 14 March, at the request of the Crown Prince, GCC Saudi Arabian troops entered thecountry,[229] and opened fire on the protesters, several of whom were killed.[230][231] Later thousands of Shiaprotesters arose in Iraq and Qatif in opposition to the Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain.[232][233][234]King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military toreassert its control as clashes spread across the country.[235] It was later lifted on 1 June 2011.[236] On 16 March2011, the protesters camp in the Pearl Roundabout was evacuated, bulldozed, and set on fire by the BahrainiDefense Force, riot police, and the Peninsula Shield Force, the military arm of the Gulf Cooperation Council,which intervened reportedly at King Hamads behest.[237] Later on 18 March, the Pearl Roundabout monument wastorn down as part of the crackdown on protesters.[238]Since the lifting of emergency law on 1 June, several large rallies have been staged by the Shiite communitydemanding the release of detained protesters, greater political representation, and an end to sectariandiscrimination. As of July 2011, medical personnel are being prosecuted for treating injured protesters, and severalhuman rights groups and news organizations have alleged they have been deliberately targeted by the Bahrainigovernment.[239][edit] Concurrent incidentsConcurrent with the events in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria and Yemen, protests flared up in other parts of theregion, some becoming violent, some facing strong suppression efforts, and some resulting in political changes.[edit] AlgeriaMain article: 2010–2011 Algerian protests8 January protests in Algeria.On 29 December, protests began in Algiers over the lack of housing, quickly escalating to violent confrontationswith the police. At least 53 people were reported injured and another 29 arrested.[240] Over the course of theAlgerian protests, three demonstrators were killed, over 800 were injured, and at least 1,100 were arrested. [citation
  15. 15. needed] From 12–19 January, a wave of self-immolation attempts swept the country, beginning with MohamedAouichia, who set himself on fire in Bordj Menaiel in protest at his familys housing. On 13 January, MohsenBouterfif set himself on fire after a meeting with the mayor of Boukhadra in Tebessa, who had been unable to offerBouterfif a job and a house. Bouterfif reportedly died a few days later, and about 100 youths protested his death,resulting in the mayors dismissal by the provincial governor. At least ten other self-immolation attempts werereported that week.[citation needed] On 22 January, the RCD party organised a demonstration for democracy in Algiers,and though illegal under the State of Emergency enacted in 1992, it was attended by about 300 people. Thedemonstration was suppressed by police, with 42 reported injuries. On 29 January, at least ten thousand peoplemarched in the northeastern city of Béjaïa.[241]In an apparent bid to stave off unrest, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced on 3 February that the 19-yearstate of emergency would be lifted,[242] a promise fulfilled on 22 February, when Algerias cabinet adopted an orderto lift the state of emergency.[243][244] Bouteflika said on 15 April that he would seek revisions to the countrysconstitution as part of a broad push for democratic reforms.[245][edit] IraqMain article: 2011 Iraqi protestsIn an effort to prevent unrest, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced that he would not run for a thirdterm in 2014.[246] Nevertheless, hundreds of protesters gathered in several major urban areas (notably Baghdad andKarbala) on 12 February, demanding a more effective approach to national security, to the investigation of federalcorruption cases, as well as increased government involvement in making public services fair andaccessible.[247][248][249] In response, the government promised to subsidize electricity costs.[250]Israels Haaretz reported that a 31-year-old man in Mosul died from self-immolation, while protesting highunemployment. Haaretz also reported a planned Revolution of Iraqi Rage to be held on 25 February near theGreen Zone.[251]On 16 February, up to 2,000 protesters took over a provincial council building in the city of Kut. The protestersdemanded that the provincial governor resign because of the lack of basic services such as electricity and water. Asmany as three people were killed and 30 injured. [citation needed] On 24 February, Hawijah, Mosul, and Baghdadfeatured violent protests.[252][edit] Israeli border areasMain article: 2011 Israeli border demonstrationsSee also: Arab–Israeli conflictFree Palestine rally in CairoPalestinians used Facebook to call for mass protests throughout the region on 15 May 2011, the 63rd annualcommemoration of the Palestinian exodus, locally known as Nakba Day. [253][254] A page calling for a "ThirdPalestinian Intifada" to begin on 15 May garnered more than 350,000 "likes" before being taken down by
  16. 16. Facebook managers at the end of March after complaints from the Israeli government that the page encouragedviolence.[255][unreliable source?][256] The page called for mass marches to Palestine from Egypt, Lebanon, Syria andJordan to commemorate the Nakba and demand the right of return for all Palestinian refugees.[257] Palestiniansfrom Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank attempted to reach and cross the Israeliborder. However, they were all stopped and 12 were killed in clashes with Israeli security forces. Lebanesesecurity forces also made efforts, including the use of live fire according to some reports, to stop protesters fromapproaching the Israeli border. Almost 300 people were injured, including 13 Israeli soldiers. There were alsoclashes across east Jerusalem.[258]On 5 June, 23 Syrian demonstrators were killed and over a hundred injured by Israeli troops after attempting toenter the Israeli-held part of the Golan Heights.[259][260][261] "Anyone who tries to cross the border will be killed,"Israeli soldiers warned through megaphones as people waving Palestinian flags streamed towards the frontier.When protesters tried to cut the razor wire several meters short of the frontier fence, Israeli troops opened fire.Several people were seen being carried away on stretchers.[262] In the aftermath, thousands began a sit-in near thefrontier,[263][unreliable source?] resulting in Syrian security forces creating a security buffer zone to prevent moredemonstrators from approaching the border.[259] Lebanese President Michel Sleiman accused Israel of genocideover the incident,[264] UN High Commissioner on Human Rights Navanethem Pillay condemned the Israel DefenseForces use of force against unarmed, civilian protesters,[265] and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party called for aninternational response to the incident, calling it a "massacre".[266] An Israeli military spokeswoman called theviolence "an attempt to divert international attention from the bloodbath going on in Syria."[260] Michael Weiss, aspokesperson for Just Journalism, claimed that he had received leaked Syrian state documents showing that theSyrian government organized the Nakba Day protests to draw attention away from the uprising in Syria proper.[267]US State Department spokesman Mark Toner said the U.S. believes President Bashar Assads government wasactively supporting the Palestinian protests near the Israeli border.[268][edit] JordanMain article: 2011 Jordanian protestsOn 14 January, protests commenced in the capital Amman, as well as at Maan, Al Karak, Salt and Irbid, andothers. The protests, led by trade unionists and leftist parties, occurred after Friday prayers, and called for thegovernment of Prime Minister Samir Rifai to step down.[269] The Muslim Brotherhood and 14 trade unions saidthat they would hold a sit-down protest outside parliament the next day to "denounce government economicpolicies".[270] Following the protest, the government reversed a rise in fuel prices,[271] but 5,000 protested on 21January in Amman despite this effort to alleviate Jordans economic misery.[272]On 1 February, the Royal Palace announced that King Abdullah had dismissed the government on account of thestreet protests, and had asked Marouf al-Bakhit, a former army general, to form a new Cabinet.[273] King Abdullahcharged Bakhit to "take quick, concrete and practical steps to launch a genuine political reform process". Themonarch added that the reforms should put Jordan on the path "to strengthen democracy", and provide Jordanianswith the "dignified life they deserve".[274] This move did not end protests, however, which peaked with a rally ofbetween 6,000 and 10,000 Jordanians on 25 February.[275] A protest camp led by students calling for democraticreforms was established on 24 March in Gamal Abdel Nasser Circle in downtown Amman,[276] but at least oneperson was killed and over 100 injured the next day after pro-government vigilantes clashed with the protesters inthe camp, forcing police to intervene.[277] These clashes and belated police interventions have become a hallmarkof the Jordanian protests, with a major rally in central Amman planned for 15 July being derailed by belligerentregime supporters.[278]As of November 2011, protests are ongoing. Under pressure from street demonstrations, Parliament called for theouster of the Bakhit government. King Abdullah duly sacked Bakhit and his cabinet and named Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh to head the new government on 17 October.[46]
  17. 17. [edit] KuwaitMain article: 2011 Kuwaiti protestsProtests by stateless Bedouins began in January and February, concurrent with many protests in the region.[279][280]By June, protests grew in size from dozens to hundreds.[281]Thousands protested in September,[282] and in October, oil workers went on strike.[283] Protests continued intoOctober, with the largest demonstrations since the start of the unrest early in the year.[284][285] In response, PrimeMinister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah said the protests were "going too far" and threatened a securitycrackdown.[286]Late on 16 November, protesters occupied the National Assembly of Kuwait for several minutes and rallied innearby Al-Erada Square.[287] Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah called the brief occupation "anunprecedented step on the path to anarchy and lawlessness".[288][289]The largest political protest in Kuwaiti history was scheduled for 28 November to pressure the prime minister toresign, but he and his cabinet submitted their resignation to the emir hours ahead of it. Late November, the emirselected Defense Minister Sheik Jaber Al Hamad Al Sabah as the new prime minister, replacing the long-servingSheik Nasser Al Mohammad Al Sabah, who had survived several no-confidence votes in parliament and was thetarget of opposition groups calling for his dismissal.[290][edit] MoroccoMain article: 2011 Moroccan protestsIn early February 2011, protests were held in Rabat, Fez and Tangier in solidarity with the Egyptian revolution.Subsequently, a day of protest in favour of Moroccan constitutional reform and social justice was planned for 20February and advertised on social networking sites.[291][292] Among the demands of the organisers was that theconstituional role of the king should be "reduced to its natural size".[293] The interior minister Taib Cherkaouiaffirmed the right of the protests to take place. On 20 February, around 37,000 people participated indemonstrations across Morocco, according to government sources. Some protests were marred by violence anddamage to property. In Al Hoceima, five people died after protesters set fire to a bank.[294] On 26 February, afurther protest was held in Casablanca.[295]On 9 March, in a live televised address, King Mohammed announced that he would begin a comprehensiveconstitutional reform aimed at improving democracy and the rule of law. He promised to form a commission towork on constitutional revisions, which would make proposals to him by June, after which a referendum would beheld on the draft constitution.[296]On 20 March, a further protest was held in Casablanca to mark the end of the first month since the original 20February demonstrations and to maintain pressure for reform. Protesters, numbering 20,000, demanded theresignation of a number of senior politicians, including the prime minister, Abbas El Fassi, who they regarded ascorrupt.[297] On the same day, around 6,000 people demonstrated in Rabat.[298]In June, a referendum was held on changes to the constitution, which became law on 13 September. Someprotesters felt that the reforms did not go far enough. On 18 September, 3,000 people demonstrated in Casablancaand 2,000 in Tangier, demanding an end to the kings roles as head of the army and of religious affairs.[299] InOctober, around 50 imams protested in Rabat against state control of their activities. [300]
  18. 18. Elections were held on the basis of the new constitution in November 2011, with electoral lists reserved for youngand female candidates and with the post of prime minster, previously an appointment of the king, being decided bythe outcome of the vote.[301][edit] OmanMain article: 2011 Omani protestsProtesters set ablaze Lulu Hypermarket in Sohar, Oman on 28 February 2011In the Gulf country of Oman, 200 protesters marched on 17 January 2011, demanding salary increases and a lowercost of living. The protest shocked some journalists, who generally view Oman as a politically stable and sleepycountry.[302] Renewed protests occurred on 18 February, with 350 protesters demanding an end to corruption andbetter distribution of oil revenue.[303] Some protesters also carried signs with slogans of support for the Sultan.[304]On 26 February, protesters in Sohar called for more jobs.[305] On the following day, tensions escalated withprotesters burning shops and cars.[306] The police responded using tear gas to contain and disperse the crowds ofprotesters.[307] Demonstrations also spread to the region of Salalah, where protesters had reportedly been campingoutside the provincial governors house since 25 February.[307][308] In Sohar, witnesses claimed that two protesterswere killed when police fired rubber bullets to disperse the crowds.[78][79][80][309] Witnesses further reported thatprotesters burnt a police station as well as the Walis house (where the representative of the Sultan to Soharstays).[310] The Omani protesters insisted that they were not challenging the rule of Sultan Qaboos, who has been inpower since 1970, but were merely calling for jobs and reform.[311] The protesters even apologized to the Sultan forallowing violence rattle the city of Sohar on 28 February 2011.[312]The Sultan continued with his reform campaign by dissolving the Ministry of National Economy, setting up a stateaudit committee, granting student and unemployment benefits,[313] dismissing scores of ministers, and reshufflinghis cabinet three times.[314] In addition, nearly 50,000 jobs are being created in the public sector, including 10,000new jobs in the Royal Oman Police.[315]) The Omani Ministry of Manpower has furthermore directed variouscompanies (both private and public) to formulate their own employment plans. The Royal Army of Oman has alsoinitiated employment drives by publishing recruitment advertisements in newspapers, etc.[316] The governmentsefforts largely placated protesters, and Oman has not seen significant demonstrations since May 2011, whenincreasingly violent protests in Salalah were subdued.[317][edit] Saudi ArabiaMain article: 2011 Saudi Arabian protests
  19. 19. Poster for the Saudi Arabias #women2drive Movement, artwork by Carlos LatuffIn Saudi Arabia hundreds of people protested against the poor infrastructure in Jeddah following flooding.[318][319]At the same time, an online campaign began calling for major political and economic changes. On 5 February,forty women demonstrated for the release of prisoners held without trial.[320] Several protests of a few hundreddemonstrators each took place in late February, and also in early March in the north-east, mostly in Qatif[321] butalso in Hofuf, in al-Awamiyah, as well as in Riyadh.[322] Security in the north-east was tightened on 5 March,[323]and a significant police presence in Riyadh[324] and Jeddah[325] prevented protests from occurring on 11 March. Aday earlier, three protesters were injured by police gunfire in Qatif.[321] Nonetheless, protests calling for the releaseof prisoners took place outside the Ministry of the Interior in Riyadh on 12 March.[326][327]Following the crackdown during the 2011 Bahraini uprising, frequent demonstrations of a few hundred to a fewthousand[328] people occurred in and around Qatif from 15[329] to 25[330][331] March, which demanded the release ofprisoners and the withdrawal of the Peninsula Shield Force from Bahrain.[332][333] On 22–23 March, men-onlymunicipal elections to elect half the members of local councils were announced for 22 September 2011.[83][84]On 17 June, the anti-government movement "Women2Drive" has organized a drive-in to demand fairer treatmentof women in the country. It was sparked by the arrest and imprisonment of Manal al-Sharif[334] for driving avehicle with another woman. al-Sharif has been called a modern Rosa Parks.[335] Reports of desperation within thegovernment surfaced as the rally is expected to highlight one of the worst gender rights regimes in the world.[336]On 9 June, several women were arrested north of Riyadh for practicing in a parking lot.[337][338][339] On 15 June,female drivers in the United States have organized a protest in solidarity with Saudi women, planning to encirclethe Saudi embassy in Foggy Bottom.[340] During the month three females from Minnesota, supported by anadvocacy group, announced a gender discrimination complaint against the kingdoms livery services in Rochesterto coincide with the "Women2Drive" campaign.[341][342][edit] Others"The Laique pride" rally in Beirut Central District, Lebanon
  20. 20. • In Lebanon, hundreds or protesters rallied in Beirut on 27 February in a march referred to as "The Laiquepride", calling for reform of the countrys confessional political system. At the same time, a peaceful sit-in tookplace in Saida.[343] On 13 March, tens of thousands of supporters of the March 14 Alliance called for thedisarmament of Hezbollah in Beirut, rejecting the supremacy of Hezbollahs weapons over political life. They alsoshowed support for the U.N.-backed Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) after the fall of the Hariri governmentand the creation of the Mikati government.[344] The Syrian Uprising also has leaked over the border[345] • In Mauritania, Yacoub Ould Dahoud, a protester, burned himself near the Presidential Palace on 17 January,in opposition to the policies of Mauritanian president Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz[346] The following week,hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital Nouakchott. The mayor of the city of Aoujeft, Mohamed ElMoctar Ould Ehmeyen Amar, resigned from the ruling party to politically support what he called "the just cause ofyoungsters".[347] In addition to the capital Noukchott, cities such as Atar, Zouerate, and Aleg also organisedsporadic protests.[348] Despite minor economic concessions by the authorities, on 25 April protesters again took tothe streets to call for the resignation of the prime-minister, Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf.[349] • In Sudan, protests took place on 30 January and 1 February, when hundreds called for Sudanese PresidentOmar al-Bashir to step down. On 21 February, President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek to runin the next presidential election (in 2015).[350] • In the United Arab Emirates, a group of intellectuals petitioned their ruler for comprehensive reform of theFederal National Council, including demands for universal suffrage. About 160 people signed the petition, many ofwhom were academics and former members of the FNC.[351] On 12 April, Ahmed Mansoor, a prominent bloggerand pro-democracy activist, was charged with possession of alcohol. According to his lawyer, two other men, ablogger and a political commentator, were detained a few days earlier, a charge denied by the police.[352] In May,the government started expanding its network of surveillance cameras, as a preventive measure against revolts.[353]In June, Mansoor and four other reform activists, including an economics professor, Nasser bin Gaith,[354] pleadednot guilty to insulting the ruling family, endangering national security and inciting people to protest, after beingcharged.[355] On 13 November they began a hunger strike[356], while on 27 November they were sentenced, AhmedMansoor receiving three years in prison, while the others being sentenced to two-year jail terms, only to bepardoned the following day.[354] • In the Palestinian Territories, the Palestinian Authority prevented demonstrations in support of protesters inTunisia and Egypt. On 3 February, Palestinian police dispersed an anti-Mubarak demonstration in downtownRamallah, detaining four people, confiscating a cameramans footage, and reportedly beating protesters. A smallerpro-Mubarak demonstration was permitted to take place in the same area and was guarded by police.[357] On 15October, an anti-Assad protest expressing solidarity with Palestinian refugees in Syria affected by the unrest theretook place in the Gaza Strip, and was attended by 150 people. Hamas police forces dispersed the demonstration,claiming that it was held without a permit.[358]On 1 February, the Palestinian Authority announced that it would hold municipal elections in July. The Israelinewspaper Haaretz reported that this announcement was a reaction to the anti-government protests in Egypt. Theelections were postponed to 22 October, then suspended indefinetely due to an internal division within thePalestinian Authority over candidates for many of the municipalities and councils, and fears that Hamas supporterswould back Palestinian Authority opponents.[359] On 14 February, amid pan-Arab calls for reform, PalestinianAuthority Prime Minister Salam Fayyad submitted his resignation along with that of his cabinet to PresidentMahmoud Abbas.[360] After consultations with other factions, institutions, and civil society groups, Abbas askedhim to form a new government.[361] The reshuffle had long been demanded by Fayyad as well as members ofAbbass Fatah faction.[361] • In Western Sahara, young Sahrawis held a series of minor demonstrations to protest labour discrimination,lack of jobs, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[153] Although protests from February 2011 onwardwere related to a series of Sahrawi demonstrations outside El Aaiun that originated in October 2010 and died down
  21. 21. the following month, protesters cited inspiration from the events in other parts of the region. Noam Chomsky,viewed the October protests as the starting point from which the current wave of protests actually began.[362][edit] Analysis[edit] Ethnic scopeMany analysts, journalists, and involved parties have focused on the protests as being a uniquely Arabphenomenon, and indeed, protests and uprisings have been strongest and most wide-reaching in majority-Arabic-speaking countries, giving rise to the popular moniker of Arab Spring—a play on the so-called 1968 PragueSpring, a democratic awakening in what was then communist Czechoslovakia—to refer to protests, uprisings, andrevolutions in those states.[363][364][365] However, the international media has also noted the role of minority groupsin many of these majority-Arab countries in the revolts. In addition, this series of revolutions has been marked bythe absence of Arab Nationalist banners and rhetoric among the masses in favor of principles of human rights,freedom, democracy and cultural diversity, even in absolute majority-Arab countries.In Tunisia, the countrys small Jewish minority was initially divided by protests against Ben Ali and thegovernment, but eventually came to identify with the protesters in opposition to the regime, according to thegroups president, who described Jewish Tunisians as "part of the revolution".[366][367] While many in the Copticminority in Egypt had criticized the Mubarak government for its failure to suppress Islamic extremists who attackthe Coptic community, the prospect of these extremist groups taking over after its fall caused most Copts to avoidthe protests, with Pope Shenouda III of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria calling for them to end.[368] Theinternational media pointed to a few Copts who joined the protests.[369][370]Owing to the fact that the uprisings and revolutions erupted first in North Africa before spreading to Asian Arabcountries, and that the Berbers of Libya[371] participated massively in the protests and fightings under Berberidentity banners, some Berbers in Libya often see the revolutions of North Africa, west of Egypt, as a reincarnatedBerber Spring[372][373][374] and some call it the "Berber-Arab Spring"[citation needed]. In Morocco, through aconstitutional reform, passed in a national referendum on 1 July, among other things, Amazigh—a standardizedversion of the 3 Berber languages of Morocco was made official alongside Arabic.[375] During the civil war inLibya, one major theater of combat has been the western Nafusa Mountains, where the indigenous Berbers havetaken up arms against the regime while supporting an interim government based in the majority-Arab eastern halfof the country.[376][377]In northern Sudan hundreds of non-Arab Darfuris have joined anti-government protests,[378] while in Iraq andSyria, the ethnic Kurdish minority has been involved in protests against the government,[379][380] including theKurdistan Regional Government in the formers Kurdish-majority north, where at least one attempted self-immolation was reported.[381][382][383][edit] Impact of the Arab SpringMain article: Impact of the Arab SpringThe regional unrest has not been limited to countries of the Arab world. The early success of uprisings in NorthAfrica was inspired by the uprisings of disenchanted people in the Middle Eastern states of Iran[384][385] andTurkey[386] to take to the streets and agitate for reforms. These protests, especially those in Iran,[387] are consideredby many commentators to be part of the same wave that began in Iran and later Tunisia and has gripped thebroader Middle Eastern and North African regions.In the countries of the neighboring South Caucasus—namely Armenia,[388] Azerbaijan,[389] and Georgia[390]—aswell as some countries in Europe, including Albania,[391] Croatia,[392] and Spain;[393] countries in sub-SaharanAfrica, including Burkina Faso,[394] Djibouti,[395] and Uganda;[396][397] and countries in other parts of Asia,
  22. 22. including the Maldives[398] and the Peoples Republic of China,[399] demonstrators and opposition figures claiminginspiration from the examples of Tunisia and Egypt have staged their own popular protests.The bid for statehood by Palestine at the UN on 23 September 2011 is also regarded as drawing inspiration fromthe Arab Spring after years of failed peace negotiations with Israel. In the West Bank, schools and governmentoffices were shut to allow demonstrations backing the UN membership bid in Ramallah, Bethlehem, Nablus andHebron; echoing similar peaceful protests from other Arab countries.[400]The 15 October 2011 global protests and the Occupy Wall Street movement, which started in the United States andhas since spread to Asia and Europe, drew direct inspiration from the Arab Spring, with organizers asking U.S.citizens "Are you ready for a Tahrir moment?"[401] The protesters have committed to using the "revolutionary ArabSpring tactic" to achieve their goals of curbing corporate power and control in Western governments.[402][edit] International reactionsMain article: International reactions to the Arab SpringProtests in many countries affected by the Arab Spring have attracted widespread support from the internationalcommunity, while harsh government responses have generally met condemnation.[403][404][405][406] In the case of theBahraini, Moroccan, and Syrian protests, the international response has been considerably morenuanced.[407][408][409][410]Some critics have accused Western governments, including those of France, the United Kingdom, and the UnitedStates, of hypocrisy in the way they have reacted to the Arab Spring.[411][412] Noam Chomsky accused the Obamaadministration of endeavoring to muffle the revolutionary wave and stifle popular democratization efforts in theMiddle East.[413]Protests have also affected oil prices, contributing to the 2011 energy crisis. The International Monetary Fund saidoil prices were likely to be higher than originally forecast due to unrest in the Middle East and North Africa, majorregions of oil production.[414]Kenan Engin, a German-Turkish political scientist, identified the new uprising in Arab and Islamic countries as the"fifth wave of democracy" because of evident features qualitatively similar to the "third wave of democracy" inLatin America that took place in the 70s and 80s.[415][416][edit] See also Middle East portal Africa portal Politics portal Social movements portal  Berber Spring  Arab Revolt: uprising by Arabs against the Ottoman Empire during World War I (1916–18)  Civil resistance  List of modern conflicts in the Middle East  List of modern conflicts in North Africa  List of ongoing military conflicts  2011 Israeli social justice protests  Spring (political terminology)
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