FROM: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_revolutionIn accordance with Federal Laws provided For Educational and Information Purposes – i.e. of PUBLIC Interest2011 Egyptian revolutionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other revolutions, see Egyptian revolution. 2011 Egyptian revolution Part of the Arab Spring Demonstrators in Cairos Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011 Date 25 January 2011 – present Egypt Location 30°2′N 31°13′ECoordinates: 30°2′N 31°13′E Status Ongoing Police brutality State of emergency laws  Electoral fraud Political censorship  Widespread corruption  High unemployment  Causes Food price inflation Low minimum wages Demographic structural factors Civil disobedience Civil resistance Demonstrations RiotsCharacteristics Strike actions Self-immolation Online activism Concessions Ouster of President given Mubarak and Prime
Ministers Nazif and Shafik; Assumption of power by the Armed Forces; Suspension of the Constitution, dissolution of the Parliament; Disbanding of State Security Investigations Service; Dissolution of the NDP, the former ruling party of Egypt and transfer of its assets to the state Prosecution of Mubarak and his family and his former ministers. Number 2 million at Cairos Tahrir square Protesters 750,000 in AlexandriaCharacteristics 1 million in Mansoura and others; see Cities and regions section below Casualties 846 (including at least 135 protesters, 12 Death(s) policemen,  189Characteristics prisoners, and one prison chief) See: Deaths section below. Wounded 6,467 people Arrested 12,000 Egypt This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Egypt
Government[show] Legislative[show] Judicial[show] Elections[show] Political parties[show] Foreign policy[show] · Atlas Other countries Politics portal view · talk · editThe 2011 Egyptian revolution (Arabic: 2 thawret 25 yanāyir, Revolution of 25 January) took placefollowing a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and is still continuing as of December 2011.The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations,marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic andreligious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Despite beingpredominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces andprotesters, with at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured.  The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria,and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-timeTunisian president. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Mubarakresigned from office.Grievances of Egyptian protesters were focused on legal and political issues  including police brutality, state ofemergency laws, lack of free elections and freedom of speech, uncontrollable corruption, and economicissues including high unemployment, food price inflation, and low minimum wages. The primary demandsfrom protest organizers were the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime and the end of emergency law; freedom,justice, a responsive non-military government, and a say in the management of Egypts resources.  Strikes bylabour unions added to the pressure on government officials. During the uprising the capital city of Cairo was described as "a war zone,"  and the port city of Suez was thescene of frequent violent clashes. The government imposed a curfew that protesters defied and that the police andmilitary did not enforce. The presence of Egypts Central Security Forces police, loyal to Mubarak, was graduallyreplaced by largely restrained military troops. In the absence of police, there was looting by gangs that oppositionsources said were instigated by plainclothes police officers. In response, watch groups were organised by civiliansto protect neighbourhoods.International response to the protests was initially mixed,  though most called for peaceful actions on both sidesand moves toward reform. Most Western governments expressed concern about the situation. Many governmentsissued travel advisories and made attempts to evacuate their citizens from the country.  The Egyptian Revolution,along with Tunisian events, has influenced demonstrations in other Arab countries including Yemen, Bahrain,Jordan, Syria and Libya.Mubarak dissolved his government and appointed military figure and former head of the Egyptian GeneralIntelligence Directorate Omar Suleiman as Vice-President in an attempt to quell dissent. Mubarak asked aviationminister and former chief of Egypts Air Force, Ahmed Shafik, to form a new government. Mohamed ElBaradeibecame a major figure of the opposition, with all major opposition groups supporting his role as a negotiator forsome form of transitional unity government.  In response to mounting pressure, Mubarak announced he wouldnot seek re-election in September.On 11 February Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak would be stepping down as president andturning power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. On 24 May, Mubarak was ordered to standtrial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protestors and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. 
The military junta, headed by effective head of state Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced on 13 February thatthe constitution would be suspended, both houses of parliament dissolved, and that the military would rule for sixmonths until elections could be held. The prior cabinet, including Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik, would continue toserve as a caretaker government until a new one is formed.  Shafik resigned on 3 March, a day before majorprotests to get him to step down were planned; he was replaced by Essam Sharaf, the former transport minister. Although Mubarak resigned, the protests have continued amid concerns about how long the military junta will lastin Egypt; some are afraid that the military will rule the country indefinitely. Contents[hide] 1 Naming 2 Background o 2.1 Inheritance of Power o 2.2 Emergency law o 2.3 Police brutality o 2.4 Corruption in government elections o 2.5 Restrictions on free speech and press o 2.6 Demographic and economic challenges o 2.7 Corruption among government officials 3 Lead-up to the protests o 3.1 Tunisian Revolution o 3.2 Self-immolation o 3.3 National Police Day protests 4 Protests o 4.1 Timeline o 4.2 Cities and regions : Mass civil disobedience 5 Deaths 6 International reactions o 6.1 Post-ousting 7 Results o 7.1 Reform process o 7.2 Court trials of state officials accused of corruption 8 Analysis o 8.1 Regional instability o 8.2 Religion and politics o 8.3 Womens role o 8.4 The militarys role o 8.5 Foreign relations o 8.6 Online activism and the role of social media 9 After-Revolution Freedom of Establishing Political Parties 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links NamingIn Egypt and the wider Arab world, the protests and subsequent changes in the government have generally beenreferred to as the 25 January Revolution ( 2 Thawrat 25 Yanāyir), Freedom Revolution (ح ة Thawrat Horeya), or Rage Revolution (ال غ ضب Thawrat al-Ġaḍab), and less frequently, the
Revolution of the Youth (ال ش ب ب Thawrat al-Shabāb), Lotus Revolution (ال ل ت س ), or WhiteRevolution ( ال ث ال ب ي ض ءal-Thawrah al-bayḍāʾ). BackgroundHosni Mubarak in 2009Hosni Mubarak became head of Egypts semi-presidential republic government following the 1981 assassination ofPresident Anwar El Sadat, and continued to serve until 2011. Mubaraks 30-year reign made him the longestserving President in Egypts history,  with his National Democratic Party (NDS) government maintaining one-party rule under a continuous state of emergency.  Mubaraks government earned the support of the West and acontinuation of annual aid from the United States by maintaining policies of suppression towards Islamic militantsand peace with Israel. Hosni Mubarak was often compared to an Egyptian pharaoh by the media and by some ofhis critics due to his authoritarian rule. Inheritance of PowerGamal Mubarak in 2006Main article: Gamal MubarakGamal Mubarak, the younger of Mubaraks two sons, began being groomed to be his fathers successor as the nextpresident of Egypt around the year 2000.  Gamal started receiving considerable attention in the Egyptian media,as there were no other apparent heirs to the presidency. Bashar al-Assads rise to power in Syria in June 2000,just hours after Hafez al-Assads death sparked a heated debate in the Egyptian press regarding the prospects for asimilar scenario occurring in Cairo. In the years after Mubaraks 2005 reelection several political groups (most in Egypt are unofficial) on both the leftand the right, announced their sharp opposition to the inheritance of power. They demanded political change and
asked for a fair election with more than one candidate. In 2006, with opposition rising, The Daily News Egyptreported on an online campaign initiative called the National Initiative against Power Inheritance which demandedGamal reduce his power. The campaign stated, "President Mubarak and his son constantly denied even thepossibility of [succession]. However, in reality they did the opposite, including amending the constitution to makesure that Gamal will be the only unchallenged candidate."Over the course of the decade perception grew that Gamal would succeed his father. He wielded increasing poweras NDP deputy secretary general, in addition to a post he held heading the partys policy committee. Analysts wentso far as describing Mubaraks last decade in power as “the age of Gamal Mubarak.” With Mubarak’s healthdeclining and the leader refusing to appoint a vice-president, Gamal was considered by some to be Egypts de-factopresident.Both Gamal and Hosni Mubarak continued to deny that an inheritance would take place. There was talk, however,of Gamal being elected; with Hosni Mubaraks presidential term set to expire in 2010 there was speculation Gamalwould run as the NDP partys candidate in 2011. After the January–February 2011 protest, Gamal Mubarak stated that he would not be running for the presidency inthe 2011 elections. Emergency lawMain article: Emergency law in EgyptAn emergency law (Law No. 162 of 1958) was enacted after the 1967 Six-Day War. It was suspended for 18months in the early 1980s and has otherwise continuously been in effect since President Sadats 1981assassination. Under the law, police powers are extended, constitutional rights suspended, censorship islegalised, and the government may imprison individuals indefinitely and without reason. The law sharply limitsany non-governmental political activity, including street demonstrations, non-approved political organizations, andunregistered financial donations. The Mubarak government has cited the threat of terrorism in order to extendthe emergency law, claiming that opposition groups like the Muslim Brotherhood could come into power inEgypt if the current government did not forgo parliamentary elections and suppress the group through actionsallowed under emergency law. This has led to the imprisonment of activists without trials, illegalundocumented hidden detention facilities,  and rejecting university, mosque, and newspaper staff members basedon their political inclination. A parliamentary election in December 2010 was preceded by a media crackdown,arrests, candidate bans (particularly of the Muslim Brotherhood), and allegations of fraud involving the near-unanimous victory by the ruling party in parliament.  Human rights organizations estimate that in 2010 between5,000 and 10,000 people were in long-term detention without charge or trial.  Police brutalityFurther information: Law enforcement in EgyptAccording to a report from the U.S. Embassy in Egypt, police brutality has been common and widespread inEgypt. In the last five years, the Mubarak regime has denied the existence of torture or abuse carried out by thepolice. However, many claims by domestic and international groups provide evidence through cellphone videos orfirst-hand accounts of hundreds of cases of police abuse. According to the 2009 Human Rights Report by the U.S. State Department, "Domestic and international humanrights groups reported that the Ministry of Interior (MOI) State Security Investigative Service (SSIS), police, andother government entities continued to employ torture to extract information or force confessions. The EgyptianOrganization for Human Rights documented 30 cases of torture during the year 2009. In numerous trialsdefendants alleged that police tortured them during questioning. During the year activists and observers circulated
some amateur cellphone videos documenting the alleged abuse of citizens by security officials. For example, on 8February, a blogger posted a video of two police officers, identified by their first names and last initials,sodomizing a bound naked man named Ahmed Abdel Fattah Ali with a bottle. On 12 August, the same bloggerposted two videos of alleged police torture of a man in a Port Said police station by the head of investigations,Mohammed Abu Ghazala. There was no indication that the government investigated either case." The deployment of plainclothes forces paid by Mubaraks ruling party, Baltageya,  (Arabic: ,) ل يةhas been ahallmark of the Mubarak government. The Egyptian Organisation for Human Rights has documented 567 casesof torture, including 167 deaths, by police that occurred between 1993 and 2007.  Excessive force was often usedby law enforcement agencies. The police forces constantly squelched democratic uprisings with brutal force andcorrupt tactics. On 6 June 2010 Khaled Mohamed Saeed died under disputed circumstances in the Sidi Gaberarea of Alexandria. Multiple witnesses testified that Saeed was beaten to death by the police.  A Facebookpage called "We are all Khaled Said" helped bring nationwide attention to the case.  Mohamed ElBaradei, formerhead of the International Atomic Energy Agency, led a rally in 2010 in Alexandria against alleged abuses by thepolice and visited Saeeds family to offer condolences. During the January — February 2011 protests, police brutality was high in response to the protests. Jack Shenker, areporter for The Guardian, was arrested during the mass protests in Cairo on 26 January 2011. He witnessed fellowEgyptian protesters being tortured, assaulted, and taken to undisclosed locations by police officers. Shenker andother detainees were released after one of his fellow detainees well-known father, Ayman Nour, covertlyintervened. Corruption in government electionsAccusations of corruption, coercion to not vote, and manipulation of the election results have occurred duringmany of the elections over the past 30 years.  Until 2005, Mubarak was the only candidate to run for thepresidency, on a yes/no vote. Mubarak has won five consecutive presidential elections with a sweepingmajority. Opposition groups and international election monitoring agencies have accused the elections of beingrigged. These agencies have not been allowed to monitor the elections. The only opposing presidential candidate inrecent Egyptian history, Ayman Nour, was imprisoned before the 2005 elections.  According to a UN survey,voter turnout is extremely low (around 25%) because of the lack of trust in the corrupt representational system.  Restrictions on free speech and pressEven though the Egyptian constitution provides for the universal freedom of speech (Egypt Constitution, Article47 – 49), the government has frequently sanctioned home raids, torture, arrests, and fining of bloggers andreporters that criticize the government in any way. Under the current state of emergency laws, the government cancensor anything if it is considered a threat to “public safety and national security”. If any reporter or bloggerviolates this law by criticizing the government, they could be legally penalized with a fine of 20,000 pounds($3,650) and up to five years in prison. The Moltaqa Forum for Development and Human Rights Dialogue reportedthat between January and March 2009, 57 journalists from 13 newspapers faced legal penalties for theirgovernmental critiques. The Egyptian government owns stock in the three largest daily newspapers. Thegovernment controls the licensing and distribution of all papers in Egypt.  The Egyptian government shut downthe Internet to most of Egypt during the recent protests in order to limit communication between protest groups.  Demographic and economic challengesUnemployment and reliance on subsidized goodsFurther information: Demographics of Egypt, Demographic trap, and Youth bulge
Population pyramid in 2005. Many of those 30 and younger are educated citizens who are experiencing difficulty findingwork.The population of Egypt grew from 30,083,419 in 1966  to roughly 79,000,000 by 2008. The vast majority ofEgyptians live in the limited spaces near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers(15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. In late 2010 around 40% of Egypts population of just under80 million lived on the fiscal income equivalent of roughly US$2 per day, with a large part of the populationrelying on subsidized goods.According to the Peterson Institute for International Economics and other proponents of demographic structuralapproach (cliodynamics), a basic problem in Egypt is unemployment driven by a demographic youth bulge: withthe number of new people entering the job force at about 4% a year, unemployment in Egypt is almost 10 times ashigh for college graduates as it is for people who have gone through elementary school, particularly educatedurban youth—the same people who were out in the streets during the revolution. Poor living conditions and economic conditionsFurther information: Economy of EgyptA poor neighbourhood in CairoEgypts economy was highly centralised during the tenure of President Gamal Abdel Nasser but opened upconsiderably under President Anwar Sadat and Mubarak. From 2004 to 2008 the Mubarak-led governmentaggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth, but postponedfurther economic reforms because of global economic turmoil. The international economic downturn slowedEgypts GDP growth to 4.5% in 2009. In 2010 analysts said the government of Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif wouldneed to restart economic reforms to attract foreign investment, boost growth, and improve economic conditions.Despite high levels of national economic growth over the past few years, living conditions for the averageEgyptian remained poor, though better than many other countries in Africa.  Corruption among government officialsFurther information: Crime in EgyptPolitical corruption in Mubarak administrations Ministry of Interior rose dramatically due to the increased level ofcontrol over the institutional system necessary to prolong the presidency.  The rise to power of powerfulbusinessmen in the NDP, in the government, and in the Peoples Assembly led to massive waves of anger duringthe years of Prime Ministers Ahmed Nazifs government. An example is Ahmed Ezzs monopolising the steel
industry in Egypt by holding more than 60% of the market share.  Aladdin Elaasar, an Egyptian biographer andan American professor, estimates that the Mubarak family is worth from $50 to $70 billion.The wealth of Ahmed Ezz, the former NDP Organisation Secretary, is estimated to be 18 billion Egyptianpounds; the wealth of former Housing Minister Ahmed al-Maghraby is estimated to be more than 11 billionEgyptian pounds; the wealth of former Minister of Tourism Zuhair Garrana is estimated to be 13 billionEgyptian pounds; the wealth of former Minister of Trade and Industry, Rashid Mohamed Rashid, is estimated tobe 12 billion Egyptian pounds; and the wealth of former Interior Minister Habib al-Adly is estimated to be8 billion Egyptian pounds.The perception among Egyptians was that the only people to benefit from the nations wealth were businessmenwith ties to the National Democratic Party; "wealth fuels political power and political power buys wealth." During the Egyptian parliamentary election, 2010, opposition groups complained of harassment and fraudperpetrated by the government. Opposition and civil society activists have called for changes to a number of legaland constitutional provisions which affect elections.In 2010 Transparency Internationals Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts (with 10 beingclean and 0 being totally corrupt).  Lead-up to the protestsTo prepare for a possible overthrow of Mubarak, opposition groups studied the work of Gene Sharp on non-violentrevolution and worked with leaders of Otpor!, the student-led Serbian uprising of 2000. Copies of Sharps list of198 non-violent "weapons", translated into Arabic and not always attributed to him, were circulated in TahrirSquare during its occupation. Tunisian RevolutionMain article: Tunisian RevolutionFurther information: Arab SpringAfter the ousting of Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali due to mass protests, many analysts, includingformer European Commission President Romano Prodi, saw Egypt as the next country where such a revolutionmight occur. The Washington Post commented, "The Jasmine Revolution [...] should serve as a stark warning toArab leaders – beginning with Egypts 83-year-old Hosni Mubarak – that their refusal to allow more economic andpolitical opportunity is dangerous and untenable." Others held the opinion that Egypt was not ready forrevolution, citing little aspiration of the Egyptian people, low educational levels, and a strong government with thesupport of the military. The BBC said, "The simple fact is that most Egyptians do not see any way that they canchange their country or their lives through political action, be it voting, activism, or going out on the streets todemonstrate." Self-immolation
A protester holds an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011 in EgyptFollowing the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia on 17 December, a man set himself ablaze on 17January in front of the Tunisian parliament; about five more attempts of self-immolation followed. National Police Day protestsOpposition groups planned a day of revolt for 25 January, coinciding with the National Police Day. The purposewas to protest against abuses by the police in front of the Ministry of Interior. These demands expanded toinclude the resignation of the Minister of Interior, an end to State corruption, the end of Egyptian emergency law,and term limits for the president.Many political movements, opposition parties, and public figures supported the day of revolt, including Youth forJustice and Freedom, Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution, the Popular Democratic Movement for Change andthe National Association for Change. The 6 April Youth Movement was a major supporter of the protest anddistributed 20,000 leaflets saying "I will protest on 25 January to get my rights". The Ghad, Karama, Wafd andDemocratic Front supported the protests. The Muslim Brotherhood, Egypts largest opposition group, confirmed on 23 January that it would participate.  Public figures including novelist Alaa Al Aswany, writerBelal Fadl, and actors Amr Waked and Khaled Aboul Naga announced they would participate. However, the leftistNational Progressive Unionist Party (the Tagammu) stated it would not participate. The Coptic Church urgedChristians not to participate in the protests. Twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz was instrumental in sparking the protests. In a video blog posted twoweeks before National Police Day,  she urged the Egyptian people to join her on 25 January in Tahrir Square tobring down Mubaraks regime. Mahfouzs use of video blogging and social media went viral and urgedpeople not to be afraid. The Facebook group set up for the event attracted 80,000 attendees. Protests Timeline
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2011)Main article: Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolutionAl Jazeera footage of Egyptian protestsThe "Day of Revolt" on 25 JanuaryHundreds of thousands of people protest in Tahrir Square on 4 February 2011Hundreds of thousands of people protest in Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people protest in Tahrir Square on 9 February 2011Hundreds of thousands of people celebrate in Tahrir Square when Hosni Mubaraks resignation is announced on 11 February2011Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 1 April 2011Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 8 April 2011Tens of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 27 May 201125 January 2011: The "Day of Revolt": Protests erupted throughout Egypt, with tens of thousands of protestersgathered in Cairo and thousands more in cities throughout Egypt. The protests targeted President Hosni Mubaraksgovernment, and mostly adhered to non-violence. There were some reports of civilian and police casualties.26 January 2011: "Shutting down The Internet and Mobile Services": After several Facebook groups werecreated and tweets (from Twitter) called for mass demonstrations, the Egyptian government shut down internetaccess for most of the country. This was done to cripple one of the protesters main organizational tools and toimpede the flow of news and people.
28 January 2011: The "Friday of Anger" protests began. Hundreds of thousands demonstrated in Cairo andother Egyptian cities after Friday prayers. Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei arrived in Cairo. There werereports of looting. Prisons were opened and burned down, allegedly on orders from then-Minister of the InteriorHabib El Adly. Prison inmates escaped en masse, in what was believed to be an attempt to terrorise protesters.Police forces were withdrawn from the streets, and the military was deployed. International fears of violence grew,but no major casualties were reported. President Hosni Mubarak made his first address to the nation and pledged toform a new government. Later that night clashes broke out in Tahrir Square between revolutionaries and pro-Mubarak demonstrators, leading to the injury of several and the death of some.29 January 2011: The military presence in Cairo increased. A curfew was declared, but was widely ignored as theflow of defiant protesters to Tahrir Square continued throughout the night. The military reportedly refused tofollow orders to fire live ammunition, and exercised restraint overall. There were no reports of major casualties.1 February 2011: Mubarak made another televised address and offered several concessions. He pledged to not runfor another term in the elections planned for September, and pledged political reforms. He stated he would stay inoffice to oversee a peaceful transition. Small but violent clashes began that night between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak groups.2 February 2011: "Battle of the Camel". Violence escalated as waves of Mubarak supporters met anti-government protesters, and some Mubarak supporters rode on camels and horses into Tahrir Square, reportedlywielding swords and sticks. President Mubarak reiterated his refusal to step down in interviews with several newsagencies. Incidents of violence toward journalists and reporters escalated amid speculation that the violence wasbeing encouraged by Mubarak as a way to bring the protests to an end.6 February 2011: A multifaith Sunday Mass is held with Egyptian Christians and Egyptian Muslims in TahrirSquare. Negotiations involving Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman and representatives of the oppositioncommenced amid continuing protests throughout the nation. The Egyptian army assumed greater securityresponsibilities, maintaining order and guarding The Egyptian Museum of Antiquity. Suleiman offered reforms,while others of Mubaraks regime accused foreign nations, including the US, of interfering in Egypt’s affairs.10 February 2011: Mubarak formally addressed Egypt amid speculation of a military coup, but rather thanresigning (as was widely expected), he simply stated he would delegate some of his powers to Vice PresidentSuleiman, while continuing as Egypts head of state. Reactions to Mubaraks statement were marked by anger,frustration and disappointment, and throughout various cities there was an escalation of the number and intensityof demonstrations.11 February 2011: The "Friday of Departure": Massive protests continued in many cities as Egyptians refusedthe concessions announced by Mubarak. Finally, at 6:00 pm local time, Suleiman announced Mubaraksresignation, entrusting the Supreme Council of Egyptian Armed Forces with the leadership of the country.Nationwide celebrations immediately followed.13 February 2011: The Supreme Council dissolved Egypt’s parliament and suspended the Constitution inresponse to demands by demonstrators. The council declared that it would hold power for six months, or untilelections could be held. Calls were made for the council to provide more details and specific timetables anddeadlines. Major protests subsided but did not end. In a gesture to a new beginning, protesters cleaned up andrenovated Tahrir Square, the epicenter of the demonstrations, although many pledged they would continue protestsuntil all the demands had been met.17 February 2011: The army stated it would not field a candidate in the upcoming presidential elections.  Fourimportant figures of the former regime were detained on that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, formerminister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi former tourism minister Zuheir Garana, and steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz.2 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was tentatively scheduled for 19 March 2011. 
3 March 2011: A day before large protests against him were planned, Ahmed Shafik stepped down as PrimeMinister and was replaced by Essam Sharaf.5 March 2011: Several State Security Intelligence (SSI) buildings were raided across Egypt by protesters,including the headquarters for Alexandria Governorate and the main national headquarters in Nasr City, Cairo.Protesters stated they raided the buildings to secure documents they believed to show various crimes committed bythe SSI against the people of Egypt during Mubaraks rule. 6 March 2011: From the Nasr City headquarters, protesters acquired evidence of mass surveillance and voterigging, and noted rooms full of videotapes, piles of shredded and burned documents, and cells where activistsrecounted their experiences of detention and torture. 19 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was held and passed by 77.27%.22 March 2011: Parts of the Interior Ministry building catch fire during police demonstrations outside. 23 March 2011: The Egyptian Cabinet orders a law criminalising protests and strikes that hampers work at privateor public establishments. Under the new law, anyone organising or calling for such protests will be sentenced tojail and/or a fine of LE500,000 (~100,000 USD). 1 April 2011: The "Save the Revolution" day: Approximately four thousand demonstrators filled Tahrir Squarefor the largest protest in weeks, demanding that the ruling military council move faster to dismantle lingeringaspects of the old regime. Protestors demanded trial for Hosni Mubarak, Gamal Mubarak, Ahmad Fathi Sorour,Safwat El-Sherif and Zakaria Azmi as well.8 April 2011: The "Friday of Cleaning": Hundreds of thousands of demonstrators again filled Tahrir Square,criticizing the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for not following through on revolutionary demands.They demanded the resignation of remaining regime figures and the removal of Egypt’s public prosecutor due tothe slow pace of investigations of corrupt former officials. 27 May 2011: The "Second Friday of Anger" (a.k.a "Second Revolution of Anger" or "The SecondRevolution"): Tens of thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square in Egypts capital Cairo, besides[citationneeded] perhaps demonstrators in each of Alexandria, Suez, Ismailia, Gharbeya and other areas; in the largestdemonstrations since ousting Mubaraks Regime. Protestors demanded No Military Trials for Civilians, theEgyptian Constitution to be made before the Parliament Elections and for all the old regime gang and those whokilled protestors in January and February to be put on fair Trial.1 July 2011: The "Friday of Retribution"; Hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered in Suez, Alexandria andTahrir Square in Cairo, to voice frustration with the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for what theycalled the slow pace of change five months after the revolution, some also feared that the military is to rule Egyptindefinitely.8 July 2011: The "Friday of Determination"; Hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered in Suez, Alexandriaand Tahrir Square in Cairo. They demanded immediate reforms and swifter prosecution of former officials fromthe ousted government.15 July 2011": Hundreds of thousands continue to protest in Tahrir Square.23 July 2011: Thousands of protesters try to march to the Defense Ministry. They are met with thugs that havesticks, stones, cocktails and other things. The protests are set off by a speech commemorating the 1952 coup led byMohammed Tantawi.
1 August 2011: Egyptian soldiers clash with protesters, tearing down tents. Over 66 people were arrested. MostEgyptians supported the militarys action.6 August 2011 Hundreds of protesters gathered and prayed in Tahrir Square. After they were done, they wereattacked by the military.9 September 2011: The"Friday of Correcting the Path"; Tens of thousands of people protested Suez,Alexandria, Cairo, and other cites. Islamist protesters were absent. Cities and regions : Mass civil disobedience This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. (Consider using more specific cleanup instructions.) Please help improve this section if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (April 2011)Protesters in AlexandriaProtesters remove portraits of Ex-president Mubarak in Sohag City in upper EgyptCairoCairo has been at the epicentre of much of the crisis. The largest protests were held in downtown Tahrir Square,which was considered the "protest movement’s beating heart and most effective symbol." On the first threedays of the protests, there were clashes between the central security police and protesters and on 28 January, policeforces withdrew from all of Cairo. Citizens formed neighbourhood watch groups to keep the order as widespreadlooting was reported. Traffic police were reintroduced to Cairo on the morning of 31 January.  An estimated2 million people protested at Tahrir square. AlexandriaAlexandria, the home of Khaled Saeed, had major protests and clashes with the police. A demonstration on 3February was reported to include 750,000 people. There were few confrontations as not many Mubaraksupporters were around, except in occasional motorised convoys escorted by police. The breakdown of law andorder, including the general absence of police on the streets, continued through to at least the evening of 3February, including the looting and burning of one the countrys largest shopping centres, CarrefourAlexandria protests were notable for the presence of Christians and Muslims jointly taking part in the eventsfollowing the church bombing on 1 January, which saw street protests denouncing Mubaraks regime following theattack.Mansoura
In the northern city of Mansoura there were protests against the Mubarak regime every day from 25 Januaryonwards.On 27 January, Mansoura was dubbed a "War Zone". On 28 January, 13 were reported dead in violent clashes. On9 February, 18 more protesters had died.One protest on 1 February was estimated at one million people, The remote city of Siwa had been relativelycalm. Local sheikhs, who were reportedly in control of the community, put the community under lockdownafter a nearby town was "torched."SuezThe city of Suez has seen violent protests. Eyewitness reports have suggested that the death toll there may be high,although confirmation has been difficult due to a ban on media coverage in the area.  Some online activistsreferred to Suez as Egypts Sidi Bouzid, the Tunisian city where protests started. A labour strike was held on 8February. Large protests took place on 11 February. On 3 February, 4,000 protesters went to the streets to call for Mubaraks departure. TantaTens of thousands of protesters took to the streets from the first day (25 January) and most of the days after until11 February. Crowds exceeded a hundred thousand many times. Some hospitals reported casualties during theclashes of 28 January. Beni SuefBeni Suef had repeated protests in front of the City Hall on el Kourneish, in front of the Omar abd el Aziz Mosque,and in El Zerayeen Square, on most days during the revolutionary period. Twelve protesters were killed whenpolice opened fire at mass groups protesting in front of the Police Station in Beba, South Beni suef. Many othersgot injured. Thugs and outlaws have robbed governmental garages and burned down several Governmentbuildings.LuxorThere were also protests in Luxor.DairutPolice opened fire on protesters in Dairut on 11 February.Shebin el-KomTens of thousands of protesters took to the streets of Shebin el-Kom on 11 February.El-ArishThousands protested in the city of El-Arish, in the Sinai Peninsula, on 11 February. SohagLarge protests took place in the southern city of Sohag on 11 February.
MinyaLarge protests took place in the southern city of Minya on 11 February.IsmailiaNearly 100,000 people protested in and about the local government headquarters in Ismaïlia on 11 February.Kafr El SheikhLarge protests took place on 28 January and 4 February all over Kafr el-Sheikh.ZagazigOver 100,000 protesters gathered on 27 January in front of the city council in Zagazig.Sinai PeninsulaBedouins in the Sinai Peninsula fought security forces for several weeks. As a result of the decrease in military forces on the borders, Bedouin groups protected the borders and pledgedtheir support to the ongoing revolution.  Sharm-El-Sheikh No protests or civil unrest took place in Sharm-El-Sheikh on 31 January. All was still calm as Hosni Mubarak and his family left on 11 February. DeathsA memorial in Tahrir Square made by the demonstrators in honour of those who died during the protests, regarded asshuhada " – شهداءmartyrs" – in Egyptian parlance. The captions in the pictures attribute most of the deaths to police violence.
Sally Zahran, a female protester who was a victim during demonstrations. NASA announced plans to write her name on arocket, as part of a tradition of the American space organizations Jet Propulsion Laboratory to engrave the names of notablepeople on spacecraft at the request of NASA staff members or US citizens. "This is the least we could do for Egypts youthand the revolutionaries. This step represents the transfer of the dreams of Egyptian young people from a small stretch of earthto the enormous expanse of space" said NASA researcher Essam Mohamed Haji. Leading up to the protests, six cases of self-immolation were reported, including a man arrested while trying to sethimself on fire in downtown Cairo. These cases were inspired by, and began exactly one month after, the actsof self-immolation in Tunisia triggering the 2010–2011 Tunisian uprising. The self-immolated included AbdouAbdel-Moneim Jaafar, Mohammed Farouk Hassan, Mohammed Ashour Sorour, and Ahmed Hashim al-Sayyed who later died from his injuries.  This template is outdated. Please update this template to reflect recent events or newly available information. Please see the talk page for more information. (September 2011) Death toll of 2011 Egyptian revolution The mostly confirmed Location of deaths death toll References as of 11 February 2011 Alexandria 52 Suez 18 Asyut 3 El-Arish 1 Beni Suef 17 Luxor 1 Atfih 1 Cairo 232 Kharga Oasis 1 Sheikh Zoweid, North Sinai 1 Abu Simbel 1 Rafah 3 Mansoura 2 Deaths in other places hit by protests 45 Total 846As of 30 January, Al Jazeera reported as many as 150 deaths in the protests.  The Sun reported that the deadcould include at least 10 policemen, 3 of whom were killed in Rafah by "an enraged mob".By 29 January, 2,000 people were known to be injured. The same day, an employee of the Azerbaijani embassyin Egypt was killed while returning home from work in Cairo; the next day Azerbaijan sent a plane to evacuatecitizens and opened a criminal investigation into the death. Funerals for the dead on the "Friday of Anger" were held on 30 January. Hundreds of mourners gathered for thefunerals calling for Mubaraks removal.  By 1 February, the protests had left at least 125 people dead, although Human Rights Watch said that UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay claimed that asmany as 300 people may have died in the unrest. This unconfirmed tally included 80 Human Rights Watch-verified deaths at two Cairo hospitals, 36 in Alexandria, and 13 in the port city of Suez, among others; over 3,000 people were also reported as injured. 
An Egyptian Governmental Fact-Finding mission Known as " Fact-Finding National commission About 25 JanRevolution" announced on 19 April that at least 846 Egyptians died in the nearly three week long popularuprising. International reactionsMain article: International reactions to the 2011 Egyptian revolutionInternational reactions have varied with most Western states saying peaceful protests should continue but alsoexpressing concern for the stability of the country and the region. The European Unions Foreign Affairs Chiefissued a statement saying "I also reiterate my call upon the Egyptian authorities to urgently establish a constructiveand peaceful way to respond to the legitimate aspirations of Egyptian citizens for democratic and socioeconomicreforms." The United States, Britain, France, Germany and others issued similar statements calling for reformsand an end to violence against peaceful protesters. Many states in the region expressed concern and supportedMubarak, in particular Saudi Arabia, which issued a statement saying it "strongly condemned" the protests, while others, like Tunisia and Iran, supported the protests. Israel was most cautious for a change, with Israeli PrimeMinister Benjamin Netanyahu asking his government ministers to maintain silence, and urging Israels US andEuropean allies to curb their criticism of President Mubarak; however, an Arab-Israeli parliamentariansupported the protests. There were also numerous solidarity protests for the anti-government protesters around theworld.NGOs also expressed concern about the protests and the ensuing heavy-handed state response. AmnestyInternational described attempts to discourage protests as "unacceptable".  Many countries also issued travelwarnings or began evacuating their citizens, including the US, Israel, Great Britain, and Japan. Even multinationalcorporations began evacuating their expatriate workers. Many university students were also evacuated. Post-oustingMany nations, leaders, and organizations hailed the end of the Mubarak regime. There were celebrations inTunisia, and Lebanon. World leaders including Angela Merkel, David Cameron joined in praising theRevolution. United States President Barack Obama praised the achievement of the Egyptian people andencouraged other activists by saying "lets look at Egypts example" Amid the growing concerns for thecountry, on 21 February, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, became the first world leader tovisit Egypt since Mubarak was ousted as the president 10 days previously. A news blackout was lifted as the primeminister landed in Cairo for a brief five-hour stopover hastily added at the start of a planned tour of the MiddleEast. On 15 March United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Egypt, she was the highest rankingUS official to visit Egypt after the handover of power from Mubarak to the military. Clinton urged the militaryleaders to begin the process of a democratic transition and offer support to those who had been protesting, as wellas reaffirming ties between the two nations.  ResultsMain article: Domestic responses to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
"Nero burned Rome; Mubarak is burning Egypt"On 29 January, Mubarak indicated he would be changing the government because despite a "point of no return"being crossed, national stability and law and order must prevail, that he had requested the government, formedonly months ago, to step down, and that a new government would be formed. [Full citation needed] He thenappointed Omar Suleiman, head of Egyptian Intelligence, as vice president and Ahmed Shafik as primeminister. On 1 February, he spoke again saying he would stay in office until the next election in September2011 and then leave without standing as a candidate. He also promised to make political reforms. He made no offerto step down.On 31 January, Mubarak swore in his new cabinet in the hope that the unrest would fade. The protesters did notleave and continued to demonstrate in Cairos Tahrir Square to demand the downfall of Mubarak. The vice-president and the prime minister were already appointed.  He told the new government to preserve subsidies,control inflation and provide more jobs. On 1 February, Mubarak said he never intended to run for reelection in the upcoming September presidentialelection, though his candidacy had previously been announced by high-ranking members of his NationalDemocratic PartyIn his speech, he asked parliament for reforms:According to my constitutional powers, I call on parliament in both its houses to discuss amending article 76 and77 of the constitution concerning the conditions on running for presidency of the republic and it sets specific aperiod for the presidential term. In order for the current parliament in both houses to be able to discuss theseconstitutional amendments and the legislative amendments linked to it for laws that complement the constitutionand to ensure the participation of all the political forces in these discussions, I demand parliament to adhere to theword of the judiciary and its verdicts concerning the latest cases which have been legally challenged.—Hosni Mubarak, 1 February 2011Various opposition groups,[clarification needed] including the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), reiterated demands forMubaraks resignation. The MB also said, after protests turned violent, that it was time for the military tointervene. Mohammed ElBaradei, who said he was ready to lead a transitional government,  was also theconsensus candidate by a unified opposition including: the 6 April Youth Movement, We Are All Khaled SaidMovement, National Association for Change, 25 January Movement, Kefaya and the Muslim Brotherhood.ElBaradei formed a "steering committee".  On 5 February, a "national dialogue" was started between thegovernment and opposition groups to work out a transitional period before democratic elections.Many of Al-Azhar Imams joined the protesters on 30 January all over the country.  Christian leaders asked theircongregations to stay away from protests, though a number of young Christian activists joined the protests led byWafd Party member Raymond Lakah.The Muslim Brotherhood joined the revolution on 30 January, calling on all opposition groups to unite againstMubarak, and for the military to intervene. They joined other opposition groups in electing Mohammed el Baradeito lead a National Salvation Government in the interim period. The Egyptian state cracked down on the media, and shut down internet access,  a primary means ofcommunication for the opposition. Journalists were also harassed by the regimes supporters, elicitingcondemnation from the Committee to Protect Journalists, European countries and the United States. Reform process
See also: Egyptian constitutional review committee of 2011The protests initiated a process of social and political reform by articulating a series of demands. Reform beganwith President Mubaraks announcements that concessions would be made towards reform and was highlighted byhis resignation 18 days after the protests started. The list of demands for broader changes in Egyptian society andgovernance, articulated by protesters and activists, includes the following:A sign with the protesters omnibus demandsShredded documents found inside State Security Investigations Service Demands of the protestors Demand Status Date1. Resignation of President Mohammed Hosni Mubarak. Met. 11 February 20112. Canceling the State of Emergency (colloquially referred to as "The Emergency Not Met. TBALaw"). Claims to be3. Dismantling the State Security Investigations Service. 15 March 2011 met.4. Announcement by (Vice-President) Omar Suleiman that he will not run in the next Met. 3 February 2011presidential elections.5. Dissolving the Parliament. Met. 13 February 20116. Release of all prisoners taken since 25 January. Ongoing 20 February 20117. Ending of the recently imposed curfew. Met. 15 June 20118. Removing the SSI-controlled university-police. Claims to be met. 3 March 20119. Investigation of officials responsible for violence against protesters. Ongoing 28 February 201110. Firing Minister of Information Anas el-Fiqqi and stopping government owned Met; minister 12 February 2011media propaganda. fired, ministry
canceled, propaganda still ongoing Announced but11. Reimbursing shop owners for losses during the curfew 7 February 2011 Not Met. 11–18 February12. Announcing the demands above on government television and radio Met. 201113. Dissolving the NDP. Claims to be met. 16 April 201114. Arrest, Interrogation and Trial of (now-former) president Hosni Mubarak and his Met; All ordered 24 May 2011two sons: Gamal Mubarak and Alaa Mubarak. to stand trial.The voters line in Mokattam, Cairo, during the constitutional referendum on 19 March 2011. The queue was so long itextended well outside the built-up area of Mokattam and into the desert. The referendum witnessed an unprecedented turnoutof voters, with over 18 million Egyptians casting their votes.On 17 February, an Egyptian prosecutor ordered the detention of three ex-ministers, former Interior Minister Habibel-Adli, former Tourism Minister Zuhair Garana and former Housing Minister Ahmed el-Maghrabi, and aprominent businessman, steel magnate Ahmed Ezz, pending trial on suspicion of wasting public funds. The publicprosecutor also froze the accounts of Adli and his family members on accusations that over 4 million Egyptianpounds ($680,000) were transferred to his personal account by a head of a contractor company, while calling onthe Foreign Minister to contact European countries and ask them to freeze the accounts of the defendants. Meanwhile, the United States announced on the same day that it was giving Egypt $150 million in crucialeconomic assistance to help it transition towards democracy following the overthrow of long time presidentMubarak. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said that William Burns, the Under-secretary of State for politicalaffairs, and David Lipton, a senior White House adviser on international economics, would travel to Egypt thefollowing week.On 19 February, a moderate Islamic party, named (Arabic: ال د د )ح ب الAl-Wasat Al-Jadid, or the New CenterParty, which was outlawed for 15 years was granted official recognition by an Egyptian court. The party wasfounded in 1996 by activists who split off from the Muslim Brotherhood and sought to create a tolerant Islamicmovement with liberal tendencies, but its attempts to register as an official party were rejected four times sincethen. On the same day, Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq said 222 political prisoners would be released. He said onlya few were detained during the popular uprising and put the number of remaining political prisoners at 487, but didnot say when they would be released. On 20 February, Dr. Yehia El Gamal a well known activist and law professor, announced (on TV channels)accepting a Vice Prime Minister position within the new government that will be announced on 21–22 February.He also announced the removal of many of the previous government members to alleviate the situation.On 21 February, the Muslim Brotherhood announced it would form a political party for the upcomingparliamentary election, called the Freedom and Justice Party, which was to be led by Dr. Saad Ketatni. 
Its spokesperson noted that "when we talk about the slogans of the revolution – freedom, social justice, equality –all of these are in the Sharia (Islamic law)."On 3 March, Prime Minister Shafik submitted his resignation to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. TheCouncil appointed Essam Sharaf, a former Minister of Transport who began vocal criticism of the regimefollowing his resignation, particularly after the Qalyoub rail accident in 2006, to replace Shafik and form a newgovernment. Sharafs appointment is seen as a significant concession to protesters, as he had been activelyinvolved during the action at Tahrir Square.  Sharaf appointed former International Court of Justicejudge Nabil Elaraby as Foreign Minister and General Mansour El Essawi as Interior Minister. On 16 April, the Higher Administrative Court dissolved the former ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) andordered its funds and property to be handed over to the government.  On 24 May 2011, it was announced thatEgypts ousted President Hosni Mubarak and his two sons Gamal and Alaa are to be tried over the deaths of anti-government protesters in the revolution that began on 25 January.  Court trials of state officials accused of corruptionMain article: Trials and judicial hearings following the 2011 Egyptian revolutionThe ousting of Mubarak was followed by a series of arrests of, and / or imposed travel bans on high profile figureson charges of causing the death of 300–500 demonstrators, and the injury of 5,000 more, as well as charges ofembezzlement, profiteering, money laundry, and abuse of human rights. Among these figures are Mubarakhimself, his wife Suzanne Mubarak, his son Gamal, his son Alaa, the former Interior Minister Habib el-Adly, theformer Housing Minister Ahmed El-Maghrabi, the former Tourism Minister Zoheir Garana and the formerSecretary of the National Democratic Party for Organisational Affairs Ahmed Ezz. Mubaraks ousting was alsofollowed by widespread allegations of corruption against numerous other government officials and seniorpoliticians On 28 February 2011, Egypts top prosecutor ordered an asset freeze for Mubarak and hisfamily. This was followed by arrest warrants, travel bans and judicial orders to freeze the assets of other knownpublic figures, including the former Speaker of the Egyptian Parliament, Fathi Sorour, and the former Speaker ofthe Higher Legislative Body (Shura Council), Safwat El Sherif. Arrest warrants were also issued againstsome public figures who left the country with the outbreak of the revolution. These warrants were issued onallegations of financial misappropriations, rather than human rights abuses. Among these public figures are RachidMohamed Rachid, the former Minister of Trade and Industry and Hussein Salem, a business tycoon. Salem isbelieved to have left for DubaiTrials of the accused officials started on 5 March 2011 when the former Interior Minster of Egypt, Habib el-Adli,appeared before the Giza Criminal Court in Cairo.  The trials of el-Adli and other public figures are expected torun a lengthy course.In March 2011, following the revolution, Abbud al-Zumar, one of Egypts most famous political prisoners, wasfreed after 30 years. He was founder and first emir of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and implicated in theassassination of President Anwar Sadat on 6 October 1981. On 24 May, former Egyptian President Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder ofpeaceful protestors during the 2011 Egyptian revolution and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. The fulllist of charges released by the public prosecutor was "intentional murder, attempted killing of somedemonstrators...misuse of influence and deliberately wasting public funds and unlawfully making private financialgains and profits." Analysis Regional instability
Main article: Arab SpringThe Egyptian Revolution, along with the events in Tunisia, have sparked a wave of major uprisings.Demonstrations and protests have spread across the Middle East and North Africa. To date Algeria, Bahrain, Iran,Jordan, Libya, Morocco,Yemen, and Syria have all witnessed major protests. In addition, minor incidents haveoccurred in Iraq, Kuwait, Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Sudan. Religion and politicsFurther information: Islam and democracy and Secularism in EgyptSee also: Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Gamaat Islamiya, and Egyptian Islamic JihadA Muslim wearing the cross in solidarity with Christian; and a Copt Christian (left) and a Salafi Muslim (right) debate inTahrir Square on politics and the revolutionThe protests in Egypt were not centred around religion-based politics, but nationalism and a broad-based socialconsciousness. Before the uprising, the most organised and prominent opposition movements throughout theArab world usually came from Islamist organisations that relied on a conviction of their faith, where memberswere motivated and ready to sacrifice. However, secular forces emerged from the revolution touting principles thatreligious groups shared with them: freedom, social justice, and dignity. Islamist organisations also emerged withgreater freedom to operate. Although the cooperative, inter-faith revolution itself was no guarantee that partisanpolitics would not re-emerge in its wake, its success nonetheless represented a change from the intellectualstagnation created by decades of repression which simply pitted modernity and Islam against one another asconflicting and incompatible. Islamists and secularists both have been faced with new opportunities for dialogueand discourse, on matters such as the role of Islam and Sharia in society and freedom of speech, as well as theimpact of secularism on a predominantly Muslim population. Despite the optimism surrounding the revolution, several commentators have expressed concerns about the risk ofincreased power and influence for Islamist forces in the country and the region at large, as well as the difficulties
of integrating the different groups, ideologies, and visions for the country among the population. JournalistCaroline Glick argued that the Egyptian revolution portends a rise in religious radicalism and support for terrorism,citing a 2010 Pew Opinion poll which found that Egyptians support Islamists over modernizers by a ratio of over 2to 1. Journalist Shlomo Ben-Ami argued that Egypts most formidable task is to refute the old paradigm of theArab World that sees the only choices for regimes as between either repressive, secular dictatorships or repressivetheocracies. He noted, however that with Islam such a central part of the society, any emergent regime is bound tobe attuned to religion. In his view a democracy that excluded all religion from public life, as in France, couldsucceed in Egypt and no Arab democracy could disallow the participation of political Islam if it were to begenuine.Since the revolution Islamist parties such as the Muslim Brotherhood have shown unprecedented strength in thenew more democratic landscape, taking leading roles in constitutional changes, voter mobilization, andprotests. This was a noted concern among the secular and youth movements, who wanted any elections tobe held later rather than sooner, so that they might catch up with the already well-organized groups. Elections areto be held in September 2011 and it is unclear which group or approach will prevail. Womens roleA female protester wearing a niqābEgyptian women were active throughout the revolution. Some took part in the protests themselves, were present innews clips and on Facebook forums, and were part of the leadership during the Egyptian revolution. In TahrirSquare, female protesters, some with their children, worked to support the protests. The diversity of the protestersin Tahrir Square was visible in the women who participated; many wore head scarves and other signs of religiousconservatism, while others revelled in the freedom to kiss a friend or smoke a cigarette in public. Egyptian womenalso organised protests, and reported on the events; female bloggers such as Leil Zahra Mortada risked abuse orimprisonment by keeping the world informed of the daily scene in Tahrir Square and elsewhere.  Among thosewho died was Sally Zahran, who was beaten to death during one of the demonstrations. NASA reportedly plans toname one of its Mars exploration spacecraft in Zahrans honour. The wide participation and the significant contributions by Egyptian women to the protests have been attributed tothe fact that many, especially younger women, are better educated than previous generations, representing morethan half of Egyptian university students. This has been an empowering factor for women, who have become morepresent and active publicly in recent years. The advent of social media has also helped provide tools for women tobecome protest leaders. The militarys roleFurther information: Egyptian Armed Forces
From left to right: One of the 2 army vehicles that were burned during the army attacks on 9 April 2011 and one of theprotestors holding some of the army bullets, standing in front of a burning army vehicle that was burned during the armyattack on 9 April 2011 in Tahrir Square, at least 2 protestors were killed by the army and tens wounded.The Egyptian Armed Forces enjoy a better reputation with the public than the police does, the former perceived asa professional body protecting the country, the latter accused of systemic corruption and illegitimate violence. Allfour Egyptian presidents since the 1950s have come from the military into power. Key Egyptian military personnelinclude the Defense Minister Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and General Sami Hafez Enan, Chief of Staff of theArmed Forces. The Egyptian military totals around 468,500 well-armed active personnel, plus a reserve of479,000.As Head of Egypts Armed Forces, Tantawi has been described as "aged and change-resistant" and is attached tothe old regime. He has used his position as Defense Minister to oppose reforms, economic and political, which hesaw as weakening central government authority. Other key figures, Sami Enan chief among them, are younger andhave closer connections to both the US and groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood. An important aspect of therelationship between the Egyptian and American military establishments is the 1.3 billion dollars in military aidprovided to Egypt annually, which in turn pays for American-made military equipment, and allows Egyptianofficers to receive training in the US. Guaranteed this aid package, the governing military council is for the mostreform-resistant. One analyst however, while conceding that the military is change-resistant, states it has nooption but to facilitate the process of democratisation. Furthermore, the military will have to keep its role inpolitics limited to continue good relations with the West, and must not restrict the participation of political Islam ifthere is to be a genuine democracy. Foreign relationsMain article: Foreign relations of EgyptForeign governments in the West including the US have regarded Mubarak as an important ally and supporter inthe Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations. After wars with Israel in 1948, 56, 67 and 73, Egypt signed a peacetreaty in 1979, provoking controversy in the Arab world. As provisioned in the 1978 Camp David Accords, whichled to the peace treaty, both Israel and Egypt receive billions of dollars in aid annually from the United States, withEgypt receiving over US$1.3 billion of military aid each year in addition to economic and developmentassistance. According to Juan Cole, many Egyptian youth feel ignored by Mubarak on the grounds that he isnot looking out for their best interests and that he rather serves the interests of the West. The cooperation of theEgyptian regime in enforcing the blockade of the Gaza Strip was also deeply unpopular among the generalEgyptian public. Online activism and the role of social media
Coverage by the news network Al Jazeera English provided information about the revolution outside Egypt.The pril outh Movement rabic: ح ة شب ب ) is an Egyptian Facebook group started in Spring 2008 tosupport the workers in El-Mahalla El-Kubra, an industrial town, who were planning to strike on April 6. Activistscalled on participants to wear black and stay home on the day of the strike. Bloggers and citizen journalists usedFacebook, Twitter, Flickr, blogs and other new media tools to report on the strike, alert their networks about policeactivity, organize legal protection and draw attention to their efforts. The New York Times has identified themovement as the political Facebook group in Egypt with the most dynamic debates. As of January 2009[update], ithad 70,000 predominantly young and educated members, most of whom had not been politically active before;their core concerns include free speech, nepotism in government and the countrys stagnant economy. Theirdiscussion forum on Facebook features intense and heated discussions, and is constantly updated with newpostings.the founders of the movement Ahmed Maher was a prominent participant in the anti-Mubarak demonstrations in Egypt in 2011. Asmaa Mahfouz posted a video blog that went viral. She urged the Egyptian people to join her in a protest on January 2 , in Tahrir Square to bring down Mubarak’s regime and urged people not to be afraid. Waleed Rashed (Arabic ) ا شد ول يدborn November 15, 1983 in El Sharkia, Egypt), is one of the co-founders of the April 6 Youth Movement and a prominent participant in the anti-Mubarak demonstrations in Egypt in 2011.We Are All Khaled Saeed is a Facebook group which formed in the aftermath of Saeeds beating and death. Thegroup attracted hundreds of thousands of members worldwide and played a prominent role in spreading andbringing attention to the growing discontent. As the protests began, Google executive Wael Ghonim revealed thathe was the person behind the account. Later after the revolution, in an TV interview in the presence of memberof the ruling military council, it was revealed that AbdulRahman Mansour, a young underground activist andmedia expert shared the account with Wael Ghonim.  Another potent viral online contribution was made byAsmaa Mahfouz, a female activist who posted a video in which she challenged people to publicly protest. Previously, Facebook had suspended the group because some of its administrators were using pseudonyms, aviolation of the companys Terms of Service.The usage of social media has been extensive.   As one Egyptian activist succinctly tweeted duringthe protests there, "We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell theworld." Internet censorship has also been extensive, and in some cases comprehensive to the extent of takingentire nation-states practically off-line.It is readily believed that a handful of people through Facebook, Twitter, and blogging sparked this uprising. Oneof which is Wael Ghonim. Many believe Ghonim was the first contributor to spark the Egypt revolution when hecreated a Facebook page dedicated to Khaled Saeed entitled We Are All Khaled Saeed . Saeed, an Egyptianbusiness man was beaten to death by police in June 2010. It is believed that this was in retaliation to a video heposted showing Egyptian police sharing the spoils of a drug bust. The Facebook page blew up to over 400,000followers, creating an online arena where protestors and those discontent with the government could gather, vent,
and organise. The page called for protests on 25 January, Known as the day of wrath. Hundreds of thousands ofprotestors flooded the streets to show their discontent with the murder and the corruption within their country.Ghonim was jailed the 28th and released 12 days later. Ghonim has also gained quite a large following through hisTwitter account where he has been creating a narrative of the events happening day to day in Egypt. Ghonim is theMiddle East and North African marketing manager at Google. He is currently on leave.Another major contributor is Egyptian activist and member of the 6 April movementThough these two are credited with being the first social media faces of this revolution, since the 25th people haveposted videos, tweeted, and wrote Facebook comments to keep the world abreast of the turmoil in Egypt. Includingvideos posted of a badly beaten Khaled Said, disproving the first claims by the police that he had choked to death.Ali documents the various ways in which social media was used by Egyptian activists, some of the most prominentEgyptian celebrities, and as well by major political figures abroad to invigorate the protests. Sharif Abdel Kouddous, a journalist with Democracy Now! had provided live coverage and tweets from TahrirSquare during the protests and has also been credited with using new media to raise awareness regarding theprotests.The role of social media in the Egyptian uprising has since been widely written and debated about, including in thefirst edition of the Dubai Debates on the question "Mark Zuckerberg – the new hero of the Arab people?" Many have argued, based in part on the Egyptian revolution, that social media may be an effective tool indeveloping nations more generally.Critics that claim social networking didnt instigate the Arab Spring, argue on five major points : that people inthe Middle East generally dont use social networking sites,  that social networking sites arent privateenough to evade authorities, that many people dont trust social networking as a source for news, that socialnetworking sites were promoted by the media,  and finally that social networking sites make non-activists feelinvolved in the revolutions. After-Revolution Freedom of Establishing Political PartiesFreedom was given to establish political parties only by "notifying" concerned authorities, resulting in establishingseveral political parties named after or in relation to the 25 January revolution. See List of political parties inEgypt. See also Egypt portal Human rights portal Politics portal Arab Spring Freedom in the World (report) Tunisian revolution List of freedom indices Human rights in Egypt List of modern conflicts in the Middle East Democracy in the Middle East List of modern conflicts in North Africa Supreme Council of the Armed Forces 2007–2008 world food price crisis Muslim Brotherhood References
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