Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                                     http://en.wikip...
Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                                       http://en.wik...
Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                            
Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                                        http://en.wi...
Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                                          http://en....
Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                                             http://...
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  1. 1. Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15, 1933) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Ginsburg was appointed by President Bill Clinton and Ruth Bader Ginsburg took the oath of office on August 10, 1993. She is the second female justice (after Sandra Day OConnor) and the first Jewish female justice. She is generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the Court. Ginsburg spent a considerable portion of her career as an advocate for the equal citizenship status of women and men as a constitutional principle. She advocated as a volunteer lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsel in the 1970s. She was a professor at Rutgers School of Law–Newark and Columbia Law School. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Career 2.1 Early career 2.2 Judicial career Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the 2.2.1 U.S. Court of Appeals United States 2.2.2 Supreme Court Incumbent Nomination and confirmation Supreme Court jurisprudence Assumed office 2.3 Notable cases August 10, 1993 2.4 Ginsburg Precedent Nominated by Bill Clinton 2.5 1997 vice-presidential inauguration Preceded by Byron White 3 Personal life 3.1 Illness Judge of the Court of Appeals for the District of 4 Future plans Columbia Circuit 4.1 Recognition In office 5 See also June 30, 1980 – August 10, 1993 6 References 7 Bibliography Nominated by Jimmy Carter 8 External links Preceded by Harold Leventhal Succeeded by David Tatel Personal details Early life and education Born March 15, 1933 Brooklyn, New York, U.S. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Ruth Joan Bader was the second daughter of Nathan and Political party Democratic Party[1] Celia (née Amster) Bader. The family nicknamed her "Kiki".[3] They belonged to the East Midwood Jewish Center, where she took her religious confirmation seriously. At age Spouse(s) Martin Ginsburg (1954–2010) thirteen, Ruth acted as the "camp rabbi" at a Jewish summer program at Camp Children Jane Ginsburg Che-Na-Wah in Minerva, New York.[4] James Steven Ginsburg Alma mater Cornell University Her mother took an active role in her education, taking her to the library often. Bader attended James Madison High School, whose law program later dedicated a courtroom in Harvard Law School her honor. Her older sister died when she was very young. Her mother struggled with Columbia Law School cancer throughout Ruths high school years and died the day before her graduation.[3] Religion Judaism[2] She graduated from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in government[5] on June 23, 1954, and that fall enrolled at Harvard Law School, where she was one of only nine women in a class of more than five hundred. When her husband took a job in New York City, she transferred to Columbia Law School and became the first woman to be on two major law reviews, the Harvard Law Review and the Columbia Law Review. In 1959, she earned her law degree at Columbia and tied for first in her class.[3][6] In 2009 she was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Willamette University, in 2010 she was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Princeton University,[7] and in 2011 she was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Harvard University.[8]1 of 6 12/23/2011 8:11 PM
  2. 2. Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Career Early career In 1960, despite a strong recommendation from the dean of Harvard Law School, Justice Felix Frankfurter turned down Ginsburg for a clerkship position because she was a woman.[9][10] Later that year, Ginsburg began a clerkship for Judge Edmund L. Palmieri of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. From 1961 to 1963 she was a research associate and then associate director of the Columbia Law School Project on International Procedure, learning Swedish to co-author a book on judicial procedure in Sweden. Ginsburg conducted extensive research for her book at the University of Lund in Sweden.[11] She was a professor of law at Rutgers from 1963 to 1972. In 1970, she co-founded the Womens Rights Law Reporter, the first law journal in the U.S. to focus exclusively on womens rights.[12] From 1972 until 1980, she taught at Columbia, where she became the first tenured woman and co-authored the first law school casebook on sex discrimination. She also taught in Tulane University Law Schools summer- abroad program.[13] In 1977, she became a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. In 1972, Ginsburg co-founded the Womens Rights Project at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and, in 1973, she became the ACLUs General Counsel. As the chief litigator for the Womens Rights Project, she briefed and argued several landmark cases in front of the Supreme Court, such as Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971), wherein the Court extended the protections of the Equal Protection Clause to women for the first time. She also argued Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S. 677 (1973) and Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld, 420 U.S. 636 (1975), which supported the ultimate development and application of the intermediate scrutiny Equal Protection standard of review for legal classifications based on sex. She attained a reputation as a skilled oral advocate, and her work directly led to the end of gender discrimination in many areas of the law.[14] Her last case as a lawyer before the Court was 1978s Duren v. Missouri, which challenged laws and practices making jury duty voluntary for women in that state. Ginsburg viewed optional jury duty as a message that womens service was unnecessary to important government functions. At the end of Ginsburgs oral presentation, then-Associate Justice William Rehnquist asked Ginsburg, "You wont settle for putting Susan B. Anthony on the new dollar, then?"[15] Ginsburg, being cautious, did not respond to his question. Judicial career U.S. Court of Appeals President Jimmy Carter appointed Ginsburg to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit on April 14, 1980, to the seat of recently deceased judge Harold Leventhal. She served there for thirteen years, until joining the Supreme Court. During her 13-year tenure on the D.C. Circuit, Ginsburg made 57 hires for law clerk, intern, and secretary positions. At her Supreme Court confirmation hearing, it was revealed that none of those hired had been African-Americans, a fact for which Ginsburg (an "aggressive support[er] [of] disparate-impact statistics as evidence of intentional discrimination") was Ginsburg officially accepts the sharply criticized.[16] nomination from President Bill Clinton on June 14, 1993. Supreme Court Nomination and confirmation President Bill Clinton nominated her as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on June 14, 1993, to fill the seat vacated by retiring Justice Byron White. Ginsburg was recommended to Clinton by then-U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno.[6] During her subsequent testimony before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee as part of the confirmation hearings, she refused to answer questions regarding her personal views on most issues or how she would adjudicate certain hypothetical situations as a Supreme Court Justice. A number of Senators on the committee came away frustrated, with unanswered questions about how Ginsburg planned to make the transition from an advocate for causes she personally held dear, to a justice on the Supreme Court. Despite this, Ginsburg refused to discuss her beliefs about the limits and proper role of jurisprudence, saying, "Were I to rehearse here what I would say and how I would reason on such questions, I would act injudiciously". At the same time, Ginsburg did answer questions relating to some potentially controversial issues. For instance, she affirmed her belief in a constitutional right to privacy, and explicated at some length on her personal judicial philosophy and thoughts regarding gender equality.[17] The U.S. Senate confirmed her by a 96-to-3 vote[19] and she took her judicial oath on August 10, 1993.[20] Supreme Court jurisprudence2 of 6 12/23/2011 8:11 PM
  3. 3. Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ginsburg characterizes her performance on the Court as a cautious approach to adjudication, and argued in a speech shortly before her nomination to the Court that "[m]easured motions seem to me right, in the main, for constitutional as well as common law adjudication. Doctrinal limbs too swiftly shaped, experience teaches, may prove unstable."[21] Ginsburg has urged that the Court allow for dialogue with elected branches, while others argue that would inevitably lead to politicizing the Court. Although Ginsburg has consistently supported abortion rights and joined in the Courts opinion striking down Nebraskas partial-birth abortion law in Stenberg v. Carhart 530 U.S. 914 ( (2000) she has criticized the Courts ruling in Roe v. (left to right) Sandra Day OConnor, Wade 410 U.S. 113 ( (1973) as terminating a nascent, Sonia Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Elena democratic movement to liberalize abortion laws which might have built a more durable consensus in Kagan on October 1, 2010 support of abortion rights.[citation needed] She discussed her views on abortion rights and sexual equality in a 2009 New York Times interview, in which she said regarding abortion that "[t]he basic thing is that the government has no business making that choice for a woman."[22] One statement she made during the interview ("Frankly, I had thought at the time Roe was decided, there was concern about population growth and particularly growth in populations that we dont want to have too many of.")[22] was criticized by conservative commentator Michael Gerson as reflecting an "attitude . . . that abortion is economically important to a woman of means and useful in reducing the number of social undesirables."[23] Ginsburg has also been an advocate for using foreign law and norms to shape U.S. law in judicial opinions,[citation needed] in contrast to the textualist views of her colleagues Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Justice Antonin Scalia, Justice Clarence Thomas and Justice Samuel Alito. Despite their fundamental differences, Ginsburg considers Scalia her closest colleague on the Court, and they often dine and attend the opera together.[24] Notable cases United States v. Virginia, 518 U.S. 515 ( (1996) Court Opinion. Virginia Military Institutes male-only admission policy violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. United States v. OHagan, 521 U.S. 642 ( (1997) Court Opinion Olmstead v. L.C., 527 U.S. 581 ( (1999) Court Opinion Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc., 528 U.S. 167 ( (2000) Court Opinion Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 ( (2000) Dissenting Eldred v. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 ( (2003) Court Opinion Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Saudi Basic Industries Corp., 544 U.S. 280 ( (2005) Court Opinion Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 550 U.S. 618 ( (2007) Dissenting Gonzales v. Carhart, 550 U.S. 124 ( (2007) Dissenting Ricci v. DeStefano, 129 S. Ct. 2658 (2009) Dissenting Ginsburg Precedent More than a decade passed between the two successive terms in which Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer were appointed and the date another justice left the Court. By that time, both the Congress and the White House had switched to Republican control. When OConnor announced her retirement in the summer of 2005, with Chief Justice Rehnquists death a few months later, both sides began to squabble about just what kinds of questions President George W. Bushs nominees would be expected to answer. The debate heated up when hearings for Roberts began in September 2005. Republicans used an argument they called the "Ginsburg Precedent", which centered on Ginsburgs confirmation hearings.[25] In those hearings, she did not answer questions involving matters such as abortion, gay rights, separation of church and state, and disability rights. Only one witness testified against Ginsburg at her confirmation hearings, and the hearings lasted only four days.[25] In a September 28, 2005, speech at Wake Forest University, Ginsburg said that Roberts refusal to answer questions during his Senate confirmation hearings on some cases was "unquestionably right".[26] Democrats had taken issue with Roberts refusal to answer certain questions, saying Ginsburg had made her views very clear, even if she did not comment on some specific matters, and that because of her lengthy tenure as a judge, many of her legal opinions were already available for review. During Roberts confirmation hearings, Senators Joe Biden (Delaware), Orrin Hatch (Utah), and Roberts himself brought up Ginsburgs hearings several times as they argued over what questions she answered and what Roberts was expected to answer. The precedent was again cited several times during the confirmation hearings for Justice Samuel Alito. 1997 vice-presidential inauguration Ginsburg administered, at his request, Vice President Al Gores oath of office to a second term during the second presidential inauguration of3 of 6 12/23/2011 8:11 PM
  4. 4. Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Clinton on January 20, 1997. Personal life A few days after graduating from Cornell, Ruth Bader married Martin D. Ginsburg, later an internationally prominent tax lawyer, and then (after they moved from New York to Washington DC, upon her accession to the D.C. Circuit) professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center. Their daughter Jane (born 1955) is a professor at Columbia Law School, and their son James Steven Ginsburg (born 1965) is founder and president of Cedille Records, a classical-music recording company based in Chicago, Illinois. After the birth of their daughter, her husband was diagnosed with testicular cancer. During this period, Ginsburg attended class and took notes for both of them; typed her husbands papers to his dictation; and cared for their daughter and her sick husband – all while making the Harvard Law Review. They celebrated their 56th wedding anniversary on June 23, 2010. Martin Ginsburg died of complications from metastatic cancer on June 27, 2010.[27] Some Supreme Court justices and other prominent figures attend the Red Mass held every fall in Washington, D.C. at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle. Ginsburg explained her reason for no longer attending: "I went one year, and I will never go again, because this sermon was outrageously anti-abortion," Ginsburg said in the book Stars of David: Prominent Jews Talk About Being Jewish by Abigail Pogrebin. "Even the Scalias – although theyre much of that persuasion – were embarrassed for me."[28] Illness Ginsburg was diagnosed with colon cancer in 1999 and underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. During the process, she did not miss a day on the bench.[29] On February 5, 2009, she again underwent surgery related to pancreatic cancer.[30] Ginsburgs tumor was discovered at an early stage.[30] Ginsburg was released from a New York hospital, eight days after the surgery and heard oral arguments again four days later. On September 24, 2009, Ginsburg was hospitalized for lightheadedness following an outpatient treatment for iron deficiency and was released the following day.[31] Future plans With the retirement of John Paul Stevens in 2010, Ginsburg became, at 77 years of age, the eldest justice on the Court.[32] Despite rumors she would retire as a result of old age, poor health, and the death of her husband,[33][34] she denied she was planning to step down. In an August 2010 interview, Ginsburg stated that the Courts work was helping her cope with the death of her husband and suggested she would serve until at least 2012 when a painting that used to hang in her office is due to be returned to her.[32] She also expressed a wish to emulate Justice Louis Brandeis, who retired at 82,[32] an age that Ginsburg would attain in 2015. Recognition In 2009, Forbes named her among the 100 Most Powerful Women.[35] See also Bill Clinton U.S. Supreme Court candidates List of U.S. Supreme Court cases during the Rehnquist Demographics of the U.S. Supreme Court Court List of Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court List of U.S. Supreme Court cases during the Roberts Court List of law clerks of the U.S. Supreme Court List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office References 1. ^ As on Bench, Voting Styles Are Personal 4. ^ "Equal: How Women Reshape American Law, p. 24" ( ( . /11/AR2008021102753.html) 2. ^ Seymour "Sy" Brody. "Ruth Bader Ginsburg" 5. ^ Scanlon, Jennifer (1999). Significant contemporary American ( feminists: a biographical sourcebook. Greenwood Press. p. 118. /Ginsburg.html) . Jewish Virtual Library. ISBN 9780313301254. OCLC 237329773 ( /oclc/237329773) . Retrieved December 19, 2010. 6. ^ a b Toobin, Jeffrey (2007). The Nine: Inside the Secret World of 3. ^ a b c Staff writer. Ruth Bader Ginsburg ( the Supreme Court. p. 82. New York. Doubleday. ISBN /justices/ruth_bader_ginsburg) . Undated. Accessed 978-0385516402. August 24, 2009. 7. ^ "Princeton awards five honorary degrees"4 of 6 12/23/2011 8:11 PM
  5. 5. Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ( . 22. ^ a b Bazelon, Emily (July 7, 2009). "The Place of Women on the Princeton University. Court" ( /S27/54/12S69/. Retrieved June 1, 2010. t.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all) . The New York Times. 8. ^ "Harvard awards 9 honorary degrees" ( /gazette/story/2011/05/harvard-to-award-nine-honorary-degrees/) . t.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all. Retrieved September 1, 2010. Harvard Gazette. Harvard University. May 26, 2011. 23. ^ Gerson, Michael (July 17, 2009). "Justice Ginsburg in Context" ( nine-honorary-degrees/. Retrieved June 29, 2011. /16/AR2009071603485.html?hpid=opinionsbox1) . The Washington 9. ^ Lewis, Neil (June 15, 2993). "The Supreme Court: Woman in the Post. News; Rejected as a Clerk, Chosen as a Justice: Ruth Joan Bader /2009/07/16/AR2009071603485.html?hpid=opinionsbox1. Retrieved Ginsburg" ( August 24, 2009. woman-rejected-clerk-chosen-justice-ruth-joan-bader-ginsburg.html) . 24. ^ Biskupic, Joan (December 25, 2007). "Ginsburg, Scalia Strike a The New York Times (registration required). Balance" ( ginsburg-scalia_N.htm) USA Today. Accessed August 24, 2009. rejected-clerk-chosen-justice-ruth-joan-bader-ginsburg.html. 25. ^ a b PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Jun. 1994), Retrieved October 5, 2010. pp. 224–227 ( 10. ^ Greenhouse, Linda (August 30, 2006). "Women Suddenly Scarce /sici?sici=1049-0965(199406)27%3A2%3C224%3ATUOSCH%3E2. Among Justices’ Clerks" ( 26. ^ "Bench Memos: Ginsburg on Roberts Hearings" /30/washington/30scotus.html) . The New York Times (registration ( required). /post/?q=YWRmZjliMWFlMmQzY2ZlZTMzMjgyMGE2MGJjZjFkN /30scotus.html. Retrieved June 27, 2010. DU=) . National Review Online. September 29, 2005. 11. ^ Bayer, Linda N. (2000). Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Women of Achievement). Philadelphia. Chelsea House. p. 46. ISBN /post/?q=YWRmZjliMWFlMmQzY2ZlZTMzMjgyMGE2MGJjZjFkN 978-0791052877. DU=. Retrieved September 18, 2009. 12. ^ "About the Reporter" ( 27. ^ "Husband of Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg dies" . Retrieved June 29, ( 2008. of-supreme-court-justi.html) . The Washington Post. June 27, 2010. 13. ^ "Summer Abroad" ( /index.aspx?ekmensel=c580fa7b_168_0_4386_1) . Tulane of-supreme-court-justi.html. Retrieved June 27, 2010. University Law School. 28. ^ "Biden, 5 justices attend annual Red Mass" /index.aspx?ekmensel=c580fa7b_168_0_4386_1. Retrieved ( December 19, 2010. mass-court,0,5851502.story?track=rss) . The Chicago Tribune. 14. ^ Pullman, Sandra (March 7, 2006). "Tribute: The Legacy of Ruth October 3, 2010. Bader Ginsburg and WRP Staff" ( /sns-red-mass-court,0,5851502.story?track=rss. Retrieved October 3, /tribute-legacy-ruth-bader-ginsburg-and-wrp-staff) . 2010. Accessed November 18, 2010. 29. ^ Garry, Stephanie (February 6, 2009). "For Ruth Bader Ginsburg, 15. ^ Von Drehle, David (July 19, 1993). "Redefining Fair With a Hopeful Signs in Grim News about Pancreatic Cancer" Simple Careful Assault – Step-by-Step Strategy Produced Strides for ( . St. Equal Protection" ( Petersburg Times. Accessed August 24, 2009. /article/2007/08/23/AR2007082300903_pf.html) . The Washington 30. ^ a b Sherman, Mark (February 6, 2009). "Ginsburg could lead to Post. Accessed August 24, 2009. Obama appointment" ( . 16. ^ Whelan, Ed (May 12, 2010) What Happened to the Consensus- AP, republished by MSNBC. Builder? ( /id/29051442/. Retrieved September 18, 2009. happened-consensus-builder/ed-whelan) , National Review Online 31. ^ "Supreme Court Justice Ginsburg Taken to Hospital" 17. ^ Bennard, Kristina Silja (August 2005), The Confirmation ( Hearings of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg: Answering Questions court-ginsburg.html) . Reuters , republished by New York Times. While Maintaining Judicial Impartiality ( September 24, 2009. /web/20060114232749/ /24/news/news-us-usa-court-ginsburg.html. Retrieved September 24, /Bennard+re+Ginsburg+confirmation.pdf) , Washington, D.C.: 2009. American Constitution Society, archived from the original 32. ^ a b c Sherman, Mark (August 3, 2010). "Ginsburg says no plans to ( leave Supreme Court" ( /Bennard+re+Ginsburg+confirmation.pdf) on January 14, 2006, /washington/articles/2010/08 /03/ginsburg_says_no_plans_to_leave_supreme_court/) . Boston /views/Bennard+re+Ginsburg+confirmation.pdf, retrieved May 11, Globe. Associated Press. 2010 /washington/articles/2010/08 18. ^ "Project Vote Smart" ( /03/ginsburg_says_no_plans_to_leave_supreme_court/. Retrieved /issue_keyvote_member.php?cs_id=8630) . February 13, 2011. 33. ^ de Vogue, Ariana (February 4, 2010). "White House Prepares for Retrieved December 19, 2010. Possibility of 2 Supreme Court Vacancies" ( 19. ^ The three negative votes came from conservative Republican /Politics/Supreme_Court/white-house-prepares-possibility-supreme- Senators – Don Nickles (Oklahoma), Robert C. Smith (New court-vacancies/story?id=9740077&page=1) . ABC. Hampshire) and Jesse Helms (North Carolina), while Donald W. Riegle, Jr. (Democrat – Michigan) did not vote.[18] prepares-possibility-supreme-court-vacancies/story?id=9740077& 20. ^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States" page=1. Retrieved August 6, 2010. ( . Supreme 34. ^ "At Supreme Court, no one rushes into retirement" Court of the United States. ( /members.aspx. Retrieved April 26, 2010. election_N.htm) . USA Today. July 13, 2008. 21. ^ DLC: Judge Not by William A. Galston ( /ndol_ci.cfm?kaid=127&subid=177&contentid=253356) election_N.htm. Retrieved August 6, 2010.5 of 6 12/23/2011 8:11 PM
  6. 6. Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 35. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women" ( /2009/11/power-women-09_The-100-Most-Powerful- 100-Most-Powerful-Women_Rank_2.html. Women_Rank_2.html) . Forbes. August 19, 2009. Bibliography Clinton, Bill (2005). My Life. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 140003003X. Garner, Bryan A.; Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (foreword) (2009). "Foreword". Garner on Language and Writing. Chicago: American Bar Association. ISBN 9781590315880. External links Supreme Court ( official site with biographies ( /biographies.aspx) Profile ( at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center Legal resources ( at the Law Library of Congress Biography and writings ( at the Legal Information Institute Profile ( at the Oyez Project Appearances ( on C-SPAN Profile ( at the Internet Movie Database Financial information ( at Collected news and commentary ( at The New York Times Works by or about Ruth Bader Ginsburg ( in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Profile ( at Notable Names Database Voices on Antisemitism Interview with Ruth Bader Ginsburg ( /transcript/?content=20061109) from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum Legal offices Judge of the Court of Appeals for the District of Preceded by Succeeded by Columbia Circuit Harold Leventhal David Tatel 1980–1993 Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Preceded by States Incumbent Byron White 1993–present United States order of precedence Preceded by Succeeded by Order of Precedence of the United States Clarence Thomas as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Stephen Breyer as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Retrieved from "" Categories: 1933 births American female lawyers American Jews American legal scholars American women judges People with cancer Colorectal cancer survivors Columbia Law School alumni Columbia University faculty Cornell University alumni Harvard Law School alumni Judges of the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit Living people Members of the American Civil Liberties Union New York lawyers Pancreatic cancer survivors People from Brooklyn Rutgers School of Law–Newark faculty Tulane University Law School faculty United States court of appeals judges appointed by Jimmy Carter United States federal judges appointed by Bill Clinton United States Supreme Court justices This page was last modified on 13 December 2011 at 21:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.6 of 6 12/23/2011 8:11 PM