Technology Guide 3Data & Databases                     2
File ManagementKey file management concepts include:                   Database  Bit                   Entity  Byte  ...
Hierarchy of Data                    4
Accessing Records from Computer              Files In sequential file        In direct or random file  organization:    ...
Problems Arising in the File             Environment• Data redundancy: The same piece of information  could be duplicated ...
Problems Arising in the File             Environment• Data Integrity: It is difficult to place data integrity  constraints...
Database Management Systems• The program (or group of programs) that provides access to a  database is known as a database...
Database Management Systems (cont.)      Three major components of a DBMS:      Data definition language      Data manip...
Data Definition Language (DDL)• DDL is the language used by programmers to  specify the content and structure of the datab...
Data Manipulation Language (DML)• DML is used with a third- or fourth-generation  language to manipulate the data in the d...
Data Dictionary• Data Dictionary is a file  that stores definitions  of data elements and  data characteristics  such as u...
Logical Data OrganizationThere are three basicmodels for logically     Three additional modelsstructuring databases:   are...
The Hierarchical Model The hierarchical model relates data by rigidly  structuring data into an inverted “tree” in which ...
The Networked-based Model The network model creates relationships among  data through a linked-list structure in which  s...
The Relational Database Model The relational model is based on a simple concept of  tables in order to capitalize on char...
Creating Databases• To create a database, designers must develop both  a conceptual and physical design:   – Conceptual de...
Chapter 2Information Technologies: Concepts & Management                            18
Learning Objectives Describe strategic information systems (SIS) and explain  their advantages. Describe Porter’s compet...
Learning Objectives (cont.) Describe and understand the role of web-based SIS and the  nature of competition in the digit...
Case: Building an e-Business at Fed                 ExProblem: FedEx has kept looking ahead at every stage for opportunit...
Characteristics of Information                    Systems Several different information      Interorganizational informa...
Data, Information & KnowledgeOne of the primary goals of Information Systems is to economically process datainto informati...
Effectiveness and Efficiency• ISs can help companies attain more effective and  efficient business processes   – Effective...
Effectiveness and Efficiency (Cont.)                 25
Classifications of Information                   SystemsInformation Systems can be classified   according to; Organizatio...
Classification by Organizational Structure• Departmental information systems. Frequently, an organization  uses several ap...
Classification by Functional AreaThe major functional information systems are the following:The accounting information sy...
Classification by Support ProvidedThe major types of systems under this classification are: Transaction processing system...
Evolution of Support SystemsEarly 1950s   Transaction processing system (TPS)     1960s    Management information systems ...
Evolution of Support Systems (cont.)Early 1980s Executive information systems            Enterprise information systems (E...
Case: Detecting Bombs with ANNProblem:• The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) use statistical analysis and   expert sy...
Interrelated Support Systems                                Non Computer                                  SupportTransacti...
Classification by System ArchitectureInformation systems can be classified according to three   types of architecture:A m...
Transaction Processing• Transaction processing systems (TPS) support the monitoring,  collection, storage, processing, and...
Functional MISs Functional Management Information Systems (MISs) are put in place  to ensure that business strategies com...
Functional MISsSales forecast by region generated by marketing MIS.                                                       37
Classification by the Activity                    Supported Another important way to classify information systems is by t...
Traditional Transaction Processing Methods• Batch processing – method of computerized  processing in which business transa...
Batch versus On-Line Processing                                  40
Integration of a Firm’s TPSs                               41
Transaction Processing Activities•   Data collection•   Data editing•   Data correction•   Data manipulation•   Data stora...
Data Processing Activities Common in   Transaction Processing Systems                                       43
Point-of-Sale Transaction System                                   44
New Strategic Systems• Electronic commerce (EC) has become a new way of  conducting business in the last decade or so.   –...
Information Systems & People                               46
Information InfrastructureThere are five major components of the infrastructure:    Computer hardware    Development sof...
Information Architecture   Information architecture is a high-level map or plan of the    information requirements in an ...
Types of Information Architecture   Mainframe environment. In the mainframe environment, processing is    done by a mainf...
Information Technology 104
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Information Technology 104

  1. 1. Technology Guide 3Data & Databases 2
  2. 2. File ManagementKey file management concepts include:  Database  Bit  Entity  Byte  Field  Attribute  Record  Key field  File 3
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Data 4
  4. 4. Accessing Records from Computer Files In sequential file  In direct or random file organization: organization: Data records must be Users can access records retrieved in the same in any sequence, without physical sequence in regard to actual physical which they are stored. order on the storage medium. 5
  5. 5. Problems Arising in the File Environment• Data redundancy: The same piece of information could be duplicated in several files.• Data inconsistency: The actual values across various copies of the data no longer agree.• Data isolation. Data files are likely to be organized differently, stored in different formats, and often physically inaccessible to other applications.• Security: is difficult to enforce in the file environment. 6
  6. 6. Problems Arising in the File Environment• Data Integrity: It is difficult to place data integrity constraints across multiple data files.• Application/ Data independence: In the file environment, the applications and their associated data files are dependent on each other.• The numerous problems arising from the file environment approach led to the development of databases. – Database: an organized logical grouping of related files. 7
  7. 7. Database Management Systems• The program (or group of programs) that provides access to a database is known as a database management system (DBMS).• There are many specialized databases, depending on the type or format of data stored. – A geographical information database contains locational data for overlaying on maps or images. – A knowledge database stores decision rules used to evaluate situations and help users make decisions like an expert. – A multimedia database stores data on many media—sounds, video, images, graphic animation, and text. 8
  8. 8. Database Management Systems (cont.) Three major components of a DBMS:  Data definition language  Data manipulation language  Data dictionary 9
  9. 9. Data Definition Language (DDL)• DDL is the language used by programmers to specify the content and structure of the database.• A DBMS user defines views or schemes using the DDL. – A schema - the logical description of the entire database and the listing of all the data items and the relationships among them. – A subschema - the specific set of data from the database that is required by each application. 10
  10. 10. Data Manipulation Language (DML)• DML is used with a third- or fourth-generation language to manipulate the data in the database.• DML provides users with the ability to retrieve, sort, display, and delete the contents of a database.• Requesting information from a database is the most commonly performed operation. – Structured query language (SQL) – Query-by-example (QBE) 11
  11. 11. Data Dictionary• Data Dictionary is a file that stores definitions of data elements and data characteristics such as usage, physical representation, ownership, authorization, and security. – A data element represents a field. 12
  12. 12. Logical Data OrganizationThere are three basicmodels for logically Three additional modelsstructuring databases: are emerging: Hierarchical  Multidimensional Network  Object-oriented Relational  Hypermedia 13
  13. 13. The Hierarchical Model The hierarchical model relates data by rigidly structuring data into an inverted “tree” in which records contain two elements: 1. A single root or master field, often called a key, which identifies the type location, or ordering of the records. 2. A variable number of subordinate fields that defines the rest of the data within a record. The hierarchical structure is commonly found in many traditional business organizations and processes. 14
  14. 14. The Networked-based Model The network model creates relationships among data through a linked-list structure in which subordinated records (members) can be linked to more than one owner. Explicit links, called pointers, are used to link subordinates and owners. That relationship is called a set. Many-to-many relationships are possible with a network database model—a significant advantage of the network model over the hierarchical model. 15
  15. 15. The Relational Database Model The relational model is based on a simple concept of tables in order to capitalize on characteristics of rows and columns of data, which is consistent with real-world business situations. – Tables are called relations, and the model is based on the mathematical theory of sets and relations. – A row is called a tuple, and a column is called an attribute. One of the greatest advantages of the relational model is its conceptual simplicity and the ability to link records in a way that is not predefined. 16
  16. 16. Creating Databases• To create a database, designers must develop both a conceptual and physical design: – Conceptual design - an abstract model of the database from the user or business perspective. • Describes how the data elements in the database are to be grouped. – Physical design shows how the database is actually arranged on direct access storage devices.• Groups of data are organized, refined, and streamlined until an overall logical view of the relationships among all of the data elements in the database appears. 17
  17. 17. Chapter 2Information Technologies: Concepts & Management 18
  18. 18. Learning Objectives Describe strategic information systems (SIS) and explain their advantages. Describe Porter’s competitive forces model & how IT helps companies improve their competitive positions. Describe Porter’s value chain model and its relationship to information technology. Describe several other frameworks that show how IT supports the attainment of competitive advantage. 19
  19. 19. Learning Objectives (cont.) Describe and understand the role of web-based SIS and the nature of competition in the digital age. Describe global competition and its SIS framework. Describe representative strategic information systems and the advantage they provide to organizations. Discuss implementation issues including possible failures of SIS. 20
  20. 20. Case: Building an e-Business at Fed ExProblem: FedEx has kept looking ahead at every stage for opportunities to meet customers’ needs for fast, reliable, and affordable overnight deliveries.Solution: In addition to e-Shipping Tools, FedEx is now providing integrated solutions to address the selling & supply chain needs of its customers.Results: FedEx’s e-business model facilitates better communication and collaboration between the various parties along the supply chains. It promotes efficiency gains by reducing costs & speeding up the order cycle. It transforms organizations into high performance e-businesses. 21
  21. 21. Characteristics of Information Systems Several different information  Interorganizational information systems can exist in one systems involve information flow organization. in two or more organizations. A particular information system  An enterprise wide system or may be composed of several interorganizational information separate information systems. system is composed of large & Information systems are small computers & hardware connected by means of connected by different types of electronic networks. networks. 22
  22. 22. Data, Information & KnowledgeOne of the primary goals of Information Systems is to economically process datainto information or knowledge. Data items refer to an elementary description of things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded, classified, and stored, but not organized to convey any specific meaning. Information is data that have been organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient. Knowledge consists of data or information that have been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning, and expertise. 23
  23. 23. Effectiveness and Efficiency• ISs can help companies attain more effective and efficient business processes – Effectiveness • The degree to which a task is accomplished – Efficiency • Determined by the relationship between resources expended and benefits gained in achieving a goal 24
  24. 24. Effectiveness and Efficiency (Cont.) 25
  25. 25. Classifications of Information SystemsInformation Systems can be classified according to; Organizational Structure Functional Area Support Provided System Architecture Activity Supported 26
  26. 26. Classification by Organizational Structure• Departmental information systems. Frequently, an organization uses several application programs in one functional area or department.• Enterprise information systems (EIS). While a departmental IS is usually related to a functional area, the collection of all departmental applications when combined with other functions’ applications comprises the enterprise wide information system.• Interorganizational systems. Some information systems connect several organizations. 27
  27. 27. Classification by Functional AreaThe major functional information systems are the following:The accounting information systemThe finance information systemThe manufacturing (operations/production) information systemThe marketing information systemThe human resources management information system 28
  28. 28. Classification by Support ProvidedThe major types of systems under this classification are: Transaction processing system (TPS) Management information system (MIS) Knowledge management system (KMS) Office automation system (OAS) Decision support system (DSS) Enterprise information system (EIS) Group support system (GSS) Intelligent support system 29
  29. 29. Evolution of Support SystemsEarly 1950s Transaction processing system (TPS) 1960s Management information systems (MISs)Late 1960s Office automation system (OAS)Early 1970s Decision support system (DSS) 30
  30. 30. Evolution of Support Systems (cont.)Early 1980s Executive information systems Enterprise information systems (EISs) Group support systems (GSSs)Mid- 1980s Expert systems (ES) Knowledge management systems (KMS) 1990s Artificial neural networks (ANNs) 31
  31. 31. Case: Detecting Bombs with ANNProblem:• The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) use statistical analysis and expert systems to prevent terrorists from sneaking bombs aboard airplanes. Yet, these technologies cannot detect all types of explosives.Solution:• Since 1993, artificial neural networks (ANN) have been added to improve detection effectiveness.• The ANN is exposed to a set of historical cases and is then able to predict the existence of explosives in new cases.Results:• The FAA hopes to detect explosives more successfully and also minimize false alarms. 32
  32. 32. Interrelated Support Systems Non Computer SupportTransaction MIS DSS Processes External Data EISInformation Warehouse Non Computer Support Internet, other Computer Support 33
  33. 33. Classification by System ArchitectureInformation systems can be classified according to three types of architecture:A mainframe-based system.A standalone personal computer (PC).A distributed or a networked computing system (several variations exist). 34
  34. 34. Transaction Processing• Transaction processing systems (TPS) support the monitoring, collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of the organization’s basic business transactions. – They provide the input data for many applications involving other support systems. – The transaction processing systems are considered critical to the success of any organization. – The TPS collects data continuously, frequently on a daily basis, or even in “real time”. 35
  35. 35. Functional MISs Functional Management Information Systems (MISs) are put in place to ensure that business strategies come to completion in an efficient manner. Typically a functional MIS provides periodic information about such topics as operational efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity by extracting information from the corporate database and processing it according to the needs of the user. MISs can be constructed in whole or in part by end-users. MISs are also used for planning, monitoring, and control. 36
  36. 36. Functional MISsSales forecast by region generated by marketing MIS. 37
  37. 37. Classification by the Activity Supported Another important way to classify information systems is by the nature of the activity they support. Such support can be: – Operational – Day-to-day operations of an organization – Managerial – Middle-management activities such as short-term planning, organizing, and control – Strategic – Decisions that significantly change the manner in which business is being done 38
  38. 38. Traditional Transaction Processing Methods• Batch processing – method of computerized processing in which business transactions are accumulated over a period of time and prepared for processing as a single unit• On-line transaction processing (OLTP) - method of computerized processing in which each transaction is processed immediately and the affected records are updated 39
  39. 39. Batch versus On-Line Processing 40
  40. 40. Integration of a Firm’s TPSs 41
  41. 41. Transaction Processing Activities• Data collection• Data editing• Data correction• Data manipulation• Data storage• Document production and reports 42
  42. 42. Data Processing Activities Common in Transaction Processing Systems 43
  43. 43. Point-of-Sale Transaction System 44
  44. 44. New Strategic Systems• Electronic commerce (EC) has become a new way of conducting business in the last decade or so. – In this new model, business transactions take place via telecommunications networks, primarily the Internet. – e-Commerce provides organizations with innovative and strategic advantages, such as; • Increased market share • Better ability to negotiate with suppliers • Better ability to prevent competitors from entering into their territory 45
  45. 45. Information Systems & People 46
  46. 46. Information InfrastructureThere are five major components of the infrastructure:  Computer hardware  Development software  Networks and communication facilities (including the Internet and intranets)  Databases  Information management personnel 47
  47. 47. Information Architecture Information architecture is a high-level map or plan of the information requirements in an organization. In preparing information architecture, the designer requires two kinds of information: 1. The business needs of the organization—that is, its objectives and problems, and the contribution that IT can make. 2. The information systems that already exist in an organization and how they can be combined among themselves or with future systems to support the organization’s information needs. 48
  48. 48. Types of Information Architecture Mainframe environment. In the mainframe environment, processing is done by a mainframe computer. – The users work with passive (or “dumb”) terminals, which are used to enter or change data and access information from the mainframe. PC environment. In the PC configuration, only PCs form the hardware information architecture. Networked (distributed) environment. Distributed processing divides the processing work between two or more computers. 49

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