Expressing rules.

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Using some modal verbs to express rules of obligation and permission.

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Expressing rules.

  1. 1. EXPRESSING RULESHave to, Don’t /Doesn’t have to,Can /Can´t /Cannot,Must, Mustn’t.
  2. 2. Expressing rulesExpressing ruleshave to, don’t / doesn’t have to, can, can’t,must, and mustn’t are always folowed by aninfinitive verb without “to”, except “have to”.For example:- I have to study today. I don’t have to studytoday.- I can watch the TV tonight. I can’t watch theTV tonight. (I can to watch the TV tonight)- I mustn’t talk in class. ( I mustn’t to talk in class)
  3. 3. Características de los Verbos ModalesCaracterísticas de los Verbos Modales“have to” becomes “has to” with he, she, or it.For example:- She has to study today.- Marita has to visit Judith on Saturday.- Bruno has to play soccer next time.- The project has to be excellent.- Our uniform has to be neat and tidy.
  4. 4. Have to• We use Have to to express an obligation. Itrefers to actions that are necessary.- I have to take a bus to go to school.(It´s necessary to take a bus to get to school)• Don’t / Doesn’t have to expresses absence ofobligation, something that is not necessary todo.- We don’t have to go to school tomorrow.(It´s not necessary to go to school tomorrow)
  5. 5. Have to (Affirmative)IYou have to study.HeShe has to study.ItWeYou have to study.They
  6. 6. Have to (Negative)COMPLETE FORM CONTRACTED FORMIYou do not have to / don’t have to study.HeShe does not have to / doesn’t have to study.ItWeYou do not have to / don’t have to study.They
  7. 7. Have to (Questions)Do/ Does + Subject + have to + vº infinitive + C + ?Do I have to study English ?youheDoes she have to study English ?itweDo you have to study English ?they
  8. 8. Have to (Questions)If there is a Question Word (Wh-) in the interrogativesentence, it goes at the beginning of th esentence.For example:Wh- + Do/ Does + Subject + have to + vº infinitive + C + ?Why does she have to study English?
  9. 9. Have to (Short Answers)AFFIRMATIVEYes, + subject + do/doesYes, I do.youheYes, she does.itweYes, you do.theyNEGATIVENo, +subject +don’t /doesn’tNo, I don’tyouheNo, she doesn’titweNo, you don’tthey
  10. 10. CAN & CAN’T = CANNOT1. We use can / can’t / cannot + vº infinitive toexpress permission.- I can play in the playground.- I can’t / cannot eat in class.- We can´t write on the tables.- The school van can´t be late for school.
  11. 11. MUSTN’T• We use Must to express strong obligationand duty.• Mustn’t expresses strong prohibition.We must respect the Angelus prayer.- You mustn’t insult your classmates.

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