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  1. 1. <ul><li>Global warming is a term generally used to describe an increase in the global average surface (air at surface) temperature. As far back as temperature records can be reconstructed, periods of global warming and global cooling have alternated; see  ice ages  and  interglacial warming. The term is most often used to refer to the modern period of global warming, an increase of 0.8 °C [1.4 °F] has been measured at weather stations throughout the world, since around 1850, when instrumental measurements began to be taken and organized records began to be kept. Although only a small increase in absolute terms, the temperature increase is unprecedented within at least the last 14,000 years according to the reconstructions by Via et al. (2006) and can have a significant impact upon the earth. Since this happens to correlate with increases in  carbon dioxide , many have speculated about their possible relationship. Despite this, there is no completely proven model explaining the rise in global temperatures. </li></ul>Introduction
  2. 2. Explanation of the causes of global warming
  3. 4. <ul><li>Main effects of global warming </li></ul><ul><li>There are two major effects of global warming: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of temperature on the earth by about 3° to 5° C (5.4° to 9° Fahrenheit) by the year 2100. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of sea levels by at least 25 meters (82 feet) by the year 2100. </li></ul>Effects of global warming
  4. 5. <ul><li>Increasing global temperatures are the primary effects of global warming. However they are causing a broad range of additional, secondary effects : </li></ul><ul><li>Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean, in addition to melting of land ice. </li></ul><ul><li>Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing. The total annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since 1975 because their average intensity and average duration have increased (in addition, there has been a high correlation of hurricane power with tropical sea-surface temperature). </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns have also global effects on extreme weather events: They increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes. Other effects of global warming include higher or lower agricultural yields, further glacial retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions. As further effects of global warming, diseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier. </li></ul>More details and secondary effects of global warming :
  5. 6. Some Evidence
  6. 7. Before & Later
  7. 8. <ul><li>Almost 100% of the observed temperature increase over the last 50 years has been due to the increase in the atmosphere of greenhouse gas concentrations like water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and ozone. Greenhouse gases are those gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect (see below). The largest contributing source of greenhouse gas is the burning of fossil fuels leading to the emission of carbon dioxide. </li></ul>Cause of global warming
  8. 9. <ul><li>Scientists have determined that a number of  human activities  are contributing to global warming by adding  excessive amounts of greenhouse gases  to the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases  such as carbon dioxide accumulate in the atmosphere and trap heat that normally would exit into outer space. </li></ul>What Causes Global Warming?
  9. 10. <ul><li>Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (see above) act like a mirror and reflect back to the Earth a part of the heat radiation, which would otherwise be lost to space. The higher the concentration of green house gases like carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the more heat energy is being reflected back to the Earth. The emission of carbon dioxide into the environment mainly from burning of fossil fuels (oil, gas, petrol, kerosene, etc.) has been increased dramatically over the past 50 years, see graph below. </li></ul>Global warming causes by greenhouse effect
  10. 11. Gas Emissions in Global Warming