Not enough to provide suitable e.g.s from real world situations to illustrate the concept or issue being taught – context needs to be all-embracing to provide purpose or motivation for learning and a sustained, complex learning environment that can be explored at length. One has to avoid oversimplifying context by breaking up complex processes and ideas into step-by-step sequences. Examples must be given as they naturally occur. A physical environment that reflects the way that knowledge will ultimately be used. Preserving the complexity of the real-life setting. The complexity of the environment should reflect the complexity expected in the final performance – the aim should be to assist the learner to function in the environment rather than simplify it.
‘Simulation learning has an “immersive” quality quite different from the classroom or home study experiences. It can create the experience Csiksentmihalyi (1992) described as flow – an intense feeling of engagement more easily observed amongst students playing computer games, board games, watching a movie or reading a novel than in classroom learning' (Herrington et al. 2010:87). Herrington et al. (2010:92) refer to the ‘willing suspension of disbelief’.
Access to expert thinking and modeling of processes, access to learners of different levels of expertise, and access to the social periphery and real-life episodes as they occur. The facility of the web o create global communities of learners who can interact via participaatory technologies, also enables sharing of narratives and stories. Often it is the person who has only recently acquired the knowledge or skill who is in the best position to share the key elements of the constructs or correct misconceptions that may be hindering understanding. The lecture can play a role here but it is insufficient to provide the elements of authentic learning.
In order for students to be able to investigate a problem or task from more than a single perspective, it is important to enable and encourage students to explore different perspectives on the topics from various points of view, and to “criss-cross”the learning environment repeatedly. From a pedagogical point of view, teachers and designers need to think about the key perspectives that exist in the subject area, and to also research controversies, debates and discussion that have characterised the area in its recent history. The examination of issues and problems from multiple perspectives has been defined as an important cognitive activity. Simple accumulation of practice from a single perspective is not sufficient to ensure expertise. Instead of being exposed to a single expert view, students can become aware of the differences of opinion that characterise all fields and to assess these complex and competing perspectives. Also need to visit the same material at different times and different contexts for different purposes from different conceptual perspectives for gaining advanced knowledge acquistion (mastery of complexity and preparation for transfer).
In most instances, the guest lectures were catalytic and led to deepened and more engaged dialogue about issues of difference and identity. They provided for more visceral experiences for students. Interestingly one of the more theoretical and direct discussions about race, was the least successful.
Anthias and Yuval-Davis (1992), Colombo and Senatore (2005), Dominelli (1992), Lugones (1998), Phelan (1996) and Wiesenfeld (1996).
The opportunity for users to collaborate is an important design element. Just by placing students in groups doesn’t necessarily result in collaboration. Students must work on a common task with a common incentive structure – rewards based on the performance of the groups. It is also solving a problem that could not have been completed independently.
Returning to the experience, attending to the feelings, re-evaluating the experience (Boud, Keogh and Walker, 1985) – associating and integrating new knowledge into the learner’s conceptual framework.
The foundation for the notion of scaffolding lies in Vygotsky’s (1978) ‘zone of proximal development’ described as ‘the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more knowledgeable peers.’
The course needs to provide the opportunity for students to be effective performers with acquired knowledge, and to craft polished performances or products in collaboration with others. It also requires assessment to be seamlessly integrated with the activity, and to provide criteria for scoring varied products
Authentic learning and graduate attributes heltasa 29 november
Structure of presentation• Curriculum alignment vs authentic learning for achieving graduate attributes• Graduate attributes• Authentic learning – elements• Research done at UWC on authentic learning• An example of an indepth interview – authentic learnng and graduate attributes
Developing graduate attributes• How best to develop these attributes in higher education• One possible way is through constructive alignment (Biggs, 2012)• Another possibility is through authentic learning (Herrington et al., 2010)
What are Graduate Attributes?Graduate attributes are the qualities, skills andunderstandings a university community agrees itsstudents should develop during their time withthe institution and consequently shape thecontribution they are able to make to theirprofession and society ... They are qualities thatalso prepare graduates as agents of social good inunknown futures.’ (Bowden et al., 2000)
What would UWC Graduate Attributes for the 21st Century look like?
Two tiers of graduate attributes (Barrie, 2004)Tier 1‘complex interwoven aspects of human ability’ (Barrie, 2005:3)• attributes that allow graduates to prosper in an uncertain world of change (Barnett, 2004) UWC Charter generic attributes:• scholarship, citizenship and the social good, lifelong learningTier 2 * Clusters of personal skills and abilities (UWC charter)• Inquiry-focused and knowledgeable• Critically and relevantly literate• Autonomous and collaborative• Ethically, Environmentally and Socially Aware and Active• Skilled Communicators• Interpersonal flexibility and confidence to engage across difference
UWC Charter of Graduate Attributes First Tier SCHOLARSHIP: A critical attitude towards knowledge: UWC graduates should be able to demonstrate a scholarly attitude to knowledge and understanding within the context of a rapidly changing environment. UWC graduates should have the ability to actively engage in the generation of innovative and relevant knowledge and understanding through inquiry, critique and synthesis. They should be able to apply their knowledge to solve diverse problems and communicate their knowledge confidently and effectively. CRITICAL CITIZENSHIP AND THE SOCIAL GOOD: A relationship and interaction with local and global communities and the environment: UWC graduates should be engaged, committed and accountable agents of social good. They must aspire to contribute to social justice and care, appreciative of the complexity of historical contexts and societal conditions through their roles as professionals and members of local and global communities. They should demonstrate leadership and responsibility with regard to environmental sustainability. • LIFELONG LEARNING: An attitude or stance towards themselves: • UWC graduates should be confident Lifelong Learners, committed to and capable of continuous collaborative and individual learning and critical reflection for the purpose of furthering their understanding of the world and their place in it. Graduate Attributes and2013/01/25 curriculum alignment
UWC Charter of Graduate Attributes SecondTier 1. Inquiry-focused and knowledgeable: UWC graduates will be able to create new knowledge and understanding through the process of research and inquiry 2. Critically and relevantly literate: UWC graduates will be able to seek, discern, use and apply information effectively in a range of contexts. 3. Autonomous and collaborative: UWC graduates will be able to work independently and in collaboration with others, in a way that is informed by openness, curiosity and a desire to meet new challenges. 4. Ethically, Environmentally and Socially Aware and Active: UWC graduates should be critical and responsible members of local, national, international and professional communities. They should also demonstrate a thorough knowledge of ethical, social, cultural and environmental issues relating to their disciplines and make professional and leadership decisions in accordance with these principles. 5. Skilled Communicators: UWC graduates should recognise and value communication as a tool for negotiating and creating new understanding, interacting with diverse others, and furthering their own learning. They should use effective communication as a tool to engage with new forms of complexity in social and working life. 6. Interpersonal flexibility and confidence to engage across difference: UWC graduates should be able to interact with people from a variety of backgrounds and have the emotional insight and imagination to understand the viewpoints of others. They should be able to work in a productive team, to lead where necessary and to contribute their skills as required to solving complex problems. • Graduate Attributes and2013/01/25 curriculum alignment
For authentic learning to occur oneneeds‘learners to be engaged in aninventive and realistic taskthat provides opportunitiesfor complex collaborativeactivities’. Herrington et al (2010:1)
Herrington’s nine elements of authentic learning• Authentic context• Authentic task• Expert performance• Multiple perspectives• Collaboration• Reflection• Articulation• Coaching and scaffolding• Assessment
Authentic taskAnti-oppressive scenariosand role plays deal with:• human right’s issues• Building self esteem• ‘Unlearning’ prejudice• Developing empathy• Problem solving• Developing emotional literacy and language• Conflict management• Supporting ’victims’ e.g abuse, bullying, xenophobic attacks• Collectivising issues: Feeling ‘not alone’
Persona Doll Assessment Task1 As a group, create a persona for one of the dolls which we have acquired in the department, using the guidelines given to you in the workshop. Write down this persona in this space. You should also record this and send the podcast to your group space in the discussion forum as a media file. (20)2 As a group, identify the issue or topic you are dealing with and the goal for the session and who your target group will be. Plan the story or introduction you will use. Prepare a 10-15 minute session with the doll. Identify the appropriate open-ended leading questions in which you encourage the naming of feelings, listening to each other, deep thinking, expressing ideas, empathising with the doll so that your group can help and advise it. Write down the issue, goals, target group, the story (introduction) and the questions you will ask, then record the session with one person acting as the facilitator and the other group members as the target group and send it as a podcast to your group discussion forum space. (40)2 Individual task - Using the prescribed readings for this module, identify the theoretical approach and principles underlying the persona doll and identify the techniques which can potentially be used in this approach. Include techniques which can be used more generally (i.e. not only those which are used for the persona doll).
Access to expert Performances and modelling of processes
Mediated learning for understandingTeacher provides skills, strategies and links to be able to complete the taskThe student:world of experience, ZPD Outcome of deep learning, This is the teaching space; this is the Relational conceptualUnstructured Knowhow knowledge gap! understanding.&/orSurface learning Coaching and scaffolding
Authentic task• Use Powerpoint to prepare a presentation on the relationship between identity, community and professional practice. The presentation should cover:• Notions of community, self and identity.• Remaining questions, tensions and contradictions for the group.• Implications of the above for professional practice in social work, occupational therapy and psychology.• You will be assessed on the basis of your presentation, and the notes used for the presentation. Critical and creative presentations are encouraged. Your presentations should contain references to the workshops, postings and readings. They should show an understanding of the complexity of the notions of identity, community and the human professions, and should reflect a critical appreciation of different viewpoints. In your presentation, ensure that you have considered how raced, gendered and classed histories and differing experiences and values inform professional identities and practices.• Your powerpoint presentation should be no longer than ten slides, containing a maximum of 80 words per slide (to be presented in 15 minutes; 5 minutes for questions).
Community, Self and Identity:A Virtual Learning Community across two South African Universities Poul Rohleder Wendy Lee Fish Amanda Ismael Lisa Padfield Deborah Platen
Indepth interviews at UWC• Part of NRF project• Target group: lecturers that are known to be open to/engaged with technology• Sent by email to contacts in all public HEIs institution, snowball sampling• Content: 3 parts, demographic, tools and open ended questions around practice with ET• Respondents: 262 (by 30 September 2011)• Selection of 35 respondents, for further interviews on how emerging technology is being used to provide and authentic learning experience for students• Sub-set of 10 UWC staff members were interviewed as part of this research.
Authentic context/ Lifelong learning/ Critically and relevantly literate• In order to teach physiotherapy, the educator has developed written cases through which “we try to figure out how to improve the clinical reasoning process; … clinical reasoning is really hard and it takes very long time to develop. … We introduce and encourage the idea of uncertainty and we try and give the students opportunities to learn how to be comfortable with the complexity and uncertainty of the clinical context and then to give them skills to navigate that uncertainty- rather than just being flawed and overwhelmed by all the different variables that you have to try and manage to actually being able to identify them and work with them. We need to give them skills now for them to able to go into the real world and say I don’t have this answer, now what do I know, what do I need to find out, how will I find out.
Authentic task/ critically and relevantlyliterate/ autonomous & collaborative/ skilled communicators• in the past we would have lectured on a series of conditions and say these are the conditions that you need to be aware of now what we do we give them a case and each case runs every 3 weeks period and every week we introduce new information that the students then have to integrate with what they already know about this particular patient so in week we say here is a patient and then they to identity problems and we give a kind of a few questions that help guide their thinking but we expect them to come up with their own questions and then we look over the the notes that they develop and we give input in terms of making sure that they are following a kind of a guide or a path that we think is appropriate and then every week we introduce complexity to the case so we add more information
Expert performance/ inquiry focused critically and relevantly literate• One of the 1st assignments we did in this module was we gave them a task where they had some readings and they had to develop a list of criteria that they would use to establish credibility in online sources and so that assignment then kind of set up how they would go about finding online sources that they can then use to inform their notes as we move through the module so we trying rather than say these are the internet sources you should use we say this how you can identify useful, relevant and creditable online sources
Multiple perspectives/critically and relevantly literate autonomous and collaborative• You can have clinicians who would disagree on appropriate management strategies for patients and how do you negotiate kind of a compromise between what you think its right and what someone else thinks its right so we do try and model that what we will often do is students will ask me a question and I will say well this is what I think but let me just grab this other person who I know has a different view and then we pull facilitators into the conversation and then we discuss the difference in the view point and model to the students that often times there is no right answer.• we also try and encourage the students to look at the particular problems from a different perspective within the curriculum so from an anatomical point of view because they are doing anatomy at the same time so how is this problem relevant in terms of your understanding of anatomy in terms of your movements science module we showed them a tape video of lady a neuro-anatomist who had a stroke so we looked at it from a therapist point of view how can we look at it from the patient point of view so we try and so that kind of thing where we pull in from other perspectives
Coaching and scaffolding• so in terms of scaffolding like that the students have to have a base and from that base they can build if the base is shaky we try and design the case so that its difficult for them to proceed without having an understanding of what they did in the beginning. Feedback we try and encourage all the facilitators to give feedback in the form of a question rather than saying this is wrong, this is right, this is excellent so even this is excellent is not useful feedback because students has no way to go from that so we have done a workshop where we guide facilitators on how to give feedback what it means we talked to students about how to use feedback and to try and give each other feedback so in terms of the scaffolding I think we try and always say why do you say that? What are you basing that on?
Reflection/ critically and relevantly literate• we model reflection we go on and on about how reflection is really important for profession development, there is just this block with the students where its just thinking we talk about if you don’t have any emotional investment in what you are doing then but the students are very resistant to reflection
Assessment• at the end of every term the students have to submit a clinical file which is a collection of documentation that they have gathered that relates to their patients contact so there is a clinical evaluation tool where there are patients kind of documentation notes, there is the reflections, there is they have set learning objectives for themselves so every week they have one or two learning objectives they have the reflections so there is that they submit at the end of every term that’s their clinical stuff, they replied to the theory classroom based stuff they have their case notes which we don’t assess the case presentations
Collaboration• they are in a different groups ,when they go out in a clinical practice they are in one group and in the classroom they are in a different group and the idea is that students learn things on a clinical experience and they bring it back to the classroom experience so on the Monday morning they set aside time where they discuss the patient they saw the previous Thursday and we try to get them to bring their own clinical stories back into the classroom and then the facilitators can discuss those experiences. we try to build in collaboration we don’t give them notes they have to collaboratively build the notes in their groups with inputs from facilitators
Articulation/critical and relevantlyliterate/autonomous and collaborative• at the end of every case each group has to have a set of case notes where they have drawn up their understanding of this particular patient and also within that case they should have had an opportunity to present a summary of the weeks work so they have their presentation, the summary of the week they have their case notes and then every group must do a full case presentation that they graded on at the end of each case• we challenge every single statement that the students makes that is not explicitly guided by a reason so the students stands up and say I think that then we say why do you think that/ on what have you based that?