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ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018
CEMAS - GROUPE EGALITE FEMMES/HOMMES -
HEFORSHE ESSEC
• The Centre of Excellence for Management & Society (CEMAS)
• ESSEC Gender Equality Group and
• Women programme "Gender, G...
IOANA LUPU
ACCOUNTIG & MANAGEMENT CONTROL
DEPARTMENT
6, 8 ET 9
MARS
ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
JUNKO TAKAGI
MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT
6, 8 ET 9
MARS
ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
Junko Takagi
Management Department
Leadership and Diversity Chair
ESSEC Business School
Why gender quotas?
 Underrepresentation of women in upper-level management
(e.g. Aarken et al, 2004; Eagly and Carli, 200...
Comparisons of Gender Quotas in Europe
(Huse, 2012; Luckerath-Rovers, 2012; Galbadon, 2012)
Country % quota
objectives
Con...
Some conclusions
 The importance of sanctions for the implementation of
gender quotas
 Resistance to quotas perceived as...
Impact of increasing non-executive female board
members (Takagi and Moteabbed, 2012)
Type of board
membership:
Executive v...
KAROLINE STRAUSS
MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT
6, 8 ET 9
MARS
ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
• those who make things
happen,
• those who watch what
happens,
• and those who wonder
what happened
Koenig, A. M., Eagly, A. H., Mitchell, A. A., & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are leader stereotypes
masculine? A meta-analysis of...
Prescribed performance
When you became company director of
Buzz About, you implemented a standard
protocol for marketing m...
Threat
Performance
evaluation
Pat = Female, proactive
Pat = Female, as prescribed
Pat = Male, proactive
Pat = Male, as pre...
ANNE JENY
ACCOUNTING & MANAGEMENT CONTROL
DEPARTMENT
6, 8 ET 9
MARS
ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
16
Understanding the glass ceiling in the
accountancy profession: novel
perspectives
Anne JENY and Estefania SANTACREU-VAS...
Introduction
• From the paper
• “New avenues of research to explain the rarity of females
at the top of the accountancy pr...
Motivation
• The Big Four are present in more than 140 countries,
• But accounting research has focused on studying Anglo-...
Our research design and results
• We argue that the study of existing gender disparities in top
leadership accountancy pos...
Discussion and conclusion
• We review existing explanations of the rarity of women in the
Big Four and how these would cha...
VIVIANE DE BEAUFORT
DEPARTEMENT
DROIT ET ENVIRONMENT DE L’ENTREPRISE
6, 8 ET 9
MARS
ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
FEMMES ET POUVOIR:TABOU OU NOUVEAU
MODELE DE GOUVERNANCE?
• Série de 50 Entretiens réalisés à l’international en partenari...
Changement de paradigmes
①A power “to act” rather than power for power’s sake
②The search for the collective exercise of p...
Le complexe de l’Imposteur
La difficulté à s’imposer
Apprentissage du Leadership
un souci de pragmatisme et l’effet
d’entrainement
Proportion minoritaire suffisante et VA jeu
collectif - Sensibilité aux enjeux RSE & éthique
RADU VRANCEANU
ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
6, 8 ET 9
MARS
ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
Research in experimental economics
at ESSEC: detecting gender and
gender pairing effects
Seeun Jung (Inha University, Seul...
Experiments in general
• Strengths: controlled environment (neat causality), replicability
(random allocation to groups (t...
Our existing studies
• [1] S. Jung, R. Vranceanu, 2017. Gender Interaction in Teams:
Experimental Evidence on Performance ...
Some of our main results
• In general we revealed a significant gender effect, yet
only limited gender pairing effects.
• ...
Some of our main results
• [3] Standard result in EE (NV 2007): men like to compete more than
women. When controlling for ...
ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 - PROGRAMME
5 & 6 MARS 2018 – HACKATHON LED BY HER – CHEZ ORANGE 75010 PARIS
• 2 jours pou...
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GENDER DAYS 6 mars 2018 - Cemas- Groupe Egalite Femme/homme- ESSEC

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1er partage de recherches des professeur/es ESSEC s/ "Gender EQUALITY" porté en équipe par CEMAS & le groupe Egalité Femme/Homme & la Communication avec nos étudiants & salariés.

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GENDER DAYS 6 mars 2018 - Cemas- Groupe Egalite Femme/homme- ESSEC

  1. 1. ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 CEMAS - GROUPE EGALITE FEMMES/HOMMES - HEFORSHE ESSEC
  2. 2. • The Centre of Excellence for Management & Society (CEMAS) • ESSEC Gender Equality Group and • Women programme "Gender, Governance & Empowerment" • organise a 6 x 7 minutes pitches on Gender issues in management INTRODUCTION • Vincenzo ESPOSITO VINZI • Viviane DE BEAUFORT • Adrián ZICARI 6, 8 ET 9 MARS ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 2 TUESDAY, MARCH 6TH, 2018 FROM 12:00 - 2:00 P.M AT K-LAB
  3. 3. IOANA LUPU ACCOUNTIG & MANAGEMENT CONTROL DEPARTMENT 6, 8 ET 9 MARS ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
  4. 4. JUNKO TAKAGI MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT 6, 8 ET 9 MARS ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
  5. 5. Junko Takagi Management Department Leadership and Diversity Chair ESSEC Business School
  6. 6. Why gender quotas?  Underrepresentation of women in upper-level management (e.g. Aarken et al, 2004; Eagly and Carli, 2007)  Despite attempts to address this issue, the phenomenon persists (Fletcher and Ely, 2003)  Quotas as legal means to impose gender equality (e.g. Norway, France, Holland, Spain)  Improvement of quality of board deliberations and corporate governance, more socially-oriented decisions, positive impact on firm performance and corporate branding (Burke and Mattis, 2000; Thomson and Graham, 2005; Huse, 2007; Vinnicombe et al. 2008; etc.)
  7. 7. Comparisons of Gender Quotas in Europe (Huse, 2012; Luckerath-Rovers, 2012; Galbadon, 2012) Country % quota objectives Consequences for non- compliance Impact of quota law Norway (2002) 40% Sanctions 40% attained in 2010 Holland (2009) 30% Justification and strategy plan (comply or explain) Attained by 14% of firms in 2015. 75% of firms had no women in 2015. Overall reached 10% Spain (2007) 40% Justification and strategy plan 16.6% in 2014
  8. 8. Some conclusions  The importance of sanctions for the implementation of gender quotas  Resistance to quotas perceived as distributive versus procedural justice  Impact of quotas on the type of board membership for women  Lack of long-term impact for women in the firm
  9. 9. Impact of increasing non-executive female board members (Takagi and Moteabbed, 2012) Type of board membership: Executive vs. non-exec Perceived availability Perceived similarity Comparison effects: Assimilation vs contrast Impact as role models for women within the firm
  10. 10. KAROLINE STRAUSS MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT 6, 8 ET 9 MARS ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
  11. 11. • those who make things happen, • those who watch what happens, • and those who wonder what happened
  12. 12. Koenig, A. M., Eagly, A. H., Mitchell, A. A., & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 616-642. Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109(3), 573-598.
  13. 13. Prescribed performance When you became company director of Buzz About, you implemented a standard protocol for marketing managers for initial meetings, which is to discuss what Buzz About can offer in terms of media exposure, Twitter and Facebook support. Pat met with the client and discussed the portfolio of offerings. She coordinated with the marketing team to make sure everyone understands their standard roles with this new client. She followed the standard procedures you designed and tasks were properly completed. The new client is happy. Proactivity When you became company director of Buzz About, you implemented a standard protocol for marketing managers for initial meetings, which is to discuss what Buzz About can offer in terms of media exposure, Twitter and Facebook support. Pat met with the client and discussed the portfolio of offerings. Rather than follow the standard procedures you designed, she decided to take a different approach to try and improve the delivery of offerings in the future. To accomplish this, she developed a new client communication and point of contact procedure in meetings. The new client is happy. 13
  14. 14. Threat Performance evaluation Pat = Female, proactive Pat = Female, as prescribed Pat = Male, proactive Pat = Male, as prescribed 14 M SD 5.85 0.61 5.78 1.23 6.09 0.78 6.05 0.75 M SD 1.94 a, b 0.93 1.20 a 0.41 1.67 0.72 1.36 b 0.50
  15. 15. ANNE JENY ACCOUNTING & MANAGEMENT CONTROL DEPARTMENT 6, 8 ET 9 MARS ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
  16. 16. 16 Understanding the glass ceiling in the accountancy profession: novel perspectives Anne JENY and Estefania SANTACREU-VASUT Gender Equality Days, 2018 Anne JENY
  17. 17. Introduction • From the paper • “New avenues of research to explain the rarity of females at the top of the accountancy profession”, Palgrave Communication, March 2017. • Glass ceiling phenomenon in Big Four audit firms: • Women represent only 10-20% of executives (i.e. partners) at KPMG, Deloitte, PwC, and EY, they represent only 10-20%. • Why is this particular glass ceiling proving so hard to break? • Existing explanations suggest either that women may just be “different”, or that they face societal-level barriers in terms of stereotypes and expectations. Anne JENY17
  18. 18. Motivation • The Big Four are present in more than 140 countries, • But accounting research has focused on studying Anglo- Saxon countries or single country case studies. • Economics research: how gender roles and gender inequality varies across cultures. • Language may also play a role in shaping gender roles: » Economics researchers have identified a correlation between gender distinctions in grammar (the feminine and masculine distinctions in French, for example) with lower socioeconomic, political, and managerial outcomes for women at country level. » Findings further suggest that language may convey gender norms and provide a unique measure of historical gender roles that have been transmitted to the present day. Anne JENY18
  19. 19. Our research design and results • We argue that the study of existing gender disparities in top leadership accountancy positions across countries may also benefit from using language to measure gender inequality. • We perform a thorough and systematic literature review on gender, accountancy and language (90 years of research, looking at papers from 1926 to 2016), and • We collect data on the presence of the Big Four throughout the world, including their linguistic environments and the characteristics of their global boards. • Findings: • Research that links gender in accountancy to the linguistic environment is scant • Big Four indeed operate in diverse linguistic environments. • Allow us to suggest a set of avenues of future research Anne JENY19
  20. 20. Discussion and conclusion • We review existing explanations of the rarity of women in the Big Four and how these would change if we consider language:  “Just give it time”  “Women are different”  Jobs are for the boys”  A never ending story  Language may play an important role in perpetuating traditional gender roles, preventing women from accessing top leadership positions in society, as within the accountancy profession. Anne JENY20
  21. 21. VIVIANE DE BEAUFORT DEPARTEMENT DROIT ET ENVIRONMENT DE L’ENTREPRISE 6, 8 ET 9 MARS ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
  22. 22. FEMMES ET POUVOIR:TABOU OU NOUVEAU MODELE DE GOUVERNANCE? • Série de 50 Entretiens réalisés à l’international en partenariat avec Boyden Global Executive Search 2011 – 2012 • Série d’Ateliers coolectifs : European Women in Leadership - Women be european board ready + Women’s Forum 2016 ( prochain 8 mars JUMP - Bruxelles ) • Women on Boards: Sharing a Rigorous Vision of the Functioning of Boards, Demanding a New Model of Corporate Governance Journal of Research in Gender Studies 2014, ISSN: 2164-0262 avec LUCY SUMMERS Viviane de Beaufort.
  23. 23. Changement de paradigmes ①A power “to act” rather than power for power’s sake ②The search for the collective exercise of power: an non-executive Board set-up and run as a “Team” ③A disinterest for power games and struggles, but the wish to serve the “general interest” ④The reliance on skills (for reassurance) Non executive : an idealised vision of the role
  24. 24. Le complexe de l’Imposteur
  25. 25. La difficulté à s’imposer
  26. 26. Apprentissage du Leadership un souci de pragmatisme et l’effet d’entrainement
  27. 27. Proportion minoritaire suffisante et VA jeu collectif - Sensibilité aux enjeux RSE & éthique
  28. 28. RADU VRANCEANU ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT 6, 8 ET 9 MARS ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 3
  29. 29. Research in experimental economics at ESSEC: detecting gender and gender pairing effects Seeun Jung (Inha University, Seul) Karine Lamiraud (ESSEC), Radu Vranceanu (ESSEC)
  30. 30. Experiments in general • Strengths: controlled environment (neat causality), replicability (random allocation to groups (test / control), incentivized) • Limits: outcomes are sensible to framing; trust the results only if replicated in different contexts and conditions ; the bias of publishing positive results only
  31. 31. Our existing studies • [1] S. Jung, R. Vranceanu, 2017. Gender Interaction in Teams: Experimental Evidence on Performance and Punishment Behavior, Korean Economic Review, Vol. 33 • [2] S. Jung, R. Vranceanu, 2017. Experimental Evidence on Gender Differences in Lying Behavior, Revue Economique, Vol. 68 • [3] S. Jung, R. Vranceanu, 2018. The Value of Competition: New Experimental Evidence, under review. • [4] S. Jung, R. Vranceanu, 2018. Tournament Pay, Subjective Well-Being and Productivity in a Real-Effort Experiment, R&R at J. Eco Psychology • [5] K. Lamiraud, R. Vranceanu, 2018. Group Gender Composition and Economic Decision-making: Evidence from the Kallystée Business Game, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 145 Most of the tests were performed at the Essec Experimental Lab (K-Lab). Special thanks to Delphine Dubart, the Lab manager for the implementation.
  32. 32. Some of our main results • In general we revealed a significant gender effect, yet only limited gender pairing effects. • [1] At equal « misperformance » in a real effort task, women tend to be sanctioned more frequently and harsher than men ; When sanctioned, men raise their performance at subsequent stages, women do not. • [2] The frequency of women and men misreporting their endowment in a standard UG with imperfect information is similar; yet men understate their endowment by a larger amount (the size of the lie is higher).
  33. 33. Some of our main results • [3] Standard result in EE (NV 2007): men like to compete more than women. When controlling for overconfidence, this result seems to vanish, We develop a more powerful tool to elicit the individual willingness to compete. We corroborate the original result. Most interesting finding: as many as 10% of women present a large WTC [4;6] compared to 38% of men; and as many as 13% of men present a low WTC [-6;-4] compared to 23% of women. Average values hide important individual differences. Policy implications. • [4] After being exposed to a tournament pay scheme, the subjective well-being of French women declines (this is in line with the distaste for competition hypothesis), yet the opposite holds for Korean women. Cultural differences can be important. • [5] Group decision – mixed group with a majority of women perform the best in a business game.
  34. 34. ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018 - PROGRAMME 5 & 6 MARS 2018 – HACKATHON LED BY HER – CHEZ ORANGE 75010 PARIS • 2 jours pour un Hackathon hors-norme basé sur la collaboration plutôt que les résultats. Contribuez et faites une différence pour l'entrepreneuriat Féminin ! www.ledbyher.org JEUDI 8 MARS 2018 – INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S DAY – ANIMATIONS HEFORSHE • VDB et bénéfices reversés à la Maison des Femmes – HDP • Présentation Concours des Stéréotypes Buster (CGE) VENDREDI 9 MARS 2018 – 18H À 20H – CNIT • Célébration des 10 ans d'Entreprendre Au Féminin-ESSEC. Featuring les Alumnae et 10 marraines avec le Club Génération Startuppeuse. Florie.reitiger@essec.edu (20 places) LUNDI 26 MARS 2018 – EQUAL PAY DAY FRANCE – 17H30 À 19H30 – CNIT • Atelier Ambition Carrières, positionnement et négociation salariale au féminin, organisé par le Groupe Egalité Femmes Hommes, lesCareer Services et le réseau féminin Business and Professional Women- France (BPW). Inscription : gender-equality.essec.edu (40 places) 34 6, 8 ET 9 MARS ESSEC GENDER EQUALITY DAYS 2018

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