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CHAPTER:1
1.1. Introduction To DLW
Diesel locomotive works (DLW) is production unit under the ministry of railways.
This was set up in collaboration with American Locomotive Company (ALCO)
USA in 1961 and the first locomotive was rolled out in 1964. This unit produces
diesel electronic locomotives and DG sets for Indian railways and other customers in
India and abroad.
Subsequently a contract for transfer of technology of 4000 HP microprocessor
controlled AC /AC Freight (GT 46 MAC)/Passenger (GT 46 PAC) locomotives and
family of 710 engines has been signed with electromotive division of general motors
of USA for manufacture in DLW. The production of these locomotives has now
started and DLW is the only manufacturer of Diesel Electric Locomotives with both
ALCO and General motors technologies in the world.
Fig1.1 Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi
1.2. About the Company
a) Set up in 1961 as green field project in technical collaboration with ALCO
/USA to manufacture Diesel electric locomotives.
b) First locomotive rolled out and dedicated to nation in January, 1964.
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c) Transfer of Technology agreement signed with General motors /USA in
October, 1995 to manufacture state of the art high traction AC-AC diesel
locomotives.
d) A flagship company of Indian Railways offering complete range of flanking
products in its area of operation.
e) State of the art Design and Manufacturing facility to manufacture more than
150 locomotives per annum with wide range of related products viz.
components and sub assemblies.
f) Unbeatable trail blazing track record in providing cost effective, eco-friendly
and reliable solutions to ever increasing transportation needs for over three
decades.
g) Fully geared to meet specific transportation needs by putting Price-Value-
Technology equation perfectly right.
h) A large base of delighted customers among many countries viz. Sri Lanka,
Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Tanzania to name a few, bearing testimony
to product leadership in its categories.
1.3 About The Plant
Production unit are divided in three Divisions:-
1. Block division
2. Engine division
3. Loco division
a) Block division
1. Heavy Weld shop
2. Heavy Machine Shop
b) Engine division
1. Engine Erection Shop
2. Engine Testing Shop
3. Light Machine Shop
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4. Sub Assembly Shop
5. Rotor Shop
6. Heat Treatment Shop
c) Loco division
1. Loco Frame Shop
2. Pipe Shop
3. Truck Machine Shop
4. Traction Assembly Shop
5. Sheet Metal Shop
6. Loco Assembly Shop
7. Loco Paint Shop
8. Loco Test Shop
d) Service shop
1. Maintenance Area @ 1, 2, 3
2. Tool Room
3. Central Transport Shop
e) Personal department
Prepare payment of Staff, Leave Record, Personal Record of every
Employee, Housing allotment, Welfare of Staff Etc.
f) Health department
Having facility of Indoor & Outdoor patients.
g) Civil department
Maintenance of colony quarters, up gradation of facilities in quarters,
sanitation.
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h) Electrical department
Maintenance of Lighting in quarters and in workshop, electrical work
in locomotive Etc.
i) Technical training centre
Provide training to all employees at time to time to refresh update their
knowledge.
j) Research & development
1. A Customer centric Activity Committed to innovation and Continuous
Improvement.
2. Highly skilled manpower capable of handling complete R&D activities.
3. A sophisticated design centre with modern CAD/CAE workstations
equipped with unigraphics and Ansys.
4. Back-up support from RDSO, a centralized R&D organization at corporate
level.
5. Several milestones in the past – an enviable pedigree viz.
a) Original ALCO design made 7% more fuel efficient.
b) Many design improvements leading to better performance,
incorporated in the original ALCO design.
c) Many new design for locomotives such as WdP1, WDG2, WDP2,
WDP4, WDP5 to name a few.
k) Recent milestones
a) Agreement with General Motor of USA for technology transfer to
manufacture high horse-power GT46MAC 4000HP & WDG-5 5000HP
AC/AC locomotive in India.
b) Only country outside North-America to have this bleeding edge technology
many export/repeat orders complied successfully in recent past and many
more in the pipeline, Supplied more than 400 locomotives to various non-
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railway customers. Emerging as a leading manufacturer of ALCO/GM
locomotives for developing countries.
l) Future plans
a) Assimilation of GM technology to manufacturing their latest 710 series of
diesel electric locomotives.
b) To emerge as a globally competitive locomotive manufacturer.
c) To develop as an export hub for ALCO/GM locos for Asian market.
d) To follow an export led growth strategy through continuous improvement.
e) Cost effective and technology/product up-gradation as a key to retain global
competitiveness by pitting price-value-technology equation right.
1.4 Wheel Arrangement
Co-Co is a code for a locomotive wheel arrangement with two six-
wheeled bogies with all axles powered, with a separate motor per axle. Co-Co is the
code for a similar wheel arrangement but with an articulated connection between the
bogies. The equivalent UIC classification for this arrangement is Co-Co. These
arrangements are most suited to freight work as the extra wheels give them
good traction. They are also popular because the greater number of axles results in a
lower axle load to the track. Used where it is necessary to reduce axle load. Each "Co"
bogie has an additional non-powered axle in an integral pony truck to spread the load.
Bo-Bo is British classifications of wheel arrangement for railway locomotives with
four axles in two individual bogies. The arrangement of two, two-axled, bogies is a
common wheel arrangement for modern electric and diesel locomotives. Bo-Bo is
the UIC indication of a wheel arrangement for railway vehicles with four axles in two
individual bogies, all driven by their own traction motors. It is a common wheel
arrangement for modern electric and diesel-electric locomotives, as well as power cars
in electric multiple units. The Bo-Bo configuration allowed for higher cornering
speeds due to the smaller rigid wheelbase. Furthermore, it allowed
better adhesion because all the wheels were now powered. Due to the absence of
frame mounted wheels no leading or trailing axles were necessary to aid cornering,
reducing weight and maintenance requirements.
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CHAPTER:2
2.1. Classification Of Locomotive
What do the designations such as ‘WDM-2’ mean?
Locos, except for older steam ones, have classification codes that identify them. This
code is of the form
[Gauge][Power][Load][Series][Subtype][Suffix]’
In this the first term, ‘[gauge]’, is a single letter identifying the gauge the locos run
on:
a) W = Broad gauge
b) Y = Meter gauge
c) Z = Narrow gauge (2’ 6”)
d) N = Narrow gauge (2’)
The second item, ‘[power]’, is one or two letters identifying the power source:
D = Diesel
C = DC traction
A = AC traction
a) CA = Dual-power AC/DC traction
b) B = Battery electric (rare)
The third item, ‘[load]’, is a single letter identifying the kind of load the loco is
normally used for:
a) M = Mixed Traffic
b) P = Passenger
c) G = Goods
d) S = Shunting
e) L = Light duty (light passenger) (no longer in use)
f) U = Multiple Unit (EMU/DEMU)
g) R = Railcar
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The fourth term, ‘[series]’, is a digit identifying the model of the loco. Until recently,
this series number was assigned chronologically as new models of locos were
introduced.
However, starting in 2002, for diesel passenger, goods, and mixed locos, i.e., WDP,
WDG, and WDM sequences, (and only for them, apparently, not for electrics, nor for
diesel shunters), the series digit identifies the horsepower range of the loco, with ‘3’
for locos with over 3000 hp but less than 4000 hp, ‘5’ for locos over 5000hp but less
than 6000hp, etc. This new scheme will be applied to all passenger/goods/mixed-haul
diesel locos starting in June 2002, except for the WDM-2 and WDP-1 classes of
locos.
The fifth item, ‘[subtype]’, is an optional letter or number (or two of them) that
indicates some smaller variation in the basic model o series, perhaps different
manufacturer. With the new scheme for classifying diesel locos (see above), the fifth
item is a letter that further refines the horsepower indication in 100hp incremental: A
for 100hp, B for 200hp, C for 300hp, etc. So in this scheme, a WDM-3A refers to a
3100hp loco, while a WDM-3F would be a 3600hp loco.
The last item, ‘[suffix]’, is an optional indication that indicates something special
about the loco, such as a different gearing ratio or brake system than usual.
So, a WCM-2 is a broad-gauge (W) DC electric (C) mixed traffic (M) engine,
model2. Likewise, a WDS/5 is a broad-gauge diesel shunting, model 5, and a ZDM-5
is a narrow gauge diesel mixed traffic model 5 loco. YAU-1 is the old series of MG
EMUs run on the Madras-Tambaram line.
The subtype indication of minor variations is not very systematic. Often successive
variants of a model are given subtypes ‘A’, ‘B’, etc. in alphabetic order, e.g. ZDM-
5A, WAM-4A, WAM-4B, etc., but not always. For many loco classes (WDM-2A,
WDP-2A, notably), the ‘A’ also indicates dual braking systems (capable of hauling
air-braked stock). But in some, such as the WDM-2CA, the ‘A’ indicates a loco with
only air-brakes. A WAM-4R is a faster version (‘R’ for rapid) of the WAM-4, and
WAM-4P is a version of the WAM-4 designed specifically for passenger use (‘P’).
But a WAM4 6P is a version regarded and allowing all parallel operation of the
traction motors. A WDM-2P is a prototype version of a WDM-2 class.
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2.2. Salient Features
Annual production capacity 125
Locomotives Annual turn-over(Rs) 5000 million
Total number of staff 7223
Workshop land 89
Hectares Township area 211
Hectares Covered area in shops 86300 m2
Covered area of other service buildings 73700 m2
Electrical power requirement 3468 KVA
Electrical energy consumption (units/year) 19.8 million
Standby power generation capacity 3000 KW
2.3. PRODUCTS OF DLW
DLW is an integrated plant and its manufacturing facilities are flexible in nature.
These can be utilized for manufacture of different design of locomotives of various
gauges suiting customer requirements and other products. The product range available
is as under:
a) WDG4 4000 HP AC/AC Freight traffic Locomotive
b) WDP4 4000 HP AC/AC Broad gauge high speed Locomotive
c) WDG3D 3400HP AC/AC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Micro-
Processor Controlled Locomotive.
d) WDM3C 3300 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic
Locomotive.
e) WDM3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive
f) WDP3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge High Speed Passenger
g) WDG3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Freight Locomotive
h) WDM2 2600 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive
i) WDP1 2300 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Intercity Express Locomotive
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j) WDM7 2150 HP DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive
k) WDM6 1350 HP DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive
l) WDS6 1350 HP AC/DC & DC/DC Broad Gauge Shunting
Locomotive
m) YDM4 1350 HP AC/DC &DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic
Locomotive
n) EXPORT LOCO 2300 HP AC/DC Meter Gauge/Cape Gauge Mixed Traffic
Locomotive.
o) DIESEL GENERATING SETS 800 KW to 2500 KW
p) Spare parts for engines, locomotive & generating sets.
2.3.1. WDG2 Locomotive
WDG2 class 3100 HP diesel electric locomotive with AC-DC transmission ,powered
with DLW built 16 cylinder .ALCO251C diesel engine is exclusively designed for
heavy freight service .High adhesion two stage suspension designed trucks minimize
weight transfer effort and excellent riding quality.
Fig2.1 WDG2 Locomotive
Ergonomically designed cab is located between long and short hoods for either
direction operation .The load starting capability of locomotive is 4700 tonnes on
steeper (1 in 300) gradient track .The Locomotive is suitable for multiple unit
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operation up to three units . WDG2 is popular for the low & easy maintenance at
extended periods, low rolling resistances, reduced noise & exhaust emission fuel
saving safe operation with anti-climber arrangement and high hauling capability.
Table2.1 Technical Information
Installed power 3100 HP
Power input to traction under site condition - 2750 HP 55’C temp. & 600 M
altitude
Gauge 1676 MM
Wheel arrangements Co-Co Principal dimensions
Height (max) 4162 MM
Width (max) 3016 MM
Length (overall) 19132MM
Locomotive weight basic 123000Kg
Nominal axle load 20500 kg
Wheel diameter basic 1092 MM
Max starting tractive effort 37884 Kg
Max service speed 100 Kmph
Fuel tank capacity 6000 Litres
2.3.2. Broad Gauge Main Line Freight Locomotive WDG3A
Diesel Electric main line, heavy duty goods service locomotive, with 16 cylinder
ALCO engine and AC/DC traction with micro processor controls.
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Fig2.2 WDG3A Locomotive
Table2.2 Technical Information
Wheel Arrangement Co-Co
Track Gauge 1676 mm
Weight 123 t
Length over Buffers 19132 mm
Wheel Diameter 1092 mm
Gear Ratio 18 : 74
Min radius of Curvature 117 m
Maximum Speed 105 Kmph
Diesel Engine Type : 251 B,16 Cyl.- V
HP 3100
Brake IRAB-1
2.3.3. BroadGauge Main Line Mixed Service Locomotive WDM3D
Diesel Electric Locomotive with micro processor control suitable for main line
mixed Service train operations
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Fig2.3:WDM3D Locomotive
Table2.3 Technical Information
Wheel Arrangement Co-Co
Track Gauge 1676 mm
Weight 117 t
Max. Axle Load 19.5 t
Length over Buffer 18650 mm
Wheel Diameter 1092 mm
Gear Ratio 18 : 65
Maximum Speed 120Kmph
Diesel Engine Type: 251 B-16Cyl. ‘V’ type (up
rated)
HP 3300 HP (standard UIC condition)
Transmission Electric AC / DC
Brake IRAB-1 system
Loco Air, Dynamic, Hand
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2.3.4. Broad Gauge Shunting Locomotive WDS6AD
A heavy duty shunting Diesel Electric Locomotive for main line and branch line train
operation. This locomotive is very popular with Steel Plants and Port Trusts
Fig2.4WDS6AD Locomotive
Table2.4 Technical Information
Wheel Arrangement Co-Co
Track Gauge 1676 mm
Weight 113 t
Length over Buffer 17370 mm
Wheel Diameter 1092 mm
Gear Ratio 74 : 18
Maximum Speed 50 Kmph
Diesel Engine Type: 251 D-6 Cyl. in-line
HP 1350 / 1120 HP (std.)
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Transmission Electric AC / DC
Brake IRAB-1
Loco Air
Train Air
2.3.5. WDG4 - 4000 HP Goods Locomotive
Broad Gauge freight traffic Co-Co diesel electric locomotive with 16 Cylinder 4000
HP engine, AC-AC transmission, microprocessor controlled propulsion and braking
with high traction high speed cast trucks.
Fig2.5 WDG4 Locomotive
First turned out in 1999 with transfer of technology from General Motor (USA), this
locomotive has exceptional fuel efficiency and very low maintenance requirements.
It is specifically designed for heavy haul freight traffic requirements of Indian
Railways.
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Table 2.5 Diesel Engine And Transmission
Diesel Engine Transmission
 16 Cylinder 710 G3B, 2 stroke,
turbocharged – after cooled
 Fuel Efficient Engine
 Injection System – Direct Unit
Injector
 Governor – Woodward
 Electrical AC-AC
 6 Traction motor ( 3 in parallel
per bogie)
 Suspension – Axle hung / taper
roller bearing
 Gear Ratio – 90:17
Table2.6 General Characteristic
General Characteristic
 Installed Power
 Axle Load
 Gauge
 Wheel arrangement
 Wheel diameter
 Height
 Width
 Overall Length (Over Buffer
Beam)
 Weight
 Max tractive effort
 Maximum speed
 Fuel tank capacity
 Locomotive Control
 4000 HP
 21 T
 1676 mm
 Co-Co
 1092 mm
 4201 mm
 3127 mm
 19964 mm
 126 T
 54 T
 100Kmph
 6000lts
 EM 2000 with SIBAS 16
 Traction Control
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Table2.7Trucks And Brakes
Truck Brakes
 High adhesion HTSC (High Tensile
Steel Cast) truck of bogie
 Adhesion – 0.42
 Electronic Air Brake System
 (KNORR-NYAB-Computer
Controlled Braking)
 Air , hand , dynamic brake
 Pure air brake
2.3.6. 1350 HP Meter Gauge Locomotive YDM4
1350 HP Locomotive having cast/fabricated meter Gauge Co-Co bogie.Such
locomotives have been supplied to Vietnam and Myanmar.
Fig2.6 YDM4 Locomotive
Table2.7 Technical Information
Wheel Arrangement Co–Co
Track Gauge 1000 mm
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Weight 72 t
Overall Length 15600 mm
Wheel Diameter 965 mm
Gear Ratio 18: 93
Maximum Speed 96 Kmph
Diesel Engine ALCO 251 D 6 Cyl. in line.
HP 1350
Transmission Electrical AC/DC
Brake IRAB – 1 system / 28LAV-1
Loco Air, dynamic, parking
Train Air / Dual (Air and Vacuum)
2.3.7. What is a Diesel Locomotive?
Actually, it is more properly called a diesel-electric locomotive. The concept is
relatively simple. An oil-burning engine turns an alternator or generator which in turn
produces electricity that powers traction motors that connect to the axels of the
locomotive. This process is much more efficient than the external-combustion steam
locomotive.
The gasoline engine, like in an automobile, has a thermal efficiency (the conversion
of fuel into work) of 8 or 9%. The diesel engine, however, has a thermal efficiency of
about 30%. Unlike in a gasoline engine in which the fuel is ignited by spark plugs, the
fuel in a diesel engine ignites because of air pressure inside the cylinders. The air in
the cylinders is raised to about 500-600 psi which raises the temperature inside to
about 1000 F. Oil injected into the hot air ignites and expands. The expanding gases
force the piston to move down and this turns the crankshaft that is connected to the
generator (DC) or the alternator (AC) where electricity is produced. When the piston
rises again from momentum, the gases are expelled from the cylinder and the cycle
begins again. The generator or alternator then provides power to the traction motors.
Then you’re on the way!
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2.3.8. Why Was Diesel Engine Developed?
Diesel engines came about to replace the steam engines. Even though the British
Modernisation plan of 1954 specified that electric trains (which already existed on the
former Southern Railway in the form of third rail D.C. electrification) should replace
steam directly, because of the amount of bureaucracy involved-BR was a large
organisation, and still bureaucratic to this day- meant that diesel was needed as a stop-
gap measure before the money could be found to electrify all the tracks. The decision
to phase out steam had been a political one, to give an illusion of development. In
actual fact steam locomotives were fine examples of industrial machines. They were
reliable even with the minimum maintenance, and when kept in pristine condition
they performed well. The relative sophistication of a diesel locomotive in fact posed
an operational handicap: better maintenance facility was needed in order to ensure
reliable operation, and as a result of the additional equipments needed, the early diesel
engines were relatively low in power output, with the class 40 at 2000hp almost at the
top of the range whilst large, powerful express passenger steam locomotives routinely
produced 2500hp or more. Indeed in the early years diesels were often called in pairs
to haul trains which previously just one steam locomotive would have had no problem
handling.
2.3.9. What Makes A Diesel Locomotive Work?
The ignition of diesel fuel pushes pistons connected to an electric generator .the
resulting electricity powers motors connected to the wheels of the locomotive. A
“diesel” internal combustion engine uses the heat generated from the compression of
air during the upward cycles of stroke to ignite the fuel .The inverter Dr. Rudolph
Diesel designed this type of engine. It was patented in 1892.
1) Diesel fuel is stored in a fuel tank and delivered to the engine by an electric fuel
pump .Diesel fuel has become the preferred fuel for railroad locomotive use due to its
lower volatility , lower cost ,and common availability .
2) The diesel engine (A) is the main component of the diesel electric locomotive .it is
an internal combustion engine comprised of several cylinders connected to a common
crankshaft. Fuel is ignited by the intense compression, pushing the piston down .The
piston’s movement turns a crankshaft.
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3) The diesel engine is connected to the main generator (B) , which converts the
engine’s mechanical power to electrical power .The electricity is then distributed to
traction motors (C) through circuits established by various switch gear components .
4) Because it is always turning , whether the locomotive is moving or not ,the main
generator’s output is controlled by the excitation field currents to its windings.
5) The engineer controls the power output of the locomotive by using an electrically-
controlled throttle. As it is opened, more fuel is injected into the engine’s cylinders,
increasing its mechanical power output. Main generator excitation increases,
increasing its electrical output.
6) Each traction motor (C) is directly geared to a pair of driving wheels. The use of
electricity as the “transmission” for the locomotives is far more reliable than using a
mechanical transmission and clutch. Starting a heavy train from stop would burn out a
clutch in a brief time.
2.3.10. The ‘Diesel advantage’
One of the many advantages they offered over steam, even in their early years, is that
they were very much more fuel efficient, and less polluting, since they do not churn
out a large amount of smog-causing soot. They also offered better working conditions
for the engine crew. No more was the tunnel a loco man’s nightmare, instead of
driving practically blind through the dark with smoke filling the driving cab, the
motormen now enjoyed clean, closed cabs without all the smoke and the dust, and had
small lights to illuminate the line ahead. The ‘upgrade’ was now welcome by all
engine crew. To run a passenger steam express at 80mph and keep it at that speed
require real skill both from the driver and the fireman, but the same is easy to do in a
diesel. It also meant that the fireman’s job become redundant and they became
‘second man’ on diesel-hauled trains, to simply assist the driver since the driver’s
absolute attention to the signal ahead is becoming more vital as train speeds are
pushed higher and higher. Interestingly, in the States they were never re-named as
second man, as a result the dubious practice of carrying a ‘fireman’ on diesel trains
persists until today, even though the job description has changed somewhat, the
‘fireman’ is more like a diesel mechanic.
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CHAPTER: 3
3.1 The Transmission system
At low speeds diesel engines have very little torque (turning force) and when stopped
they have no turning force at all, engines have to be spinning to provide some
traction. This presents a technical problem, because if the engine crankshaft was
connected directly to the wheels like it is in a steam locomotive, it would not be able
to provide any force to accelerate the train from rest. Cars and road vehicles get
around this by a gear/clutch system, otherwise known as a mechanical transmission
system. The clutch allows the engine to engage stationary wheels without having to
slow down, and the gears allow the engine to keep the spinning at sufficient speed to
keep the torque up.
Clutch/gear systems were used for the very first diesel trains around. However the
forces involved are much greater on a train than on a road vehicle, and gearboxes
couldn’t really take it, and caused a lot of friction too, further reducing the efficiency.
Besides, diesel engines, being compression-ignited, have a very small margin of
optimal spin speed. Efficiency drops off very sharply if the engine runs just slightly
faster or slower, unlike petrol-engines which do not have as tight limitation. But, the
speed at which the wheels spin at 5mph differs dramatically from that at 80mph! To
build such a gearbox would require perhaps some 15 different gears. Even the best
rally-drivers would find it extremely difficult to change gears that fast, especially on
commuter services where one may even not reach the top speeds between adjacent
stations or signal checks. As any truck driver would know, an articulated lorry has up
to 9 gears for a similar reason, in order to keep the engine revs at its optimal value and
to make sure enough tractive effort is produced, faced with a wide varieties of
ingredients. Truck-trailers are only permitted to travel at up to 50 mph in Britain, if
one attempt to build a 100 mph diesel locomotive out of mechanical transmission one
would soon run in to problems.
3.2 The Electric Transmission
The solution was to use an Electric Transmission .Electric motors have very high
torque just when stationary. If you take two electric motors, wire them in to each
other, then if you turn one of them, the other one will turn .This principle is used in
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diesel engines, the engine turns one of the motors and the other is connected to the
wheel axle. This is an excellent way of transferring the power .The to start the train
the engines roar up, spinning the motor very fast.
This puts a high potential difference across the axle motor bringing in enough torque
top start the train moving off and accelerating.
Fig3.1: Transmission System
The inside schematic diagram of an English Electric class 47 diesel-electric
locomotive. Over 500 examples of this locomotive was built in the 1960 s and it
became one of the most common, general purpose standard type of all times with a
top speed of 95 mph .over 250 examples still exist .
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CHAPTER:4
4.1. Engine Erection Shop (EES)
In engine erection shop There are seven sections in this shop from 01 to 07 action
have two or three station as given below:
Fig4.1 Engine Erection Shop
a) Station No. 1 to 4 in section 01
b) Station No. 5, 6, 6A and 6B are in section 02 to 03
c) Station No. 7 to 12 are in section 04 to 07
d) Station No.1 to 4 - Washing, debarring and panting
e) Station No. 5 - Cam shaft bush fitting cylinder head stud driving linear Sleeve
and Liner pressing and water testing.
f) Station No. 6A - Piston Assembly.
g) Station No.6B - Crank Shaft Assembly.
h) Station No 6 - Piston Assembly Heads, Exhaust Manifold, water Connection,
Air elbows, Nozzle and water header Pipe-fitting.
i) Station No.7 to 9 - Lowering engine block, oil catcher, Generator, Lube Pump
and water pump fitting oil.
j) Station No. 10 - Cam shafts, gears, Control shaft, Turbo supper cooler,
oil Seal, Turbo super charger application.
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k) Station No.11 & 12 - Fuel pump Support, Valve leaver, Governor Application.
Piping (Fuel Pump Support) Fuel oil header, valve gear header, Tubes, High
pressure pipes, Lube oil strainer, Spray Nozzle and Governor Pipes application
etc.
4.2. Washing
In this section the M.G. & B.G. Blocks are washing after the welding process is
completed.
4.3. Debarring
It is to be ensured that the complete welding is free of any spatter welding defects and
sharp corrosion of important welded joint have been ground then the cylinder block is
marked and handed over for machining operation to H.M.S.
4.4. Panting
After the washing of M.G. & B.G. Blocks are painting on painting shop. After the
assembling of all component on engine & testing of engine the painting process is
over on painting shop.
4.5. Piston Assembly
Piston assembly heads, exhaust manifold, air elbows, nozzle and water header pipe-
fitting. Cam shafts, gears, control shaft assembly, gear application, valve leaver.
Fig4.2 Piston Assembly
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Lowering engine block, oil catcher, generator, lube pump and water pump fitting oil.
Fuel pump support, valve leaver, governor. Piping (fuel pump support) fuel oil
header, valve gear header.
Fig4.3 Piston Cylinder
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CHAPTER:5
5.1. Loco Testing Shop (LTS)
In Loco Testing Shop, various parts of the locomotive will be evaluated. Once on the
track it must be tested to ascertain the horse-power that the engine is developing in
relation to the amount of fuel that it burns; unless this is done the engine may prove to
be uneconomical in its work. This test of horse-power requires measurement of the
pull exerted by the engine on its train during the course of the journey.
Fig5.1 Diesel Engine
But the horse-power exerted by the locomotive on the train takes no account of the
power that it utilizes in moving itself and its tender; therefore means must be devised
of measuring the total horse-power exerted by the locomotive while in motion. To do
this, there must be an examination of what is going on inside the engine cylinders.
This examination also makes it possible to determine if, at all speeds from the lowest
to the highest, the expansion of the steam in the cylinders is going on efficiently.
Another important line of investigation concerns the boiler; the designer will want to
know that the combustion of the fuel on the fire-grate is thorough and complete, and
that no valuable sources of heat and energy are being thrown out of the chimney. This
calls for an analysis of the gases in the smoke-box, and it is necessary for the analysis
to be carried out while the locomotive is in motion. All these tests are usually
conducted at the same time.
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Round the front and two sides of the smoke-box of an engine undergoing its tests is a
shelter, generally made of sheet steel, and containing two windows in front. This is to
house two observers, who, well muffled up, half scorched by the heat of the smoke-
box, and half frozen by the draughts behind them, "indicate" the engine during the
course of the test journey. Their temporary home is known as an "indicating shelter."
The indicator itself consists of a small vertical cylinder with a rotating motion,
worked by a connection off the motion of the engine. Every time the driving wheels
of the engine rotate, the indicator makes one complete forward turn and one backward
turn, so that it is in rapid motion, forwards and backwards alternately, all the time the
engine is running. An opening is made in the front cover of one of the cylinders, and
from this a small tube is led to the indicator. In this steam-tube, therefore, the steam is
at a pressure exactly corresponding with the pressure in the cylinder between the
cylinder-end and the piston.
Fig5.2 Electric Engine
The indicator itself consists of a small vertical cylinder with a rotating motion,
worked by a connection off the motion of the engine. Every time the driving wheels
of the engine rotate, the indicator makes one complete forward turn and one backward
turn, so that it is in rapid motion, forwards and backwards alternately, all the time the
engine is running. An opening is made in the front cover of one of the cylinders, and
from this a small tube is led to the indicator. In this steam-tube, therefore, the steam is
at a pressure exactly corresponding with the pressure in the cylinder between the
cylinder-end and the piston.
27
A dynamometer car, attached between the locomotive and the train, is used for
making tests under working conditions. This coach is 48 ft. 5 in. long and weighs 27
tons 3 cwt. In the car a moving roll of paper, on which the principal records are made,
is operated by clockwork and the extra wheel shown. This can be raised or lowered
from the underside of the carriage to the rail as required, and is used to record on the
roll the speed at which the train is travelling. The wheel is fitted with a hardened steel
tyre, ground to such a diameter that it makes exactly 440 revolutions for each mile
run.
Fig5.3 LTS Shop
It is of this process of expansion that the indicator diagram gives an exact picture. At
the selected moment the observer in the shelter opens a cock in the small steam tube;
the pressure in the tube actuates a small pen, which rises and falls according to the
actual pressure in that end of the cylinder; the pen makes a line on the rotating
cylinder of the indicator, to which a sheet of paper has been fixed. It is shaped like a
boot. The top horizontal part of the "upper" shows the pressure as steam is admitted
up to the point of "cut-off" ; the sloping front of the boot, where it would be laced,
down to the toe-cap, represents the expansion from the cut-off to the end of the
forward stroke ; and the underside of the boot, from sole to heel, represents the
pressure in the same end of the cylinder on the return stroke of the piston, as the
expanded steam is being "exhausted" to the chimney. A "fat" diagram is sought; thin
diagrams often mean inefficiency, especially if, near the end of the stroke, the return,
28
or exhaust, line crosses above the line representing the final stage of the expansion;
this shows that excessive backpressure is taking place.
From the indicator diagrams, which are taken at a large number of selected points
during the test journey, it is possible not only to watch the process of expansion in the
engine cylinders at all speeds, but also to make an approximate calculation of the total
horse-power which is being developed by the locomotive. A certain proportion of this
and the proportion so expended must obviously be kept to the lowest possible
percentage is used in propelling itself and hauling its tender.
The remainder, which represents the value of the locomotive as an operating unit, is
available for the haulage of its train, and this has now to be measured. The difference
between the two figures will show how much of its power the engine has expended in
moving itself.
As the piston moves away from the cylinder-end, the pressure is at first roughly equal
to the boiler-pressure, while live steam is still being admitted ; then comes the
moment of "cut-off," after which the steam does the remainder of its work by
expansion, and the pressure rapidly drops until the end of the piston-stroke. But at this
point it may tend to rise again, owing to what is called "back-pressure"—that is,
pressure on the other side of the piston, as the expanded steam from the last previous
stroke is being pushed out of the cylinder up into the chimney, and the final stage is
reached when the piston "cushions" that steam up against the opposite cylinder-end.
In designing and setting modern valve-motions, the aim is to use the expansive
properties of the steam to the maximum, and to reduce the back-pressure or
cushioning to a minimum, as more efficient working will result from the realization of
both aims.
Flow chart for Loco Testing:
a) First inspection report
b) Initial filling
c) Compressor section
d) Crank shaft deflection
29
e) Lubricant oil circulation
f) Initial cranking and temperature setting
g) Preload test
h) Load test
i) Air brake test
j) Track and dynamic brake test
k) Road run trial test
l) Final inspection
m) Dispatch
30
CHAPTER:6
6.1. Locomotive Frame Shop (LFS)
Under frame Fabrication under frames are fabricated with due care to ensure designed
weld strength. Requisite camber to the under frame is provided during fabrication
itself. Critical welds are tested radio graphically. Welder training and their technical
competence are periodically reviewed.
Fig6.1 Loco Frame Shop
High Horse Power (HHP) under frame is fabricated using heavy fixtures, position to
ensure down hand welding.
Fig6.2 Lifting Of Frames
31
All activities connected with pipes like pickling, bending, cutting, forming and
threading of pipes of various sizes are undertaken in another well-equipped work area.
All electrical equipment is assembled in the fabricated control compartments and
driver's control stands are done in another work area.
Fig6.3 Loco Frames
Under frames are received from Loco frame shop and assembled trucks from Truck
machine shop. Superstructure compartments and contractor compartment are received
from respective manufacturing and assembly shops of Vehicle Division. Important
alignments like crank shaft deflection, compressor alignment and Eddy Current
clutch/radiator fan alignment are done during assembly stage. Electrical control
equipments are fitted and control cable harnessing is undertaken. The complete
locomotive is thus assembled before being sent onwards for final testing and spray.
32
CHAPTER:7
7.1. Heavy Machine Shop (HMS)
This shop carry out the machining of cylinder blocks (M.G. & B.G.) main base,
saddle main bearing caps, splines, turbo supercharger, lube oil, fuel oil and water
header cam bearing housing.
7.2. Operations Performed In HMS
a) Planning
b) Milling
c) Drilling
d) Tapping
e) Boring
f) Honing
g) Shaping
h) Serration
7.3. Type Of The Machines Provided In The Shop Are
a) Double housing panel machining (32”, 24” & 16”)
b) Redial drilling machine
c) Redial drilling machine travelling type
d) Boring machine
e) Angular boring machine (ex. cello)
f) Tracer planer machine
g) Hill acme king structural milling machine
7.4. Tool Used
a) O.K. Toll (rough and finish)
b) C.C. Milling cutter (4”, 9” & 10”)
c) Boring tipper tool (rough and finish)
d) Housing store (for hand bearing)
e) Drill Reamer, Top (various size)
f) Serration cutter
33
7.5. Measuring Instrument
a) Dial bar gauge
b) Micron meter (outside and depth)
c) Vencer height gauge
d) Mandrill or optical shad rill machine
7.6. Ex-Cello Angular Boring Machine
a) Motor rpm in constant spindle
b) Speed is controlled by clutch system
7.7. HMT Angular Boring Machine
Spindle speed is directly controlled through motor (coated carbide is used in HMT
angular boring machine). Cylinder block made of lubricated class second material
except main bearing cop as it made class fourth material.
Fig7.1 Angular Boring Machine
The machining of cylinder block is complicated and challenging job. It requires great
skill and knowledge. After duty fabricated stress relieved and shot blasted. The block
is subjected to layout to ensure availability of adequate machining allowance where
34
necessary and to provide guide liner for subsequent machining. The weight of the
block is 6.02tonn approximate (fabricated material).After completion of all operation
as per drawing the block subjected to inspection in addition to stage inspection live
radial distance between centres of crank bore and cam bore, distance between centre
of cam bore and liner seat etc. are chocked at this stage the weight of the block is 5.02
tonnes approximate .01 ton of material is removed by machining and then blank is
block is send for assembly.
7.8. Machines Available In HMS For Block
Table7.1 List Of Machines
S No. Machine no. Name of M/c
1 1084 Planner M/c
2 2675 Milling M/c
3 507 Radial drilling M/c
4 118 Planner M/c
5 2187 V-boring or liner boring
6 2135 Cam & cylindrical boring M/c or horizontal
boring M/c (cnc)
7 1084 Radial drilling M/c
8 1120 Tracer planer M/c
9 1223 Serration drilling M/c
10 9072 End drilling M/c
11 875/941 Radial drilling M/c
12 2818 Radial drilling M/c
13 3187 Weldrich coberg CNC M/c
14 3188 Angular ‘V’ boring M /c
15 2494 End drilling M/c
16 1976 End drilling M/c
17 1977 End milling of block base boring and facing
18 2787 Plano-milling M/c
19 1120 Planner M/c
20 2435 Hooma-planner M/c
35
21 2434 Hooma-2 tracer M/c
22 3108 Milling m/c
23 1973 Milling m/c
24 286 Radial drilling M/c
25 3087/3088 HMC (CNC)
Fig7.2 Automatic Boring Machine
36
CONCLUSION:
Working on this project was a pleasure for me as I learned lot of things which was
unknown to me before doing this project. I worked In, Heavy Machine Shop (HMS),
Engine Erection Shop (EES), Loco Frame Shop (LTS) and Loco Test Shop (LTS) my
job description includes regular updating status to know about all related to
Production Unit, Diesel Generating sets and their spares for Indian Railways and
Non-Railways customer.
I tried to give my best effort on this project but it could be better if I would have
theoretical knowledge about workshops before taking this project. As this topic was
new to me and due to time constraint I was not able to through each and every
Procedure.
The mechanical maintenance department is responsible for the running of DLW. It
ensures that the all the machinery and equipment are running at their top performance
level without being affected by failure and breakdown. Working with the engineers
of the mechanical maintenance department I have gained such an amount of
knowledge which would not have been possible in a classroom in a similar period
time.
Also the practical experience I have gained here in DLW, VARANSI gave me
knowledge of to what extent my theoretical knowledge learnt in my college is
applicable in the field. Although the theoretical knowledge forms the base of practical
knowledge required on the field , the field job also require some different set of skills
which I learnt about during my training.
My skills in mechanical engineering has definitely been taken to a much higher level
than it was when I first joined the training program of 4 weeks back and I truly
consider myself highly fortunate to get this opportunity.
37
REFERENCES:
1. www.indianrail.gov.in/ir_zones.pdf list of all the zones and division
2. http://www.nwr.indianrailways.gov.in/view_section.jsp?lang=0&id=0,1,28
5 , figure and data related to the Jaipur division and North western zone.
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File%3ARailway_network_sche
matic_map_2009.png Railway Zonal Map .
4. http://www.nwr.indianrailways.gov.in/uploads/files/1401775686459-
NWR.pdf coach maintain manual of NWR zone.
5. http://www.nwr.indianrailways.gov.in/view_section.jsp?lang=0&id=0,1,26
3,602hardware used in japur zone in PRS.
6. http://cris.org.in/CRIS/Projects/PRS , content about the PRS
7. www.indianrailways.gov.in
8. https://www.slideshare.net/.../dlw.

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Summer Training Report,DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS,VARANASI(DLW)

  • 1. 1 CHAPTER:1 1.1. Introduction To DLW Diesel locomotive works (DLW) is production unit under the ministry of railways. This was set up in collaboration with American Locomotive Company (ALCO) USA in 1961 and the first locomotive was rolled out in 1964. This unit produces diesel electronic locomotives and DG sets for Indian railways and other customers in India and abroad. Subsequently a contract for transfer of technology of 4000 HP microprocessor controlled AC /AC Freight (GT 46 MAC)/Passenger (GT 46 PAC) locomotives and family of 710 engines has been signed with electromotive division of general motors of USA for manufacture in DLW. The production of these locomotives has now started and DLW is the only manufacturer of Diesel Electric Locomotives with both ALCO and General motors technologies in the world. Fig1.1 Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi 1.2. About the Company a) Set up in 1961 as green field project in technical collaboration with ALCO /USA to manufacture Diesel electric locomotives. b) First locomotive rolled out and dedicated to nation in January, 1964.
  • 2. 2 c) Transfer of Technology agreement signed with General motors /USA in October, 1995 to manufacture state of the art high traction AC-AC diesel locomotives. d) A flagship company of Indian Railways offering complete range of flanking products in its area of operation. e) State of the art Design and Manufacturing facility to manufacture more than 150 locomotives per annum with wide range of related products viz. components and sub assemblies. f) Unbeatable trail blazing track record in providing cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable solutions to ever increasing transportation needs for over three decades. g) Fully geared to meet specific transportation needs by putting Price-Value- Technology equation perfectly right. h) A large base of delighted customers among many countries viz. Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Tanzania to name a few, bearing testimony to product leadership in its categories. 1.3 About The Plant Production unit are divided in three Divisions:- 1. Block division 2. Engine division 3. Loco division a) Block division 1. Heavy Weld shop 2. Heavy Machine Shop b) Engine division 1. Engine Erection Shop 2. Engine Testing Shop 3. Light Machine Shop
  • 3. 3 4. Sub Assembly Shop 5. Rotor Shop 6. Heat Treatment Shop c) Loco division 1. Loco Frame Shop 2. Pipe Shop 3. Truck Machine Shop 4. Traction Assembly Shop 5. Sheet Metal Shop 6. Loco Assembly Shop 7. Loco Paint Shop 8. Loco Test Shop d) Service shop 1. Maintenance Area @ 1, 2, 3 2. Tool Room 3. Central Transport Shop e) Personal department Prepare payment of Staff, Leave Record, Personal Record of every Employee, Housing allotment, Welfare of Staff Etc. f) Health department Having facility of Indoor & Outdoor patients. g) Civil department Maintenance of colony quarters, up gradation of facilities in quarters, sanitation.
  • 4. 4 h) Electrical department Maintenance of Lighting in quarters and in workshop, electrical work in locomotive Etc. i) Technical training centre Provide training to all employees at time to time to refresh update their knowledge. j) Research & development 1. A Customer centric Activity Committed to innovation and Continuous Improvement. 2. Highly skilled manpower capable of handling complete R&D activities. 3. A sophisticated design centre with modern CAD/CAE workstations equipped with unigraphics and Ansys. 4. Back-up support from RDSO, a centralized R&D organization at corporate level. 5. Several milestones in the past – an enviable pedigree viz. a) Original ALCO design made 7% more fuel efficient. b) Many design improvements leading to better performance, incorporated in the original ALCO design. c) Many new design for locomotives such as WdP1, WDG2, WDP2, WDP4, WDP5 to name a few. k) Recent milestones a) Agreement with General Motor of USA for technology transfer to manufacture high horse-power GT46MAC 4000HP & WDG-5 5000HP AC/AC locomotive in India. b) Only country outside North-America to have this bleeding edge technology many export/repeat orders complied successfully in recent past and many more in the pipeline, Supplied more than 400 locomotives to various non-
  • 5. 5 railway customers. Emerging as a leading manufacturer of ALCO/GM locomotives for developing countries. l) Future plans a) Assimilation of GM technology to manufacturing their latest 710 series of diesel electric locomotives. b) To emerge as a globally competitive locomotive manufacturer. c) To develop as an export hub for ALCO/GM locos for Asian market. d) To follow an export led growth strategy through continuous improvement. e) Cost effective and technology/product up-gradation as a key to retain global competitiveness by pitting price-value-technology equation right. 1.4 Wheel Arrangement Co-Co is a code for a locomotive wheel arrangement with two six- wheeled bogies with all axles powered, with a separate motor per axle. Co-Co is the code for a similar wheel arrangement but with an articulated connection between the bogies. The equivalent UIC classification for this arrangement is Co-Co. These arrangements are most suited to freight work as the extra wheels give them good traction. They are also popular because the greater number of axles results in a lower axle load to the track. Used where it is necessary to reduce axle load. Each "Co" bogie has an additional non-powered axle in an integral pony truck to spread the load. Bo-Bo is British classifications of wheel arrangement for railway locomotives with four axles in two individual bogies. The arrangement of two, two-axled, bogies is a common wheel arrangement for modern electric and diesel locomotives. Bo-Bo is the UIC indication of a wheel arrangement for railway vehicles with four axles in two individual bogies, all driven by their own traction motors. It is a common wheel arrangement for modern electric and diesel-electric locomotives, as well as power cars in electric multiple units. The Bo-Bo configuration allowed for higher cornering speeds due to the smaller rigid wheelbase. Furthermore, it allowed better adhesion because all the wheels were now powered. Due to the absence of frame mounted wheels no leading or trailing axles were necessary to aid cornering, reducing weight and maintenance requirements.
  • 6. 6 CHAPTER:2 2.1. Classification Of Locomotive What do the designations such as ‘WDM-2’ mean? Locos, except for older steam ones, have classification codes that identify them. This code is of the form [Gauge][Power][Load][Series][Subtype][Suffix]’ In this the first term, ‘[gauge]’, is a single letter identifying the gauge the locos run on: a) W = Broad gauge b) Y = Meter gauge c) Z = Narrow gauge (2’ 6”) d) N = Narrow gauge (2’) The second item, ‘[power]’, is one or two letters identifying the power source: D = Diesel C = DC traction A = AC traction a) CA = Dual-power AC/DC traction b) B = Battery electric (rare) The third item, ‘[load]’, is a single letter identifying the kind of load the loco is normally used for: a) M = Mixed Traffic b) P = Passenger c) G = Goods d) S = Shunting e) L = Light duty (light passenger) (no longer in use) f) U = Multiple Unit (EMU/DEMU) g) R = Railcar
  • 7. 7 The fourth term, ‘[series]’, is a digit identifying the model of the loco. Until recently, this series number was assigned chronologically as new models of locos were introduced. However, starting in 2002, for diesel passenger, goods, and mixed locos, i.e., WDP, WDG, and WDM sequences, (and only for them, apparently, not for electrics, nor for diesel shunters), the series digit identifies the horsepower range of the loco, with ‘3’ for locos with over 3000 hp but less than 4000 hp, ‘5’ for locos over 5000hp but less than 6000hp, etc. This new scheme will be applied to all passenger/goods/mixed-haul diesel locos starting in June 2002, except for the WDM-2 and WDP-1 classes of locos. The fifth item, ‘[subtype]’, is an optional letter or number (or two of them) that indicates some smaller variation in the basic model o series, perhaps different manufacturer. With the new scheme for classifying diesel locos (see above), the fifth item is a letter that further refines the horsepower indication in 100hp incremental: A for 100hp, B for 200hp, C for 300hp, etc. So in this scheme, a WDM-3A refers to a 3100hp loco, while a WDM-3F would be a 3600hp loco. The last item, ‘[suffix]’, is an optional indication that indicates something special about the loco, such as a different gearing ratio or brake system than usual. So, a WCM-2 is a broad-gauge (W) DC electric (C) mixed traffic (M) engine, model2. Likewise, a WDS/5 is a broad-gauge diesel shunting, model 5, and a ZDM-5 is a narrow gauge diesel mixed traffic model 5 loco. YAU-1 is the old series of MG EMUs run on the Madras-Tambaram line. The subtype indication of minor variations is not very systematic. Often successive variants of a model are given subtypes ‘A’, ‘B’, etc. in alphabetic order, e.g. ZDM- 5A, WAM-4A, WAM-4B, etc., but not always. For many loco classes (WDM-2A, WDP-2A, notably), the ‘A’ also indicates dual braking systems (capable of hauling air-braked stock). But in some, such as the WDM-2CA, the ‘A’ indicates a loco with only air-brakes. A WAM-4R is a faster version (‘R’ for rapid) of the WAM-4, and WAM-4P is a version of the WAM-4 designed specifically for passenger use (‘P’). But a WAM4 6P is a version regarded and allowing all parallel operation of the traction motors. A WDM-2P is a prototype version of a WDM-2 class.
  • 8. 8 2.2. Salient Features Annual production capacity 125 Locomotives Annual turn-over(Rs) 5000 million Total number of staff 7223 Workshop land 89 Hectares Township area 211 Hectares Covered area in shops 86300 m2 Covered area of other service buildings 73700 m2 Electrical power requirement 3468 KVA Electrical energy consumption (units/year) 19.8 million Standby power generation capacity 3000 KW 2.3. PRODUCTS OF DLW DLW is an integrated plant and its manufacturing facilities are flexible in nature. These can be utilized for manufacture of different design of locomotives of various gauges suiting customer requirements and other products. The product range available is as under: a) WDG4 4000 HP AC/AC Freight traffic Locomotive b) WDP4 4000 HP AC/AC Broad gauge high speed Locomotive c) WDG3D 3400HP AC/AC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Micro- Processor Controlled Locomotive. d) WDM3C 3300 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive. e) WDM3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive f) WDP3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge High Speed Passenger g) WDG3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Freight Locomotive h) WDM2 2600 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive i) WDP1 2300 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Intercity Express Locomotive
  • 9. 9 j) WDM7 2150 HP DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive k) WDM6 1350 HP DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive l) WDS6 1350 HP AC/DC & DC/DC Broad Gauge Shunting Locomotive m) YDM4 1350 HP AC/DC &DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive n) EXPORT LOCO 2300 HP AC/DC Meter Gauge/Cape Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive. o) DIESEL GENERATING SETS 800 KW to 2500 KW p) Spare parts for engines, locomotive & generating sets. 2.3.1. WDG2 Locomotive WDG2 class 3100 HP diesel electric locomotive with AC-DC transmission ,powered with DLW built 16 cylinder .ALCO251C diesel engine is exclusively designed for heavy freight service .High adhesion two stage suspension designed trucks minimize weight transfer effort and excellent riding quality. Fig2.1 WDG2 Locomotive Ergonomically designed cab is located between long and short hoods for either direction operation .The load starting capability of locomotive is 4700 tonnes on steeper (1 in 300) gradient track .The Locomotive is suitable for multiple unit
  • 10. 10 operation up to three units . WDG2 is popular for the low & easy maintenance at extended periods, low rolling resistances, reduced noise & exhaust emission fuel saving safe operation with anti-climber arrangement and high hauling capability. Table2.1 Technical Information Installed power 3100 HP Power input to traction under site condition - 2750 HP 55’C temp. & 600 M altitude Gauge 1676 MM Wheel arrangements Co-Co Principal dimensions Height (max) 4162 MM Width (max) 3016 MM Length (overall) 19132MM Locomotive weight basic 123000Kg Nominal axle load 20500 kg Wheel diameter basic 1092 MM Max starting tractive effort 37884 Kg Max service speed 100 Kmph Fuel tank capacity 6000 Litres 2.3.2. Broad Gauge Main Line Freight Locomotive WDG3A Diesel Electric main line, heavy duty goods service locomotive, with 16 cylinder ALCO engine and AC/DC traction with micro processor controls.
  • 11. 11 Fig2.2 WDG3A Locomotive Table2.2 Technical Information Wheel Arrangement Co-Co Track Gauge 1676 mm Weight 123 t Length over Buffers 19132 mm Wheel Diameter 1092 mm Gear Ratio 18 : 74 Min radius of Curvature 117 m Maximum Speed 105 Kmph Diesel Engine Type : 251 B,16 Cyl.- V HP 3100 Brake IRAB-1 2.3.3. BroadGauge Main Line Mixed Service Locomotive WDM3D Diesel Electric Locomotive with micro processor control suitable for main line mixed Service train operations
  • 12. 12 Fig2.3:WDM3D Locomotive Table2.3 Technical Information Wheel Arrangement Co-Co Track Gauge 1676 mm Weight 117 t Max. Axle Load 19.5 t Length over Buffer 18650 mm Wheel Diameter 1092 mm Gear Ratio 18 : 65 Maximum Speed 120Kmph Diesel Engine Type: 251 B-16Cyl. ‘V’ type (up rated) HP 3300 HP (standard UIC condition) Transmission Electric AC / DC Brake IRAB-1 system Loco Air, Dynamic, Hand
  • 13. 13 2.3.4. Broad Gauge Shunting Locomotive WDS6AD A heavy duty shunting Diesel Electric Locomotive for main line and branch line train operation. This locomotive is very popular with Steel Plants and Port Trusts Fig2.4WDS6AD Locomotive Table2.4 Technical Information Wheel Arrangement Co-Co Track Gauge 1676 mm Weight 113 t Length over Buffer 17370 mm Wheel Diameter 1092 mm Gear Ratio 74 : 18 Maximum Speed 50 Kmph Diesel Engine Type: 251 D-6 Cyl. in-line HP 1350 / 1120 HP (std.)
  • 14. 14 Transmission Electric AC / DC Brake IRAB-1 Loco Air Train Air 2.3.5. WDG4 - 4000 HP Goods Locomotive Broad Gauge freight traffic Co-Co diesel electric locomotive with 16 Cylinder 4000 HP engine, AC-AC transmission, microprocessor controlled propulsion and braking with high traction high speed cast trucks. Fig2.5 WDG4 Locomotive First turned out in 1999 with transfer of technology from General Motor (USA), this locomotive has exceptional fuel efficiency and very low maintenance requirements. It is specifically designed for heavy haul freight traffic requirements of Indian Railways.
  • 15. 15 Table 2.5 Diesel Engine And Transmission Diesel Engine Transmission  16 Cylinder 710 G3B, 2 stroke, turbocharged – after cooled  Fuel Efficient Engine  Injection System – Direct Unit Injector  Governor – Woodward  Electrical AC-AC  6 Traction motor ( 3 in parallel per bogie)  Suspension – Axle hung / taper roller bearing  Gear Ratio – 90:17 Table2.6 General Characteristic General Characteristic  Installed Power  Axle Load  Gauge  Wheel arrangement  Wheel diameter  Height  Width  Overall Length (Over Buffer Beam)  Weight  Max tractive effort  Maximum speed  Fuel tank capacity  Locomotive Control  4000 HP  21 T  1676 mm  Co-Co  1092 mm  4201 mm  3127 mm  19964 mm  126 T  54 T  100Kmph  6000lts  EM 2000 with SIBAS 16  Traction Control
  • 16. 16 Table2.7Trucks And Brakes Truck Brakes  High adhesion HTSC (High Tensile Steel Cast) truck of bogie  Adhesion – 0.42  Electronic Air Brake System  (KNORR-NYAB-Computer Controlled Braking)  Air , hand , dynamic brake  Pure air brake 2.3.6. 1350 HP Meter Gauge Locomotive YDM4 1350 HP Locomotive having cast/fabricated meter Gauge Co-Co bogie.Such locomotives have been supplied to Vietnam and Myanmar. Fig2.6 YDM4 Locomotive Table2.7 Technical Information Wheel Arrangement Co–Co Track Gauge 1000 mm
  • 17. 17 Weight 72 t Overall Length 15600 mm Wheel Diameter 965 mm Gear Ratio 18: 93 Maximum Speed 96 Kmph Diesel Engine ALCO 251 D 6 Cyl. in line. HP 1350 Transmission Electrical AC/DC Brake IRAB – 1 system / 28LAV-1 Loco Air, dynamic, parking Train Air / Dual (Air and Vacuum) 2.3.7. What is a Diesel Locomotive? Actually, it is more properly called a diesel-electric locomotive. The concept is relatively simple. An oil-burning engine turns an alternator or generator which in turn produces electricity that powers traction motors that connect to the axels of the locomotive. This process is much more efficient than the external-combustion steam locomotive. The gasoline engine, like in an automobile, has a thermal efficiency (the conversion of fuel into work) of 8 or 9%. The diesel engine, however, has a thermal efficiency of about 30%. Unlike in a gasoline engine in which the fuel is ignited by spark plugs, the fuel in a diesel engine ignites because of air pressure inside the cylinders. The air in the cylinders is raised to about 500-600 psi which raises the temperature inside to about 1000 F. Oil injected into the hot air ignites and expands. The expanding gases force the piston to move down and this turns the crankshaft that is connected to the generator (DC) or the alternator (AC) where electricity is produced. When the piston rises again from momentum, the gases are expelled from the cylinder and the cycle begins again. The generator or alternator then provides power to the traction motors. Then you’re on the way!
  • 18. 18 2.3.8. Why Was Diesel Engine Developed? Diesel engines came about to replace the steam engines. Even though the British Modernisation plan of 1954 specified that electric trains (which already existed on the former Southern Railway in the form of third rail D.C. electrification) should replace steam directly, because of the amount of bureaucracy involved-BR was a large organisation, and still bureaucratic to this day- meant that diesel was needed as a stop- gap measure before the money could be found to electrify all the tracks. The decision to phase out steam had been a political one, to give an illusion of development. In actual fact steam locomotives were fine examples of industrial machines. They were reliable even with the minimum maintenance, and when kept in pristine condition they performed well. The relative sophistication of a diesel locomotive in fact posed an operational handicap: better maintenance facility was needed in order to ensure reliable operation, and as a result of the additional equipments needed, the early diesel engines were relatively low in power output, with the class 40 at 2000hp almost at the top of the range whilst large, powerful express passenger steam locomotives routinely produced 2500hp or more. Indeed in the early years diesels were often called in pairs to haul trains which previously just one steam locomotive would have had no problem handling. 2.3.9. What Makes A Diesel Locomotive Work? The ignition of diesel fuel pushes pistons connected to an electric generator .the resulting electricity powers motors connected to the wheels of the locomotive. A “diesel” internal combustion engine uses the heat generated from the compression of air during the upward cycles of stroke to ignite the fuel .The inverter Dr. Rudolph Diesel designed this type of engine. It was patented in 1892. 1) Diesel fuel is stored in a fuel tank and delivered to the engine by an electric fuel pump .Diesel fuel has become the preferred fuel for railroad locomotive use due to its lower volatility , lower cost ,and common availability . 2) The diesel engine (A) is the main component of the diesel electric locomotive .it is an internal combustion engine comprised of several cylinders connected to a common crankshaft. Fuel is ignited by the intense compression, pushing the piston down .The piston’s movement turns a crankshaft.
  • 19. 19 3) The diesel engine is connected to the main generator (B) , which converts the engine’s mechanical power to electrical power .The electricity is then distributed to traction motors (C) through circuits established by various switch gear components . 4) Because it is always turning , whether the locomotive is moving or not ,the main generator’s output is controlled by the excitation field currents to its windings. 5) The engineer controls the power output of the locomotive by using an electrically- controlled throttle. As it is opened, more fuel is injected into the engine’s cylinders, increasing its mechanical power output. Main generator excitation increases, increasing its electrical output. 6) Each traction motor (C) is directly geared to a pair of driving wheels. The use of electricity as the “transmission” for the locomotives is far more reliable than using a mechanical transmission and clutch. Starting a heavy train from stop would burn out a clutch in a brief time. 2.3.10. The ‘Diesel advantage’ One of the many advantages they offered over steam, even in their early years, is that they were very much more fuel efficient, and less polluting, since they do not churn out a large amount of smog-causing soot. They also offered better working conditions for the engine crew. No more was the tunnel a loco man’s nightmare, instead of driving practically blind through the dark with smoke filling the driving cab, the motormen now enjoyed clean, closed cabs without all the smoke and the dust, and had small lights to illuminate the line ahead. The ‘upgrade’ was now welcome by all engine crew. To run a passenger steam express at 80mph and keep it at that speed require real skill both from the driver and the fireman, but the same is easy to do in a diesel. It also meant that the fireman’s job become redundant and they became ‘second man’ on diesel-hauled trains, to simply assist the driver since the driver’s absolute attention to the signal ahead is becoming more vital as train speeds are pushed higher and higher. Interestingly, in the States they were never re-named as second man, as a result the dubious practice of carrying a ‘fireman’ on diesel trains persists until today, even though the job description has changed somewhat, the ‘fireman’ is more like a diesel mechanic.
  • 20. 20 CHAPTER: 3 3.1 The Transmission system At low speeds diesel engines have very little torque (turning force) and when stopped they have no turning force at all, engines have to be spinning to provide some traction. This presents a technical problem, because if the engine crankshaft was connected directly to the wheels like it is in a steam locomotive, it would not be able to provide any force to accelerate the train from rest. Cars and road vehicles get around this by a gear/clutch system, otherwise known as a mechanical transmission system. The clutch allows the engine to engage stationary wheels without having to slow down, and the gears allow the engine to keep the spinning at sufficient speed to keep the torque up. Clutch/gear systems were used for the very first diesel trains around. However the forces involved are much greater on a train than on a road vehicle, and gearboxes couldn’t really take it, and caused a lot of friction too, further reducing the efficiency. Besides, diesel engines, being compression-ignited, have a very small margin of optimal spin speed. Efficiency drops off very sharply if the engine runs just slightly faster or slower, unlike petrol-engines which do not have as tight limitation. But, the speed at which the wheels spin at 5mph differs dramatically from that at 80mph! To build such a gearbox would require perhaps some 15 different gears. Even the best rally-drivers would find it extremely difficult to change gears that fast, especially on commuter services where one may even not reach the top speeds between adjacent stations or signal checks. As any truck driver would know, an articulated lorry has up to 9 gears for a similar reason, in order to keep the engine revs at its optimal value and to make sure enough tractive effort is produced, faced with a wide varieties of ingredients. Truck-trailers are only permitted to travel at up to 50 mph in Britain, if one attempt to build a 100 mph diesel locomotive out of mechanical transmission one would soon run in to problems. 3.2 The Electric Transmission The solution was to use an Electric Transmission .Electric motors have very high torque just when stationary. If you take two electric motors, wire them in to each other, then if you turn one of them, the other one will turn .This principle is used in
  • 21. 21 diesel engines, the engine turns one of the motors and the other is connected to the wheel axle. This is an excellent way of transferring the power .The to start the train the engines roar up, spinning the motor very fast. This puts a high potential difference across the axle motor bringing in enough torque top start the train moving off and accelerating. Fig3.1: Transmission System The inside schematic diagram of an English Electric class 47 diesel-electric locomotive. Over 500 examples of this locomotive was built in the 1960 s and it became one of the most common, general purpose standard type of all times with a top speed of 95 mph .over 250 examples still exist .
  • 22. 22 CHAPTER:4 4.1. Engine Erection Shop (EES) In engine erection shop There are seven sections in this shop from 01 to 07 action have two or three station as given below: Fig4.1 Engine Erection Shop a) Station No. 1 to 4 in section 01 b) Station No. 5, 6, 6A and 6B are in section 02 to 03 c) Station No. 7 to 12 are in section 04 to 07 d) Station No.1 to 4 - Washing, debarring and panting e) Station No. 5 - Cam shaft bush fitting cylinder head stud driving linear Sleeve and Liner pressing and water testing. f) Station No. 6A - Piston Assembly. g) Station No.6B - Crank Shaft Assembly. h) Station No 6 - Piston Assembly Heads, Exhaust Manifold, water Connection, Air elbows, Nozzle and water header Pipe-fitting. i) Station No.7 to 9 - Lowering engine block, oil catcher, Generator, Lube Pump and water pump fitting oil. j) Station No. 10 - Cam shafts, gears, Control shaft, Turbo supper cooler, oil Seal, Turbo super charger application.
  • 23. 23 k) Station No.11 & 12 - Fuel pump Support, Valve leaver, Governor Application. Piping (Fuel Pump Support) Fuel oil header, valve gear header, Tubes, High pressure pipes, Lube oil strainer, Spray Nozzle and Governor Pipes application etc. 4.2. Washing In this section the M.G. & B.G. Blocks are washing after the welding process is completed. 4.3. Debarring It is to be ensured that the complete welding is free of any spatter welding defects and sharp corrosion of important welded joint have been ground then the cylinder block is marked and handed over for machining operation to H.M.S. 4.4. Panting After the washing of M.G. & B.G. Blocks are painting on painting shop. After the assembling of all component on engine & testing of engine the painting process is over on painting shop. 4.5. Piston Assembly Piston assembly heads, exhaust manifold, air elbows, nozzle and water header pipe- fitting. Cam shafts, gears, control shaft assembly, gear application, valve leaver. Fig4.2 Piston Assembly
  • 24. 24 Lowering engine block, oil catcher, generator, lube pump and water pump fitting oil. Fuel pump support, valve leaver, governor. Piping (fuel pump support) fuel oil header, valve gear header. Fig4.3 Piston Cylinder
  • 25. 25 CHAPTER:5 5.1. Loco Testing Shop (LTS) In Loco Testing Shop, various parts of the locomotive will be evaluated. Once on the track it must be tested to ascertain the horse-power that the engine is developing in relation to the amount of fuel that it burns; unless this is done the engine may prove to be uneconomical in its work. This test of horse-power requires measurement of the pull exerted by the engine on its train during the course of the journey. Fig5.1 Diesel Engine But the horse-power exerted by the locomotive on the train takes no account of the power that it utilizes in moving itself and its tender; therefore means must be devised of measuring the total horse-power exerted by the locomotive while in motion. To do this, there must be an examination of what is going on inside the engine cylinders. This examination also makes it possible to determine if, at all speeds from the lowest to the highest, the expansion of the steam in the cylinders is going on efficiently. Another important line of investigation concerns the boiler; the designer will want to know that the combustion of the fuel on the fire-grate is thorough and complete, and that no valuable sources of heat and energy are being thrown out of the chimney. This calls for an analysis of the gases in the smoke-box, and it is necessary for the analysis to be carried out while the locomotive is in motion. All these tests are usually conducted at the same time.
  • 26. 26 Round the front and two sides of the smoke-box of an engine undergoing its tests is a shelter, generally made of sheet steel, and containing two windows in front. This is to house two observers, who, well muffled up, half scorched by the heat of the smoke- box, and half frozen by the draughts behind them, "indicate" the engine during the course of the test journey. Their temporary home is known as an "indicating shelter." The indicator itself consists of a small vertical cylinder with a rotating motion, worked by a connection off the motion of the engine. Every time the driving wheels of the engine rotate, the indicator makes one complete forward turn and one backward turn, so that it is in rapid motion, forwards and backwards alternately, all the time the engine is running. An opening is made in the front cover of one of the cylinders, and from this a small tube is led to the indicator. In this steam-tube, therefore, the steam is at a pressure exactly corresponding with the pressure in the cylinder between the cylinder-end and the piston. Fig5.2 Electric Engine The indicator itself consists of a small vertical cylinder with a rotating motion, worked by a connection off the motion of the engine. Every time the driving wheels of the engine rotate, the indicator makes one complete forward turn and one backward turn, so that it is in rapid motion, forwards and backwards alternately, all the time the engine is running. An opening is made in the front cover of one of the cylinders, and from this a small tube is led to the indicator. In this steam-tube, therefore, the steam is at a pressure exactly corresponding with the pressure in the cylinder between the cylinder-end and the piston.
  • 27. 27 A dynamometer car, attached between the locomotive and the train, is used for making tests under working conditions. This coach is 48 ft. 5 in. long and weighs 27 tons 3 cwt. In the car a moving roll of paper, on which the principal records are made, is operated by clockwork and the extra wheel shown. This can be raised or lowered from the underside of the carriage to the rail as required, and is used to record on the roll the speed at which the train is travelling. The wheel is fitted with a hardened steel tyre, ground to such a diameter that it makes exactly 440 revolutions for each mile run. Fig5.3 LTS Shop It is of this process of expansion that the indicator diagram gives an exact picture. At the selected moment the observer in the shelter opens a cock in the small steam tube; the pressure in the tube actuates a small pen, which rises and falls according to the actual pressure in that end of the cylinder; the pen makes a line on the rotating cylinder of the indicator, to which a sheet of paper has been fixed. It is shaped like a boot. The top horizontal part of the "upper" shows the pressure as steam is admitted up to the point of "cut-off" ; the sloping front of the boot, where it would be laced, down to the toe-cap, represents the expansion from the cut-off to the end of the forward stroke ; and the underside of the boot, from sole to heel, represents the pressure in the same end of the cylinder on the return stroke of the piston, as the expanded steam is being "exhausted" to the chimney. A "fat" diagram is sought; thin diagrams often mean inefficiency, especially if, near the end of the stroke, the return,
  • 28. 28 or exhaust, line crosses above the line representing the final stage of the expansion; this shows that excessive backpressure is taking place. From the indicator diagrams, which are taken at a large number of selected points during the test journey, it is possible not only to watch the process of expansion in the engine cylinders at all speeds, but also to make an approximate calculation of the total horse-power which is being developed by the locomotive. A certain proportion of this and the proportion so expended must obviously be kept to the lowest possible percentage is used in propelling itself and hauling its tender. The remainder, which represents the value of the locomotive as an operating unit, is available for the haulage of its train, and this has now to be measured. The difference between the two figures will show how much of its power the engine has expended in moving itself. As the piston moves away from the cylinder-end, the pressure is at first roughly equal to the boiler-pressure, while live steam is still being admitted ; then comes the moment of "cut-off," after which the steam does the remainder of its work by expansion, and the pressure rapidly drops until the end of the piston-stroke. But at this point it may tend to rise again, owing to what is called "back-pressure"—that is, pressure on the other side of the piston, as the expanded steam from the last previous stroke is being pushed out of the cylinder up into the chimney, and the final stage is reached when the piston "cushions" that steam up against the opposite cylinder-end. In designing and setting modern valve-motions, the aim is to use the expansive properties of the steam to the maximum, and to reduce the back-pressure or cushioning to a minimum, as more efficient working will result from the realization of both aims. Flow chart for Loco Testing: a) First inspection report b) Initial filling c) Compressor section d) Crank shaft deflection
  • 29. 29 e) Lubricant oil circulation f) Initial cranking and temperature setting g) Preload test h) Load test i) Air brake test j) Track and dynamic brake test k) Road run trial test l) Final inspection m) Dispatch
  • 30. 30 CHAPTER:6 6.1. Locomotive Frame Shop (LFS) Under frame Fabrication under frames are fabricated with due care to ensure designed weld strength. Requisite camber to the under frame is provided during fabrication itself. Critical welds are tested radio graphically. Welder training and their technical competence are periodically reviewed. Fig6.1 Loco Frame Shop High Horse Power (HHP) under frame is fabricated using heavy fixtures, position to ensure down hand welding. Fig6.2 Lifting Of Frames
  • 31. 31 All activities connected with pipes like pickling, bending, cutting, forming and threading of pipes of various sizes are undertaken in another well-equipped work area. All electrical equipment is assembled in the fabricated control compartments and driver's control stands are done in another work area. Fig6.3 Loco Frames Under frames are received from Loco frame shop and assembled trucks from Truck machine shop. Superstructure compartments and contractor compartment are received from respective manufacturing and assembly shops of Vehicle Division. Important alignments like crank shaft deflection, compressor alignment and Eddy Current clutch/radiator fan alignment are done during assembly stage. Electrical control equipments are fitted and control cable harnessing is undertaken. The complete locomotive is thus assembled before being sent onwards for final testing and spray.
  • 32. 32 CHAPTER:7 7.1. Heavy Machine Shop (HMS) This shop carry out the machining of cylinder blocks (M.G. & B.G.) main base, saddle main bearing caps, splines, turbo supercharger, lube oil, fuel oil and water header cam bearing housing. 7.2. Operations Performed In HMS a) Planning b) Milling c) Drilling d) Tapping e) Boring f) Honing g) Shaping h) Serration 7.3. Type Of The Machines Provided In The Shop Are a) Double housing panel machining (32”, 24” & 16”) b) Redial drilling machine c) Redial drilling machine travelling type d) Boring machine e) Angular boring machine (ex. cello) f) Tracer planer machine g) Hill acme king structural milling machine 7.4. Tool Used a) O.K. Toll (rough and finish) b) C.C. Milling cutter (4”, 9” & 10”) c) Boring tipper tool (rough and finish) d) Housing store (for hand bearing) e) Drill Reamer, Top (various size) f) Serration cutter
  • 33. 33 7.5. Measuring Instrument a) Dial bar gauge b) Micron meter (outside and depth) c) Vencer height gauge d) Mandrill or optical shad rill machine 7.6. Ex-Cello Angular Boring Machine a) Motor rpm in constant spindle b) Speed is controlled by clutch system 7.7. HMT Angular Boring Machine Spindle speed is directly controlled through motor (coated carbide is used in HMT angular boring machine). Cylinder block made of lubricated class second material except main bearing cop as it made class fourth material. Fig7.1 Angular Boring Machine The machining of cylinder block is complicated and challenging job. It requires great skill and knowledge. After duty fabricated stress relieved and shot blasted. The block is subjected to layout to ensure availability of adequate machining allowance where
  • 34. 34 necessary and to provide guide liner for subsequent machining. The weight of the block is 6.02tonn approximate (fabricated material).After completion of all operation as per drawing the block subjected to inspection in addition to stage inspection live radial distance between centres of crank bore and cam bore, distance between centre of cam bore and liner seat etc. are chocked at this stage the weight of the block is 5.02 tonnes approximate .01 ton of material is removed by machining and then blank is block is send for assembly. 7.8. Machines Available In HMS For Block Table7.1 List Of Machines S No. Machine no. Name of M/c 1 1084 Planner M/c 2 2675 Milling M/c 3 507 Radial drilling M/c 4 118 Planner M/c 5 2187 V-boring or liner boring 6 2135 Cam & cylindrical boring M/c or horizontal boring M/c (cnc) 7 1084 Radial drilling M/c 8 1120 Tracer planer M/c 9 1223 Serration drilling M/c 10 9072 End drilling M/c 11 875/941 Radial drilling M/c 12 2818 Radial drilling M/c 13 3187 Weldrich coberg CNC M/c 14 3188 Angular ‘V’ boring M /c 15 2494 End drilling M/c 16 1976 End drilling M/c 17 1977 End milling of block base boring and facing 18 2787 Plano-milling M/c 19 1120 Planner M/c 20 2435 Hooma-planner M/c
  • 35. 35 21 2434 Hooma-2 tracer M/c 22 3108 Milling m/c 23 1973 Milling m/c 24 286 Radial drilling M/c 25 3087/3088 HMC (CNC) Fig7.2 Automatic Boring Machine
  • 36. 36 CONCLUSION: Working on this project was a pleasure for me as I learned lot of things which was unknown to me before doing this project. I worked In, Heavy Machine Shop (HMS), Engine Erection Shop (EES), Loco Frame Shop (LTS) and Loco Test Shop (LTS) my job description includes regular updating status to know about all related to Production Unit, Diesel Generating sets and their spares for Indian Railways and Non-Railways customer. I tried to give my best effort on this project but it could be better if I would have theoretical knowledge about workshops before taking this project. As this topic was new to me and due to time constraint I was not able to through each and every Procedure. The mechanical maintenance department is responsible for the running of DLW. It ensures that the all the machinery and equipment are running at their top performance level without being affected by failure and breakdown. Working with the engineers of the mechanical maintenance department I have gained such an amount of knowledge which would not have been possible in a classroom in a similar period time. Also the practical experience I have gained here in DLW, VARANSI gave me knowledge of to what extent my theoretical knowledge learnt in my college is applicable in the field. Although the theoretical knowledge forms the base of practical knowledge required on the field , the field job also require some different set of skills which I learnt about during my training. My skills in mechanical engineering has definitely been taken to a much higher level than it was when I first joined the training program of 4 weeks back and I truly consider myself highly fortunate to get this opportunity.
  • 37. 37 REFERENCES: 1. www.indianrail.gov.in/ir_zones.pdf list of all the zones and division 2. http://www.nwr.indianrailways.gov.in/view_section.jsp?lang=0&id=0,1,28 5 , figure and data related to the Jaipur division and North western zone. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File%3ARailway_network_sche matic_map_2009.png Railway Zonal Map . 4. http://www.nwr.indianrailways.gov.in/uploads/files/1401775686459- NWR.pdf coach maintain manual of NWR zone. 5. http://www.nwr.indianrailways.gov.in/view_section.jsp?lang=0&id=0,1,26 3,602hardware used in japur zone in PRS. 6. http://cris.org.in/CRIS/Projects/PRS , content about the PRS 7. www.indianrailways.gov.in 8. https://www.slideshare.net/.../dlw.