251109 rm-m.r.-data collection methods in quantitative research-an overview


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251109 rm-m.r.-data collection methods in quantitative research-an overview

  1. 1. DATA COLLECTION METHODS IN QUANTITATIVERESEARCH-AN OVERVIEW BY Mrs.Manoranjitham.S Professor in Nursing College of Nursing CMC,Vellore-4
  2. 2. DEFINITION :Data Collection Method is Gathering of informatin to address a research problem.DIMENSIONS: 1.Structure 2.Quantifiability 3.Researcher obtrusiveness 4.Objectivity
  3. 3. STRUCTURE Structured plan indicates what information is to be gathered and how to gather it Most self administered questionnaires are highly structured SAQ-include fixed set of questions to be answered in a specified sequence and with predesignated response options (agree or disagree)
  4. 4. Quantifiability Data that will be subjected to statistical analysis must be gathered in such a way that they can be quantified For statistical analysis variables must be quantitatively measured
  5. 5. Researcher Obtrusiveness Data collection methods differ in the degree to which people are aware of their status as participants People’s role in the study(behaviour and responses may not be normal) Researcher should make an effort to put participants at ease
  6. 6. Objectivity It refers to the degree to which two independent researchers can arrive at similar scores or make similar observations regarding the concepts Some research problems require a higher degree of objectivity than others
  7. 7. Major Types Self Reports Observation Biophysiologic Measures Research question may dictate which specific method to use
  8. 8. I. Self Reports Most widely used method For quantitative study always use a formal, written instrument Vast majority of nursing studies involve data collected by self-report Using self reports researcher can gather retrospective data about activities and events occurring in the past Instruments-Interview schedule and Self administered questionnaire
  9. 9. Types of self reportsSAQSet of questions in which the wording of both questionsand response alternatives is predeterminedInterview schedule When questions are asked orally in either face-face or telephone interviews
  10. 10. Questions Structured instruments Set of questions in which the wording of both questions and response alternatives is predetermined Two types-Open ended and closed ended
  11. 11. Open ended questions Allow respondents to respond in their own words (eg.) What was the biggest problem you faced after your surgery? Interviewers are expected to quote responses verbatim or as closely Adequate space must be provided
  12. 12. Closed ended questions Are also called fixed alternative questions It offers respondents alternative replies from which subjects choose the one that most closely matches the appropriate answer Good closed ended items are often difficult to construct but easy to administer and analyze Preferred by respondents who are unable to express verbally
  13. 13. Advantages of questionnaire Distribution-mail, person and internet (economical) Cost-less, requires less time and energy, distribution is inexpensive, more diverse sample can be obtained Anonymity is complete No interview bias
  14. 14. Advantages of interviews Response rates are high Audience-many people cannot fill questionnaire Clarity-offer protection against ambiguous or confusing questions Depth of questioning is more Missing information is not there Researcher has the control over the order of questions Sample control-in tented respondents can be contacted Supplementary data-additional data through observation
  15. 15. II.Observation Involves systematic selection, observation and recording of behaviours,events and settings relevant to a problem under study General issues; 1.characteristics and conditions of individual 2.activities and behaviour 3.skill attainment and performance 4.verbal communication 5.non verbal communication 6.environmental characteristics
  16. 16. Types of observation Check list-it is the instrument observer use to record observed phenomena Rating scales-rate a phenomenon along a descriptive continuum (e.g.) passive/aggressive
  17. 17. III.Biophysiologic measures Used to assess the physiologic status of study participants Purpose: 1.basic physiologic process 2.Physiologic outcomes of nursing care 3.Evaluation of nursing interventions 4.Product assessment 5.measurement and diagnosis improvement 6.Studies of physiologic correlates
  18. 18. Types of Biophysiologic measure In vivo measurement- Performed directly in or on living organisms e.g. BP,oxygen saturation,body temperature In vitro measurements-performed outside the organisms body e.g. Serum potassium concentrate in the blood
  19. 19. Advantages Accurate and precise Objective Valid measures of the targeted variables Cost is low(hospital)
  20. 20. Disadvantages Measuring tool may affect the variables Risk of damaging the cells
  21. 21. Other datas Records Vignettes Projective techniques