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231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview


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231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview

  1. 1. RESEARCH PROCESS – AN OVERVIEW DR. PREMILA LEE Professor Dept of Surgical Nursing, CNE & Research, College of Nursing, Christian Medical College, Vellore
  2. 2. RESEARCH METHODS <ul><li>Research methods are the techniques researchers use to structure a study & to gather and analyze information relevant to the research question </li></ul><ul><li>Research methods </li></ul><ul><li>- Quantitative research </li></ul><ul><li>- Qualitative research </li></ul>
  3. 3. Phase 1: The conceptual phase Phase 2: The design and planning phase Phase 3: The empirical phase Phase 4: The analytic phase Phase 5: The dissemination phase
  4. 4. PHASE I: THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE <ul><li>Formulating and delimiting the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing the related literature </li></ul><ul><li>Undertaking Clinical field work </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the framework and developing conceptual definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating hypotheses </li></ul>
  5. 5. FORMULATING & DELIMITING THE PROBLEM <ul><li>Identify an interesting, significant research problem </li></ul><ul><li>A research problem is a perplexing problem about which one is curious </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of research problems – clinical experience, nursing literature, social issues, theories & ideas from external sources </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Communicating research problems – Problem statement, Research questions </li></ul><ul><li>A problem statement articulates the problem to be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Research questions are the specific queries researchers want to answer in addressing the research problem </li></ul>
  7. 7. REVIEWING THE RELATED LITERATURE <ul><li>Research is conducted within the context of previous knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers strive to understand what is already known </li></ul><ul><li>A thorough literature review provides a foundation </li></ul>
  8. 8. UNDERTAKING CLINICAL FIELD WORK <ul><li>Beneficial to spend time in clinical settings, discussing with concerned people & observing current practices </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in developing methodologic strategies </li></ul>
  9. 9. DEFINING THE FRAMEWORK & DEVELOPING CONCEPTUAL DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Abstractions are called concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts used in quantitative studies are called variables </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts in a study need to be defined </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Two types of definitions – conceptual and operational </li></ul><ul><li>A conceptual definition presents the theoretical meaning of the concepts </li></ul><ul><li>An operational definition of a concept specifies the operations that researcher must perform to collect and measure the required information </li></ul>
  11. 11. FORMULATING HYPOTHESES <ul><li>A hypothesis is a prediction about the relationship between two or more study variables </li></ul>
  12. 12. PHASE 2: THE DESIGN & PLANNING PHASE <ul><li>Selecting a research design </li></ul><ul><li>Developing protocols for the intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the population </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the sampling plan </li></ul><ul><li>Specifying methods to measure the research variables </li></ul><ul><li>Developing methods to safeguard human or animal rights </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing and finalizing the research plan </li></ul>
  13. 13. SELECTING A RESEARCH DESIGN <ul><li>Research design is the overall plan for obtaining answers to the research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Research design is the architectural backbone of the study </li></ul>
  14. 14. DEVELOPING PROTOCOLS FOR THE INTERVENTION <ul><li>In an experimental research t he intervention protocol for the study need to be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to have all subjects treated in some way </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessary in non experimental research </li></ul>
  15. 15. IDENTIFYING THE POPULATION <ul><li>Population is all the individuals with common, defining characteristics </li></ul>
  16. 16. DESIGNING THE SAMPLING PLAN <ul><li>Researchers collect data from a sample, which is subset of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Risk – if sample do not adequately reflect population traits </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate sampling procedures can produce samples that are being representative </li></ul><ul><li>The sampling plan specifies in advance the method & number of sample to be selected </li></ul>
  17. 17. SPECIFYING METHODS TO MEASURE THE RESEARCH VARIABLES <ul><li>Researcher must develop or borrow methods to measure the research variables as accurately as possible </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of quantitative data collection approaches exist </li></ul>
  18. 18. DEVELOPING METHODS TO SAFEGUARD HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><li>Procedure need to be developed to ensure that the study adheres to ethical principles </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the rights of subjects have been adequately protected </li></ul>
  19. 19. REVIEWING & FINALIZING THE RESEARCH PLAN <ul><li>Before actual data collection, researcher perform a number of “tests” to ensure that plans will work smoothly </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. evaluate the readability of written materials, pretest the measuring instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Have the research plan critiqued by peers, consultants or other reviewers </li></ul>
  20. 20. PHASE 3: THE EMPIRICAL PHASE <ul><li>Collecting the data </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the data for analysis </li></ul>
  21. 21. COLLECTING THE DATA <ul><li>The actual data collection often proceeds according to the pre-established plan </li></ul><ul><li>Plan specifies procedures for the actual data collection </li></ul>
  22. 22. PREPARING THE DATA FOR ANALYSIS <ul><li>Quantitative researchers collect data in numeric form </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected in a quantitative study require coding & transfer onto computer files </li></ul>
  23. 23. PHASE 4: THE ANALYTIC PHASE <ul><li>Analyzing the data </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting the results </li></ul>
  24. 24. INTERPRETING THE RESULTS <ul><li>Interpretation is the process of making sense of study results and examining their implications </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers explain the findings in the light of prior evidence, theory and clinical experience </li></ul><ul><li>Determine how the findings can be used in clinical practice, or what further research is needed </li></ul>
  25. 25. PHASE 5: THE DISSEMINATION PHASE <ul><li>Communicating the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizing the findings in practice </li></ul>
  26. 26. COMMUNICATING THE FINDINGS <ul><li>Final task is the preparation of a research report that can be shared with others </li></ul>
  27. 27. UTILIZING THE FINDINGS IN PRACTICE <ul><li>Concluding step is to plan for its use in practice settings </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse researchers who are not in a position to implement a plan for utilizing research findings </li></ul><ul><li>- Include recommendations in the research </li></ul><ul><li>report </li></ul><ul><li>- Ensure that adequate information has been </li></ul><ul><li>provided for a meta-analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Disseminate the findings to practicing </li></ul><ul><li>nurses </li></ul>
  28. 28. REFERENCES <ul><li>Burns, N. & Grove, S.K. (2005). The Practice of Nursing Research: conduct, critique and utilization, 5 th ed. St.Louis: Saunders Elsevier </li></ul><ul><li>Polit, D.F. & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Principles and Methods. 8 th ed. Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, G.L. & Haber, J.(2006). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence_Based Practice. 6 th ed. St.Louis: Mosby Elsevier </li></ul>