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TRAINING REPORT
SIX WEEKS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
AT
“BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED, GHAZIABAD”
In Partial Fulfilment of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY, PUNJAB
SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Under the Guidance of
MR.ARVIND KUMAR
SUBMITTED BY:
NAME: VIVEK TYAGI
REG. NO.11104344
M1106
BTECH (M.E)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am highly grateful to Bharat Electronics Limited Ghaziabad, one of the leading defence
organizations of the nation, for providing me an opportunity to undertake six weeks training
at their manufacturing premises at Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. It was a great learning
experience as I was introduced to various aspects of the working of the organization, the
latest state of the art technologies & machines used in the manufacturing processes. It was
wonderful to see the company striving hard to keep up the national security at par with the
rest of the world. I would like to express my sincerest gratitude towards Mr.Yogendra Kumar
Sara swat (MANAGER) and Mr.Ravindra Kumar (DGM FABRICATION) for their regular
support and guidance that helped me in successful completion of my six weeks training. At
the end I would like to thank all the staff members of BEL, Ghaziabad who made this training
a rich learning experience.
PREFACE
With the on-going revolution mechanical engineering where innovations are taking at the
blink of eye, it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. Excellence is an
attitude that whole of human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that
whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly executed
and evaluated industrial training helps a lot including a professional attitude. It provides a
linkage b/w the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to
problem solving, based on broad understanding of process and mode of operation of
organization.
During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the actual industry
environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of
their studies is put to test here. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the
latest technology, which is immensely helps in them in building their carrier.
I had an opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my sphere
of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also
interfaced to many instruments.
And all this credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Ltd.
ABOUT
BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED
(BEL)
After Independence India had many responsibilities from basic necessity to telecomm &
defence equipment so after adoption of its constitution in 1950, the government was seized
with the plans to lay the foundation of a strong, self-sufficient Modern India. On the
industrial announced in the year 1952. It was recognized that in certain core sectors
infrastructure facilities require huge investments, which cannot be met by private sector and
as such, the idea of Public Sector Enterprise (PSE) was mooted. Under this a Professional
Electronics company in India incorporated that was front, industrial policy resolution (IPR)
was BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED.
BEL was established in 1954 as a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative
control of Ministry of Defence as the fountain head to manufacture and supply electronics
components and equipment. BEL, with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements, has
met the requirements of state-of –art professional electronic equipment for Defence,
broadcasting, Civil Defence and telecommunications as well as the component requirement
of entertainment and medical X-ray industry. Over the years, BEL has grown to a multi-
product, multi-unit and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU.
BEL was born to meet the growing needs of Indian Defence services for electronic
systems. Employing the best engineering talent available in the country, BEL has progressed
manufacturing state-of-the-art products I n the field of Defence Electronics like
Communications including encryption, Radars and strategic components.
Over the years, BEL has diversified to meet the needs of civilian customers as well
and has provided products and network solutions on turnkey basis to customers in India and
abroad.
With the Research & Development efforts, its engineers have fructified it into a
world-class organization. The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all
the generations of electronic component and equipment. Having started with a HF receiver in
collaboration with T-CSF of France, the company‟s equipment designs have had a long
voyage through the hybrid, solid-state discrete component to the state-of-art integrated circuit
technology. In the component arena also, the company established its own electron
valve manufacturing facility. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of
germanium and silicon devices and then to manufacture of Integrated circuits. To keep in
pace with the component and equipment technology, its manufacturing and product assurance
facilities have also undergone sea change. The design groups have CADD‟s facility, the
manufacturing has CNC machines and a Mass Manufacture Facility, and QC checks are
performed with multi-dimensional profile measurement machines. Automatic testing
machines, environmental labs to check extreme weather and other operational conditions are
there. All these facilities have been established to meet the stringent requirements of MIL
grade systems.
Product mix of the company are spread over the entire electromagnetic (EM)
spectrum ranging from tiny audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-ray
tubes on the upper edge of the spectrum. Its manufacturing units have special focus towards
the product ranges like Defence Communications, Radars, Optical & Opto-electronics,
Telecommunications, Sound and Vision broadcasting, Electronic components, etc.
Besides manufacturing and supply of a wide variety of products, BEL offers a variety
of services like Telecom and Radar Systems Consultancy, Contract Manufacturing,
Calibration of test& measuring instruments, etc. At the moment, the company is installing
MSSR radar at important airports under the modernization of airports plan of National
Airport Authority (NAA).
BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing technologies
from more than 50 leading companies worldwide and DRDO labs for a wide range of
products. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in R&D. Each unit has its own R&D
Division to bring out new products to the production lines. Central Research Laboratory
(CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as independent agency to undertake contemporary
design work on state-of-art and futuristic technologies. About 70% of BEL„s products are of
in-house design.
Probably one of the first project of its nature in India and Asia. BEL has won a
number of national and international awards for Import Substitution, Productivity, Quality,
Safety etc.
Today, BEL has set up impressive infrastructure spread in 9 locations with 29-
production division and manufacturing facilities in their ISO-9001/9002
BEL was amongst the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals
under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970‟s. BEL
assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the arrangement with ICIL. However,
following Government‟s decision to restrict the computer manufacture to ECIL, BEL could
not progress in its computer manufacturing plans. As many of its equipment were
microprocessor based, the company continued to develop computers based application, both
hardware and software. Most of its software requirements are in real time. EMCCA, software
intensive naval ships control and command system is certified production units around the
country. They are –Bangalore, Ghaziabad, Pune, Taloja (Maharashtra), Hyderabad,
Panchkula (Haryana), Chennai, Machilipathnam (A.P.) and Kotdwara (U.P.)
BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution,
Productivity, Quality, Safety Standardization etc. BEL was ranked no.1 in the field of
Electronics and 46th
overall among the top 1000 private and public sector undertakings in
India by the Business Standard in its special supplement "The BS 1000 (1997-98)". This
organization also stands on number 7th
position in the best 100 public and private companies
according to the "electronic for u" in 2002. BEL was listed 3rd
among the Mini Ratna‟s
(category II) by the Government of India, 49th
among Asia's top 100 Electronic Companies
by the Electronic Business Asia and within the top 100 worldwide Defence Companies by the
Defence News, USA.
VARIOUS UNITS
Its corporate office is at Bangalore. Bangalore complex is the BEL‟s first and largest unit and
it accounts for two-thirds of both the company‟s turnover and manpower. This unit‟s product
range covers over 300 Defence and Civilian products. Ghaziabad is the second largest unit of
BEL and it specializes in radars, communication equipments & microwave-components.
In total BEL has got 9 units. These are distributed in all over the India as:
 BANGALORE (Corporate Office)
 GHAZIABAD
 PANCHKULA
 MACHILIPATNAM
 PUNE
 HYDERABAD
 CHENNAI
 KOTDWARA
 TALOJA
Besides, there are two Central Research Laboratories (CRL) located at Bangalore and
Ghaziabad, to address futuristic technologies of interest to BEL.
Bangalore (Karnataka)
 BEL started its production activities in Bangalore in 1954 with 400W high frequency
(HF) transmitter and communication receiver for the Army
 The Unit has now diversified into manufacturing of electronic products for the
civilian customers such as DOT, VSNL, AIR and Doordarshan, Meteorological Dept.,
ISRO, Police, Civil Aviation, and Railways. As an aid to Electorate, the unit has
developed Electronic Voting Machines that are produced at its Mass Manufacturing
Facility (MMF).
Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh)
 The second largest Unit at Ghaziabad was set up in 1974 to manufacture special types
of Radars for the Air Defence Ground Environment Systems (Plan ADGES).
 The Unit's product range included Static and Mobile Radars, Troposcatter equipment,
professional grade Antennae and Microwave components.
PUNE:
 Image convertor, image intensifier,
 X-ray tubes
 Batteries
 Electro-optics
MACHLIPATNAM:
 Optical & optoelectronic equipment like binoculars, microscopes Medical Electronics
NAVI MUMBAI
 Glass shells for black & white TV picture tubes
 Shelters for Electronic Equipment
 Train Actuated Warning System
 Electronic Equipment Assembly
PANCHKULA
 This unit manufactures only tactical communication equipment like VHF, UHF
transceivers etc.
KOTDWARA:
 This is a unit in Garhwal district of Uttaranchal. This unit manufactures radio relay,
multiplex equipments & exchanges etc.
CHENNAI:
 Tank related electronic equipments
 Optical fire control systems
HYDERABAD:
 This is another unit of BEL which manufactures electronic warfare equipment.
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CORPORATE MOTTO, MISSION AND OBECTIVES
The passionate pursuit of excellence at BEL is reflected in repulsion with its customers that
can be described in its motto, mission and objectives
CORPORATE MOTTO: “QUALITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION”
CORPORATE MISSION: To be the market leader in Defence Electronics
and in other chosen fields and products.
CORPORATE OBJECTIVES:
(a) To become a customer-driven company supplying quality products at
competitive prices at the expected time and providing excellent customer
support.
(b) To achieve growth in the operations commensurate with the growth of
professional electronics industry in the country.
(c) To generate internal resources for financing the investments required for
modernization, expansion and growth for ensuring a fair return to the investor.
(d) In order to meet the Nation's strategic needs, to strive for self-reliance by
indigenization of materials and components.
(e) To retain the technological leadership of the company in Defence and other
chosen fields of electronics through in-house.
(f) Research and Development as well as through collaboration/co-operation with
Defence/National Research Laboratories, International Companies,
Universities and Academic institutions.
(g) To progressively increase overseas sales of its products and services.
(h) To create an organizational culture which encourages members of the
organization to realize their full potential through continuous learning on the
job and through other HRD initiatives.
QUALITY OBJECTIVES:
(a) Effective and Efficient design and development process, considering the
present and future needs of customers.
(b) Enhanced customer satisfaction by on-time delivery of defect free products
and effective life cycle support.
(c) Continual up gradation and utilization of infrastructure and human resources.
(d) Mutually beneficial alliances with suppliers.
e) Continual improvement of processes through innovation, technology and
knowledge management.
MAIN PRODUCT OF BEL GHAZIABAD ROHINI RADAR
Low level Light Weight 3D Radar - ROHINI: ROHINI is a multifaceted ground based S-
Band 3D Low Level Light Weight Surveillance Radar for deployment in diverse terrains like
plains, deserts, mountain tops and high altitude regions. Rohini detects and tracks
heterogeneous air targets, including helicopters, fighters and UAVs at low and medium
altitudes. The radar can scan the valley. It provides accurate range, azimuth and height
information for each target with electronically steerable multi-beam technology in elevation.
The radar sweeps 360° in azimuth and 30° in elevation to provide air space awareness. Semi -
distributed active aperture radar uses advanced VLSI and high-speed digital technologies like
high efficiency T/R modules, DDS, digital receiver and programmable signal processor to
provide 3D air space awareness with high accuracy, resolution and reliability.
Bharat Electronics Ltd., (BEL), a premier Professional Electronics Company of India, has
established and nurtured a strong in-house R&D base over the years to emerge and remain as
a market leader in the chosen areas of business in professional electronics. Each of the nine
manufacturing units of BEL is having its own in-house R&D Division to develop new
products in its field of operations.
AREAS OF R&D ACTIVITY
Main areas of R&D activities at BEL include development of Military Radars, Naval
Systems, Military Communication Products, Electronic Warfare Systems,
Telecommunication products, Sound and Vision Broadcasting Equipment and Systems, Opto
Electronic Products, and Electronic Components. CRL performs the dual role of carrying out
blue sky research for the development of future technologies and supporting the D&E
Divisions of BEL's nine units with state-of-the-art core technology solutions in areas like
Embedded Computers and applications, Radar Signal Processing, VLSI designs, RF &
Microwave Communication Technologies, Software modules etc.
RESOURCE AND INVESTMENT
BEL's R&D Units have state-of-the-art R&D infrastructure, facilities, and manpower
with relevant technical expertise for product development. There are about 1000 engineers
working in BEL on various D&E projects. BEL spends around 5 % of company turnover for
the year on R&D every year. HRD Divisions of BEL take adequate initiatives for the all-
round development and expertise up gradation of R&D human resources. State of the art
infrastructures, test equipment, computers & workstations, Software packages etc. are
augmented every year for the R&D divisions. BEL R&D Units are recognized by the
Department of Scientific & Industrial Research under the Ministry of Science & Technology,
Govt. of India.
CUSTOMER PROFILE
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CUSTOMERS
DEFENCE COMMUNICTION INDIAN DEFENCE SERVICES,PARA-MILITARY
FORCES
RADAR AND SONARS INDIAN DEFECE SERVICE,CIVIL
AVIATION,METEOROLOGICL DEPARTMAENT
,SPACE DEPARTMENT
TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT OF
TELECOMMUNICATION,PARAMILITARY
ORCES ,POWER SECTOR,OIL
INDUSTRY,RAILWAYS
BROADCASTING EQUIPMENTS AND
STUDO SYSTEM
ALL INDIA RADIO,DOORDARSHAN
ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA
SOLAR PRODUCT AND SYSTEMS INDIVIDUALS,PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT
ORGANISATIONS
TURNKEY SYSTEMS,E-GOVERNANCE
NETWORKS
POLICE,STATE GOVERNMENTS,PUBLIC
SECTOR UNDERTAKING
COMPONENTS TV BROADCASTERS,INSTRUMENTATION
NDUSRTY,SWITCHING
INDUSTRY,ENTERTAINMENT
INDUSTRY,TELEPHONE INDUSTRY
DEPARTMENTS & FUNCTIONS
BEL Ghaziabad has different divisions which are further divided into departments-
1. D&E (Development and Engineering)
This is a division which is further divided into departments. They are:
 D&E (DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING) – It is to design the project, make the
modifications to prepare design and related documents.
 D&E CRYPTO – It is for designing of secure communication.
 TIC (Technical Information Centre) – TIC is a library for designing purpose.
 DRA OFFICE - It is the Drawing office.
 STDS (STANDARDS) –These are the standards for Drafting, Design manure, Quality
standards.
2. MFG (MANUFACTURING):
 WA (WORK ASSEMBLY) – There are different types of work assembly i.e. PCB
assembly, Module assembly, Final assembly.
 WF (WORK FABRICATION) – It is the department for the mechanical work.
 AMF (ADVANCED MANUFACTURING FACILITIES) – Advanced machines are
used in the manufacturing of the projects as SMT (Surface Mounted Technology), it is
an automatic system to mount the item on the PCB.
 PE (PRODUCTION ENGINEERING) – It is for the installation of the new
machinery.
 PPC (PRODUCTION, PLANNING and CONTROL) – In this the work is planned.
 SC (SUB CONTRACT)
3. MM (MATERIAL MANAGEMENT):
 It is the management of the materials.
 PUR (PURCHASE DEPARTMENT) - This department purchases the materials.
 ISM (INTEGRATED STORE MANAGEMENT)
 HS (HOLDING STORE) – It has different bins that holds items after inspection.
 IGS (INCOMING GOODS STORE)
 MC (MATERIAL CONTROL)
4.MKTG / PA (MARKETING / PRODUCT ASSURANCE):
 MKTG (Marketing Division)
 Sales – It is to prepare ESO equipment source order.
 FGS (FINISH GOODS STORE) – After finishing the project it is sent to FGS for
final packing.
 TL (Technical Literature) – It is the booklet with the project having instructions.
 PR (PUBLIC RELATION) –It is the relation with the customers.
 TESTING – Products are tested by different tests
 C TEST (CIPHER TEST) - It is the test for the secrecy.
 PS (PRODUCT SUPPORT) – It is done after sale services.
 SELF CERT (SELF CERTIFICATION) – It is the department which visits the place
where work is going on.
5. QA (QUALITY ASSURANCE):
It deals with the quality of the material.
 INSP(WA) {INSPECTION IN WORK ASSEMBLY)
 INSP(WF) {INSPECTION IN WORK FABRICATION)
 R&E (RELIABILITY & EVALUATION) - The materials are checked before giving
it to customers.
6. P&S (PLANT AND SERVICES):
 It is the department for providing the services to company. Services are water supply,
electrical supply, transport, horticulture.
7. HR & A (HUMAN RESOURCES & ADMINISTRATION):
 PERSON. (PERSONNEL) – In this department the recruitment of employees is done.
 ESTD. (ESTABLISHMENT) – It is to use manpower in different areas.
 MEDICAL – Medical facilities are also available.
 CRECHE
 CANTEEN
 WELFARE
8. F&A (FINANCE & ACCOUNT):
 FINANCE - Department for the sanction of money.
 PAYROLL – It is the salary of the employees.
 BUDGET – It is made for one year.
 ACCOUNTS – It is the record of the money.
 AUDIT – Survey of the systems.
9.IS / MS (INFORMATION SYSTEMS):
 MRP - All Production Related work related to assy,stores, purchase etc.
 PAYROLL - Related to Salary.
 FINANCE - Concerned with ledgers, sub-sidary ledgers, General ledger etc.
10. QM (QUALITY MANAGEMENT):
 ISO (INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION) – It is to sell our
products in the international market.
 6 SIGMA – It is the statistical Technique for maintaining Quality.
 TES (TEST EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORT) – Calibration or measuring of
instruments.
 IGI (INCOMING GOODS INSPECTION)
 QCC (QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE) – In this department there is a group of
employees who discuss the problems, find out its solution and present it to manager.
PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL
Production Management also called operations management, planning and control of
industrial processes to ensure that they move smoothly at the required level. Techniques of
production management are employed in service as well as in manufacturing industries. It is a
responsibility similar in level and scope to other specialties such as marketing or human
resource and financial management. In manufacturing operations, production management
includes responsibility for product and process design, planning and control issues involving
capacity and quality, and organization and supervision of the workforce.
The production manager must plan and control the process of production so that it moves
smoothly at the required level of output while meeting cost and quality objectives. Process
control has two purposes: first, to ensure that operations are performed according to plan, and
second, to continuously monitor and evaluate the production plan to see if modifications can
be devised to better meet cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, or other objectives.
WHAT INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION MANAGER DO :
 Review operations and confer with technical or administrative staff to resolve
production or processing problems.
 Review processing schedules or production orders to make decisions concerning
inventory requirements, staffing requirements, work procedures, or duty assignments,
considering budgetary limitations and time constraints.
 Hire, train, evaluate, or discharge staff or resolve personnel grievances.
 Coordinate or recommend procedures for facility or equipment maintenance or
modification, including the replacement of machines.
 Prepare and maintain production reports or personnel records.
 Maintain current knowledge of the quality control field, relying on current literature
pertaining to materials use, technological advances, or statistical studies.
This sub-department forms the most important section among the others present because it
forms the ‗backbone„. Right from the beginning till the end of the production of a particular
set, the responsibility lies in the hands of this section, it mainly performs three functions
namely:-
Scheduling
Launching
Control
The market section takes the order from the customer and gives the equipment stock order to
PPC. The management servicing department prepares the work order and gives it to PPC.
Now PPC makes the list of each component involved in product. This is called
―Scheduling‖.
Next function that comes is launched PPC prepares shop order and engineering documents
such as drawings. This function is called ―Launching‖.
Now comes material control. Here the PPC keeps track of production i.e. the purchase
requisition is given to purchase department and sub-contact department. The purchase now
comes to the IGS (Inwards Goods Section) where it is tested in IGI. The pieces that are
okayed are then stored in holding stores.
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING MANAGER RESPONSIBILITIES AND
DUTIES
Analyse and evaluate efficient working of all projects and administer all processes and
methods according to required supply standards and systems.
Assist to organize and approve all labour and supply cost annually and prepare reports to
measure all labour performance.
Analyse all product costs and assist to reduce all negative variance on same and prepare
strategies to reduce labour and wastage in all engineering projects.
Assist Industrial Engineering department to design business plans and develop salary for all
employees and prepare all required reports on weekly and monthly basis and manage all
communication with production management.
Develop salary model budgets for all industrial engineering processes and provide support to
all world class manufacturing facilities and analyse all waste elimination plans and develop
appropriate factory flow analysis on processes.
Maintain and update knowledge for all manufacturing engineering processes and design all
processes for manpower and associate program and monitor all productivity and ensure
compliance to all safety standards.
Evaluate and perform investigation on all variances for all planned and actual results for
industrial processes and maintain track of all information and ensure integrity of all results
for processes.
Supervise reporting processes on everyday basis and manage everyday activities and ensure
adherence to all fiscal budgets and prepare strategic models.
MACHINE SHOP AND ANTTENA FABRICATION
BHARAT ELECTRONCS LIMITED
THE STUDY OF CNC MACHINE IN MACHINE SHOP
Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating
equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens,
switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other
applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been
completely automated.
There are more than hundred machines in each department of Bharat Electronics Limited
which are operated my computer and some are also manually operated.
1) CNC Lathe machine:
CNC: Computer Numerical Control
A numerical control, or “NC”, system controls many machine functions and movements
which were traditionally performed by skilled machinists.
•Numerical control developed out of the need to meet the requirements of high production
rates, uniformity and consistent part quality.
•Programmed instructions are converted into output signals which in turn control machine
operations such as spindle speeds, tool selection, tool movement, and cutting fluid f low.
•The most basic function of any CNC machine is automatic precise, and consistent motion
control.
•Rather than applying completely mechanical devices to motion as is required on most
conventional machine tool machines allow motion control in a revolutionary manner
•All forms of CNC equipment have two or more direction motion, called axes. These axes
can be precisely and automatically positioned along their lengths of travel.
•The two most common axis types are linear (driven along straight path) and rotary (driven
along a circular path).
CNC Lathe
 Automated version of a manual lathe.
 Programmed to change tools automatically.
 Used for turning and boring wood, metal and plastic.
 Controlled by G and M codes.
 These are number values and co-ordinates.
 Each number or code is assigned to a particular operation.
2) CNC MILLING MACHINE
CNC milling is a specific form of computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining. Milling
itself is a machining process similar to both drilling and cutting, and able to achieve many of
the operations performed by cutting and drilling machines. Like drilling, milling uses a
rotating cylindrical cutting tool. However, the cutter in a milling machine is able to move
along multiple axes, and can create a variety of shapes, slots and holes. In addition, the work-
piece is often moved across the milling tool in different directions, unlike the single axis
motion of a drill.
CNC milling devices are the most widely used type of CNC machine. Typically, they are
grouped by the number of axes on which they operate, which are labelled with various letters.
X and Y designate horizontal movement of the work-piece (forward-and-back and side-to-
side on a flat plane). Z represents vertical, or up-and-down, movement, while W represents
diagonal movement across a vertical plane. Most machines offer from 3 to 5 axes, providing
performance along at least the X, Y and Z axes. Advanced machines, such as 5-axis milling
centres, require CAM programming for optimal performance due to the incredibly complex
geometries involved in the machining process. These devices are extremely useful because
they are able to produce shapes that would be nearly impossible using manual tooling
methods. Most CNC milling machines also integrate a device for pumping cutting fluid to the
cutting tool during machining.
Computer numeric controlled machining centres are used to produce a wide range of
components, and tooling costs involved have continued to become more affordable. In
general, large production runs requiring relatively simple designs are better served by other
methods, although CNC machining can now accommodate a wide range of manufacturing
needs. CNC milling centres are ideal solutions to everything ranging from prototyping and
short-run production of complex parts to the fabrication of unique precision components.
3) CNC DRILLING MACHINE:
Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Drilling is commonly implemented for mass production.
The drilling machine, however, is often a multi- function machining centre that also mills and
sometimes turns. The largest time sink for CNC drilling is with tool changes, so for speed,
variation of hole diameters should be minimized. The fastest machines for drilling varying
hole sizes have multiple spindles in turrets with drills of varying diameters already mounted
for drilling. The appropriate drill is brought into position through movement of the turret, so
that bits do not need to be removed and replaced.
A variety of semi-automated drilling machines are also used. An example is a simple drill
press which, on command, drills a hole of a set depth into a part set up beneath it.
4) TURRET PUNCH (NC) MODEL: PEGA 30 40 50
MODEL SPECIFICATION
PRESS CAPACITY 30 TON
MAXIMUM TRANSVERSE (MM) 1000X11270
MAXIMUM SHEET SIZE (MM) 1000X2540
SHEET THICKNESS (AL) 6.35
STROKE/MIN 350
MAXIMUM FEED SPEED (M/MIN) 50
TURRET SPEED (RPM) 30
NUMBER OF STATION 56
AUTO INDEXING 2
ACCURACY +-0.1
A typical CNC turret punch has a choice of up to 60 tools in a "turret" that can be rotated to
bring any tool to the punching position. A simple shape (e.g., a square, circle, or hexagon) is
cut directly from the sheet. A complex shape can be cut out by making many square or
rounded cuts around the perimeter. As a press tool requires a matching punch and die set,
there are two corresponding turrets, above and below the bed, for punch and die. These two
turrets must rotate in precise synchronisation and with their alignment carefully maintained.
Several punches of identical shape may be used in the turret, each one turned to a different
angle, as there is usually no feature to rotate the sheet work piece relative to the tool.
5) SHOT BLASTING MACHINING
Shot Blasting is a surface treatment process using high velocity steel abrasive. Shot blasting
is method through which it is possible to obtain excellent cleaning and surface preparation for
secondary finishing operations.
Shot blasting is commonly used for:
• The cleaning of iron, steel, non-cast parts, forgings, etc.
• Mechanical cleaning of sheets, rods, coils, wire, etc.
• Shot peening to alter mechanical properties (increasing resistance to fatigue for springs,
gears, etc.)
• Preparing surfaces to be painted, coated, etc.
Other than these there are also many machines that are manually operated since the cost of
one RADAR is too much therefore the machining are done by specialised workers only under
the antenna fabrication department and machine shop.
The welding section uses variety of welding technique for the manufacturing of RADAR
parts and also for assembling them as per the requirement.
FABRICATION DEPARTMENT IN BEL
Metal fabrication is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling
processes:
 Cutting is doneby sawing, shearing, or chiselling (all with manual and powered variants);
torching with hand-held torches (such as torches or plasma torches); and via numerical
control (CNC) cutters (using a laser, mill bits, torch, or water jet).
 Bending is done by hammering (manual or powered) or via press brakes and similar
tools. Modern metal fabricators utilize press brakes to either coin or air-bend metal sheet
into form. CNC-controlled back gauges utilize hard stops to position cut parts in order to
place bend lines in the correct position. Off-line programing software now makes
programing the CNC-controlled press brakes seamless and very efficient.
 Assembling (joining of the pieces) is done by welding, binding
with adhesives, riveting, threaded fasteners, or even yet more bending in the form of a
crimped seam. Structural steel and sheet metal are the usual starting materials for
fabrication, along with the welding wire, flux, and fasteners that will join the cut pieces.
As with other manufacturing processes, both human labour and automation are
commonly used. The product resulting from fabrication may be called a fabrication.
Shops that specialize in this type of metal work are called fab shops. The end products of
other common types of metalworking, such as machining, metal stamping, forging,
and casting, may be similar in shape and function, but those processes are not classified
as fabrication.
Fabrication comprises or overlaps with various metalworking specialties:
 Fabrication shops and machine shops have overlapping capabilities, but fabrication shops
generally concentrate on metal preparation and assembly as described above. By
comparison, machine shops also cut metal, but they are more concerned with the
machining of parts on machine tools. Firms that encompass both fab work and machining
are also common.
 Blacksmithing has always involved fabrication, although it was not always called by that
name.
 The products produced by welders, which are often referred to as weldments, are an
example of fabrication.
 Boilermakers originally specialized in boilers, leading to their trade's name, but the term
as used today has a broader meaning.
 Similarly, millwrights originally specialized in setting up grain mills and saw mills, but
today they may be called upon for a broad range of fabrication work.
 Ironworkers, also known as steel erectors, also engage in fabrication. Often the
fabrications for structural work begin as prefabricated segments in a fab shop, then are
moved to the site by truck, rail, or barge, and finally are installed by erectors.
METAL FABRICATION
Metal fabrication is a value added process that involves the construction of machines and
structures from various raw materials. A fab shop will bid on a job, usually based on
the engineering drawings, and if awarded the contract will build the product. Large fab shops
will employ a multitude of value added processes in one plant or facility including welding,
cutting, forming and machining. These large fab shops offer additional value to their
customers by limiting the need for purchasing personnel to locate multiple vendors for
different services. Metal fabrication jobs usually start with shop drawings including precise
measurements then move to the fabrication stage and finally to the installation of the final
project
Cutting
The raw material has to be cut to size. This is done with a variety of tools.
The most common way to cut material is by Shearing (metalworking);
Special band saws designed for cutting metal have hardened blades and a feed mechanism for
even cutting. Abrasive cut-off saws, also known as chop saws, are similar to mitre saws but
with a steel cutting abrasive disk. Cutting torchescan cut very large sections of steel with little
effort.
Forming
Forming is a process of material deformation. Forming is typically applied to metals. To
define the process, a raw material piece is formed by applying force to an object. The force
must be great enough to change the shape of the object from its initial shape. The process of
forming can be controlled with the use of tools such as punches or dies. Machinery can also
be used to regulate force magnitude and direction. Proper design and use of tools with
machinery creates a repeatable form which can be used to create products for many
industries, including jewellery, aerospace, automotive, etc.
Machining
Machining is a trade, in and of itself, although Fab shops will generally entail a limited
machining capability including; metal lathes, mills, magnetic based drills along with other
portable metal working tools.
Welding
Welding is the main focus of steel fabrication. The formed and machined parts will be
assembled and tack welded into place then re-checked for accuracy. A fixture may be used to
locate parts for welding if multiple weldments have been ordered.
The welder then completes welding per the engineering drawings, if welding is detailed, or
per his own judgment if no welding details are provided.
Special precautions may be needed to prevent warping of the weldment due to heat. These
may include re-designing the weldment to use less weld, welding in a staggered fashion,
using a stout fixture, covering the weldment in sand during cooling, and straightening
operations after welding.
Straightening of warped steel weldments is done with an Oxy-acetylene torch and is
somewhat of an art. Heat is selectively applied to the steel in a slow, linear sweep. The steel
will have a net contraction, upon cooling, in the direction of the sweep. A highly skilled
welder can remove significant warpage using this technique.
Steel weldments are occasionally annealed in a low temperature oven to relieve residual
stresses. Such weldments, particularly those employed for engine blocks, may be line-bored
after heat treatment.
The various machines that are used in the FABRICATION DEPARTMENT OF BEL are:
Shearing machine
Plate levelling machine
Bending machine
Bench Hydraulic press
Fine coordinate Drilling machine
MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS USED IN BEL
• Material Handling is defined as the movement, storage, protection and control of
materials throughout the manufacturing and distribution process including their
consumption and disposal.
• Material handling equipment includes:
• Transport equipment
• Storage systems
• Unitizing equipment
• Identification and tracking systems
1) Industrial Trucks
2) Fork lift rider Trucks 3) Mono rails 4) Crane 5) Towing tractors
WORK AND MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT IN BEL
 Maintenance Engineering is the discipline and profession of
applying engineering concepts to the optimization of equipment, procedures, and
budgets to achieve better maintainability, reliability, and availability of equipment.
 Maintenance engineering is increasing in importance due to rising amounts of
equipment, systems, machineries and infrastructure. Since the Industrial Revolution,
devices, equipment, machinery and structures have grown increasingly complex,
requiring a host of personnel, vocations and related systems needed to maintain them.
 A Maintenance Engineer should possess significant knowledge
of statistics, probability and logistics, and additionally in the fundamentals of the
operation of the equipment and machinery he or she is responsible for.
 A Maintenance Engineer shall also possess high interpersonal, communication,
management skills and ability to make quick decisions.
MAINTENANCE TYPES
 Preventive maintenance, where equipment is maintained before break down occurs.
This type of maintenance has many different variations and is subject of various
researches to determine best and most efficient way to maintain equipment. Recent
studies have shown that Preventive maintenance is effective in preventing age related
failures of the equipment. For random failure patterns which amount to 80% of the
failure patterns, condition monitoring proves to be effective.
 Operational maintenance, where equipment is maintained in using.
 Corrective maintenance, where equipment is maintained after break down. This
maintenance is often most expensive because worn equipment can damage other parts
and cause multiple damages.
Preventive maintenance is maintenance performed in an attempt to avoid failures,
unnecessary production loss and safety violations.
Corrective maintenance is probably the most commonly used approach, but it is easy to see
its limitations. When equipment fails, it often leads to downtime in production. In most cases,
this is costly business. Also, if the equipment needs to be replaced, the cost of replacing it
alone can be substantial. It is also important to consider health, safety and environment (HSE)
issues related to malfunctioning equipment.
Corrective maintenance can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item
has failed or worn out, to bring it back to working order.
Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or
wearing out are not significant and the cost of this maintenance is much greater
than preventive maintenance.
Corrective maintenance is the program focused on the regular task that will maintain all the
critical machinery and the system in optimum operating conditions. The major objectives of
the program are to
1. Eliminating breakdown
2. Eliminating deviation
3. Eliminating unnecessary repairs
4. Optimize all the critical planned system
RESULTS & CONCLUSION
The industrial training at B.E.L. has given me an exposure of the activities of a defence unit.
This being a large organization deals with wide spectrum of technologies.
During my training in B.E.L, I came to know about working of different types of CNC or
manually operated machines .The industrial‟s environment and the working culture of
industry. The six weeks of summer training at BEL, GZB unit generated a lot more interest in
my subject.
It made me more aware of the scope of Mechanical Engineering. It has also made me
appreciative of an industrial work environment.
Undergoing training on the indoor substation has helped me integrate conceptual knowledge
with real life application. I was fortunate to have personal guidance from experienced
professionals who took been interest in explaining the working details of various equipment.
I feel that without this opportunity, my own understanding of this subject and also the
motivation to acquire more knowledge would have remained incomplete.
Well, regarding future scope I think my training has given me enough motivation and an
exposure that I will try to join defence services or get linked up with the defence of the
country.
“To know the technical know-how, industrial training is the best way to move forward.”
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT BEL GHAZIABAD

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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT BEL GHAZIABAD

  • 1. TRAINING REPORT SIX WEEKS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AT “BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED, GHAZIABAD” In Partial Fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Technology In MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY, PUNJAB SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Under the Guidance of MR.ARVIND KUMAR SUBMITTED BY: NAME: VIVEK TYAGI REG. NO.11104344 M1106 BTECH (M.E)
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am highly grateful to Bharat Electronics Limited Ghaziabad, one of the leading defence organizations of the nation, for providing me an opportunity to undertake six weeks training at their manufacturing premises at Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. It was a great learning experience as I was introduced to various aspects of the working of the organization, the latest state of the art technologies & machines used in the manufacturing processes. It was wonderful to see the company striving hard to keep up the national security at par with the rest of the world. I would like to express my sincerest gratitude towards Mr.Yogendra Kumar Sara swat (MANAGER) and Mr.Ravindra Kumar (DGM FABRICATION) for their regular support and guidance that helped me in successful completion of my six weeks training. At the end I would like to thank all the staff members of BEL, Ghaziabad who made this training a rich learning experience.
  • 3. PREFACE With the on-going revolution mechanical engineering where innovations are taking at the blink of eye, it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. Excellence is an attitude that whole of human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot including a professional attitude. It provides a linkage b/w the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the actual industry environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology, which is immensely helps in them in building their carrier. I had an opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also interfaced to many instruments. And all this credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Ltd.
  • 4. ABOUT BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED (BEL) After Independence India had many responsibilities from basic necessity to telecomm & defence equipment so after adoption of its constitution in 1950, the government was seized with the plans to lay the foundation of a strong, self-sufficient Modern India. On the industrial announced in the year 1952. It was recognized that in certain core sectors infrastructure facilities require huge investments, which cannot be met by private sector and as such, the idea of Public Sector Enterprise (PSE) was mooted. Under this a Professional Electronics company in India incorporated that was front, industrial policy resolution (IPR) was BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED. BEL was established in 1954 as a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence as the fountain head to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. BEL, with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements, has met the requirements of state-of –art professional electronic equipment for Defence, broadcasting, Civil Defence and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and medical X-ray industry. Over the years, BEL has grown to a multi- product, multi-unit and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU.
  • 5. BEL was born to meet the growing needs of Indian Defence services for electronic systems. Employing the best engineering talent available in the country, BEL has progressed manufacturing state-of-the-art products I n the field of Defence Electronics like Communications including encryption, Radars and strategic components. Over the years, BEL has diversified to meet the needs of civilian customers as well and has provided products and network solutions on turnkey basis to customers in India and abroad. With the Research & Development efforts, its engineers have fructified it into a world-class organization. The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic component and equipment. Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with T-CSF of France, the company‟s equipment designs have had a long voyage through the hybrid, solid-state discrete component to the state-of-art integrated circuit technology. In the component arena also, the company established its own electron valve manufacturing facility. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of germanium and silicon devices and then to manufacture of Integrated circuits. To keep in pace with the component and equipment technology, its manufacturing and product assurance facilities have also undergone sea change. The design groups have CADD‟s facility, the manufacturing has CNC machines and a Mass Manufacture Facility, and QC checks are performed with multi-dimensional profile measurement machines. Automatic testing machines, environmental labs to check extreme weather and other operational conditions are there. All these facilities have been established to meet the stringent requirements of MIL grade systems.
  • 6. Product mix of the company are spread over the entire electromagnetic (EM) spectrum ranging from tiny audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-ray tubes on the upper edge of the spectrum. Its manufacturing units have special focus towards the product ranges like Defence Communications, Radars, Optical & Opto-electronics, Telecommunications, Sound and Vision broadcasting, Electronic components, etc. Besides manufacturing and supply of a wide variety of products, BEL offers a variety of services like Telecom and Radar Systems Consultancy, Contract Manufacturing, Calibration of test& measuring instruments, etc. At the moment, the company is installing MSSR radar at important airports under the modernization of airports plan of National Airport Authority (NAA). BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing technologies from more than 50 leading companies worldwide and DRDO labs for a wide range of products. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in R&D. Each unit has its own R&D Division to bring out new products to the production lines. Central Research Laboratory (CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as independent agency to undertake contemporary design work on state-of-art and futuristic technologies. About 70% of BEL„s products are of in-house design. Probably one of the first project of its nature in India and Asia. BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution, Productivity, Quality, Safety etc. Today, BEL has set up impressive infrastructure spread in 9 locations with 29- production division and manufacturing facilities in their ISO-9001/9002
  • 7. BEL was amongst the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970‟s. BEL assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the arrangement with ICIL. However, following Government‟s decision to restrict the computer manufacture to ECIL, BEL could not progress in its computer manufacturing plans. As many of its equipment were microprocessor based, the company continued to develop computers based application, both hardware and software. Most of its software requirements are in real time. EMCCA, software intensive naval ships control and command system is certified production units around the country. They are –Bangalore, Ghaziabad, Pune, Taloja (Maharashtra), Hyderabad, Panchkula (Haryana), Chennai, Machilipathnam (A.P.) and Kotdwara (U.P.) BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution, Productivity, Quality, Safety Standardization etc. BEL was ranked no.1 in the field of Electronics and 46th overall among the top 1000 private and public sector undertakings in India by the Business Standard in its special supplement "The BS 1000 (1997-98)". This organization also stands on number 7th position in the best 100 public and private companies according to the "electronic for u" in 2002. BEL was listed 3rd among the Mini Ratna‟s (category II) by the Government of India, 49th among Asia's top 100 Electronic Companies by the Electronic Business Asia and within the top 100 worldwide Defence Companies by the Defence News, USA.
  • 8. VARIOUS UNITS Its corporate office is at Bangalore. Bangalore complex is the BEL‟s first and largest unit and it accounts for two-thirds of both the company‟s turnover and manpower. This unit‟s product range covers over 300 Defence and Civilian products. Ghaziabad is the second largest unit of BEL and it specializes in radars, communication equipments & microwave-components. In total BEL has got 9 units. These are distributed in all over the India as:  BANGALORE (Corporate Office)  GHAZIABAD  PANCHKULA  MACHILIPATNAM  PUNE  HYDERABAD  CHENNAI  KOTDWARA  TALOJA Besides, there are two Central Research Laboratories (CRL) located at Bangalore and Ghaziabad, to address futuristic technologies of interest to BEL.
  • 9. Bangalore (Karnataka)  BEL started its production activities in Bangalore in 1954 with 400W high frequency (HF) transmitter and communication receiver for the Army  The Unit has now diversified into manufacturing of electronic products for the civilian customers such as DOT, VSNL, AIR and Doordarshan, Meteorological Dept., ISRO, Police, Civil Aviation, and Railways. As an aid to Electorate, the unit has developed Electronic Voting Machines that are produced at its Mass Manufacturing Facility (MMF). Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh)  The second largest Unit at Ghaziabad was set up in 1974 to manufacture special types of Radars for the Air Defence Ground Environment Systems (Plan ADGES).  The Unit's product range included Static and Mobile Radars, Troposcatter equipment, professional grade Antennae and Microwave components. PUNE:  Image convertor, image intensifier,  X-ray tubes  Batteries  Electro-optics MACHLIPATNAM:  Optical & optoelectronic equipment like binoculars, microscopes Medical Electronics
  • 10. NAVI MUMBAI  Glass shells for black & white TV picture tubes  Shelters for Electronic Equipment  Train Actuated Warning System  Electronic Equipment Assembly PANCHKULA  This unit manufactures only tactical communication equipment like VHF, UHF transceivers etc. KOTDWARA:  This is a unit in Garhwal district of Uttaranchal. This unit manufactures radio relay, multiplex equipments & exchanges etc. CHENNAI:  Tank related electronic equipments  Optical fire control systems HYDERABAD:  This is another unit of BEL which manufactures electronic warfare equipment.   
  • 11. CORPORATE MOTTO, MISSION AND OBECTIVES The passionate pursuit of excellence at BEL is reflected in repulsion with its customers that can be described in its motto, mission and objectives CORPORATE MOTTO: “QUALITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION” CORPORATE MISSION: To be the market leader in Defence Electronics and in other chosen fields and products. CORPORATE OBJECTIVES: (a) To become a customer-driven company supplying quality products at competitive prices at the expected time and providing excellent customer support. (b) To achieve growth in the operations commensurate with the growth of professional electronics industry in the country.
  • 12. (c) To generate internal resources for financing the investments required for modernization, expansion and growth for ensuring a fair return to the investor. (d) In order to meet the Nation's strategic needs, to strive for self-reliance by indigenization of materials and components. (e) To retain the technological leadership of the company in Defence and other chosen fields of electronics through in-house. (f) Research and Development as well as through collaboration/co-operation with Defence/National Research Laboratories, International Companies, Universities and Academic institutions. (g) To progressively increase overseas sales of its products and services. (h) To create an organizational culture which encourages members of the organization to realize their full potential through continuous learning on the job and through other HRD initiatives.
  • 13. QUALITY OBJECTIVES: (a) Effective and Efficient design and development process, considering the present and future needs of customers. (b) Enhanced customer satisfaction by on-time delivery of defect free products and effective life cycle support. (c) Continual up gradation and utilization of infrastructure and human resources. (d) Mutually beneficial alliances with suppliers. e) Continual improvement of processes through innovation, technology and knowledge management. MAIN PRODUCT OF BEL GHAZIABAD ROHINI RADAR Low level Light Weight 3D Radar - ROHINI: ROHINI is a multifaceted ground based S- Band 3D Low Level Light Weight Surveillance Radar for deployment in diverse terrains like plains, deserts, mountain tops and high altitude regions. Rohini detects and tracks heterogeneous air targets, including helicopters, fighters and UAVs at low and medium altitudes. The radar can scan the valley. It provides accurate range, azimuth and height information for each target with electronically steerable multi-beam technology in elevation. The radar sweeps 360° in azimuth and 30° in elevation to provide air space awareness. Semi - distributed active aperture radar uses advanced VLSI and high-speed digital technologies like high efficiency T/R modules, DDS, digital receiver and programmable signal processor to provide 3D air space awareness with high accuracy, resolution and reliability.
  • 14. Bharat Electronics Ltd., (BEL), a premier Professional Electronics Company of India, has established and nurtured a strong in-house R&D base over the years to emerge and remain as a market leader in the chosen areas of business in professional electronics. Each of the nine manufacturing units of BEL is having its own in-house R&D Division to develop new products in its field of operations.
  • 15. AREAS OF R&D ACTIVITY Main areas of R&D activities at BEL include development of Military Radars, Naval Systems, Military Communication Products, Electronic Warfare Systems, Telecommunication products, Sound and Vision Broadcasting Equipment and Systems, Opto Electronic Products, and Electronic Components. CRL performs the dual role of carrying out blue sky research for the development of future technologies and supporting the D&E Divisions of BEL's nine units with state-of-the-art core technology solutions in areas like Embedded Computers and applications, Radar Signal Processing, VLSI designs, RF & Microwave Communication Technologies, Software modules etc. RESOURCE AND INVESTMENT BEL's R&D Units have state-of-the-art R&D infrastructure, facilities, and manpower with relevant technical expertise for product development. There are about 1000 engineers working in BEL on various D&E projects. BEL spends around 5 % of company turnover for the year on R&D every year. HRD Divisions of BEL take adequate initiatives for the all- round development and expertise up gradation of R&D human resources. State of the art infrastructures, test equipment, computers & workstations, Software packages etc. are augmented every year for the R&D divisions. BEL R&D Units are recognized by the Department of Scientific & Industrial Research under the Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India.
  • 16. CUSTOMER PROFILE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CUSTOMERS DEFENCE COMMUNICTION INDIAN DEFENCE SERVICES,PARA-MILITARY FORCES RADAR AND SONARS INDIAN DEFECE SERVICE,CIVIL AVIATION,METEOROLOGICL DEPARTMAENT ,SPACE DEPARTMENT TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATION,PARAMILITARY ORCES ,POWER SECTOR,OIL INDUSTRY,RAILWAYS BROADCASTING EQUIPMENTS AND STUDO SYSTEM ALL INDIA RADIO,DOORDARSHAN ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA SOLAR PRODUCT AND SYSTEMS INDIVIDUALS,PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS TURNKEY SYSTEMS,E-GOVERNANCE NETWORKS POLICE,STATE GOVERNMENTS,PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKING COMPONENTS TV BROADCASTERS,INSTRUMENTATION NDUSRTY,SWITCHING INDUSTRY,ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY,TELEPHONE INDUSTRY
  • 17. DEPARTMENTS & FUNCTIONS BEL Ghaziabad has different divisions which are further divided into departments- 1. D&E (Development and Engineering) This is a division which is further divided into departments. They are:  D&E (DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING) – It is to design the project, make the modifications to prepare design and related documents.  D&E CRYPTO – It is for designing of secure communication.  TIC (Technical Information Centre) – TIC is a library for designing purpose.  DRA OFFICE - It is the Drawing office.  STDS (STANDARDS) –These are the standards for Drafting, Design manure, Quality standards. 2. MFG (MANUFACTURING):  WA (WORK ASSEMBLY) – There are different types of work assembly i.e. PCB assembly, Module assembly, Final assembly.  WF (WORK FABRICATION) – It is the department for the mechanical work.  AMF (ADVANCED MANUFACTURING FACILITIES) – Advanced machines are used in the manufacturing of the projects as SMT (Surface Mounted Technology), it is an automatic system to mount the item on the PCB.  PE (PRODUCTION ENGINEERING) – It is for the installation of the new machinery.  PPC (PRODUCTION, PLANNING and CONTROL) – In this the work is planned.  SC (SUB CONTRACT)
  • 18. 3. MM (MATERIAL MANAGEMENT):  It is the management of the materials.  PUR (PURCHASE DEPARTMENT) - This department purchases the materials.  ISM (INTEGRATED STORE MANAGEMENT)  HS (HOLDING STORE) – It has different bins that holds items after inspection.  IGS (INCOMING GOODS STORE)  MC (MATERIAL CONTROL) 4.MKTG / PA (MARKETING / PRODUCT ASSURANCE):  MKTG (Marketing Division)  Sales – It is to prepare ESO equipment source order.  FGS (FINISH GOODS STORE) – After finishing the project it is sent to FGS for final packing.  TL (Technical Literature) – It is the booklet with the project having instructions.  PR (PUBLIC RELATION) –It is the relation with the customers.  TESTING – Products are tested by different tests  C TEST (CIPHER TEST) - It is the test for the secrecy.  PS (PRODUCT SUPPORT) – It is done after sale services.  SELF CERT (SELF CERTIFICATION) – It is the department which visits the place where work is going on. 5. QA (QUALITY ASSURANCE): It deals with the quality of the material.  INSP(WA) {INSPECTION IN WORK ASSEMBLY)  INSP(WF) {INSPECTION IN WORK FABRICATION)  R&E (RELIABILITY & EVALUATION) - The materials are checked before giving it to customers.
  • 19. 6. P&S (PLANT AND SERVICES):  It is the department for providing the services to company. Services are water supply, electrical supply, transport, horticulture. 7. HR & A (HUMAN RESOURCES & ADMINISTRATION):  PERSON. (PERSONNEL) – In this department the recruitment of employees is done.  ESTD. (ESTABLISHMENT) – It is to use manpower in different areas.  MEDICAL – Medical facilities are also available.  CRECHE  CANTEEN  WELFARE 8. F&A (FINANCE & ACCOUNT):  FINANCE - Department for the sanction of money.  PAYROLL – It is the salary of the employees.  BUDGET – It is made for one year.  ACCOUNTS – It is the record of the money.  AUDIT – Survey of the systems. 9.IS / MS (INFORMATION SYSTEMS):  MRP - All Production Related work related to assy,stores, purchase etc.  PAYROLL - Related to Salary.  FINANCE - Concerned with ledgers, sub-sidary ledgers, General ledger etc.
  • 20. 10. QM (QUALITY MANAGEMENT):  ISO (INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION) – It is to sell our products in the international market.  6 SIGMA – It is the statistical Technique for maintaining Quality.  TES (TEST EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORT) – Calibration or measuring of instruments.  IGI (INCOMING GOODS INSPECTION)  QCC (QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE) – In this department there is a group of employees who discuss the problems, find out its solution and present it to manager. PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL Production Management also called operations management, planning and control of industrial processes to ensure that they move smoothly at the required level. Techniques of production management are employed in service as well as in manufacturing industries. It is a responsibility similar in level and scope to other specialties such as marketing or human resource and financial management. In manufacturing operations, production management includes responsibility for product and process design, planning and control issues involving capacity and quality, and organization and supervision of the workforce. The production manager must plan and control the process of production so that it moves smoothly at the required level of output while meeting cost and quality objectives. Process control has two purposes: first, to ensure that operations are performed according to plan, and second, to continuously monitor and evaluate the production plan to see if modifications can be devised to better meet cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, or other objectives.
  • 21. WHAT INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION MANAGER DO :  Review operations and confer with technical or administrative staff to resolve production or processing problems.  Review processing schedules or production orders to make decisions concerning inventory requirements, staffing requirements, work procedures, or duty assignments, considering budgetary limitations and time constraints.  Hire, train, evaluate, or discharge staff or resolve personnel grievances.  Coordinate or recommend procedures for facility or equipment maintenance or modification, including the replacement of machines.  Prepare and maintain production reports or personnel records.  Maintain current knowledge of the quality control field, relying on current literature pertaining to materials use, technological advances, or statistical studies. This sub-department forms the most important section among the others present because it forms the ‗backbone„. Right from the beginning till the end of the production of a particular set, the responsibility lies in the hands of this section, it mainly performs three functions namely:- Scheduling Launching Control The market section takes the order from the customer and gives the equipment stock order to PPC. The management servicing department prepares the work order and gives it to PPC. Now PPC makes the list of each component involved in product. This is called ―Scheduling‖. Next function that comes is launched PPC prepares shop order and engineering documents such as drawings. This function is called ―Launching‖. Now comes material control. Here the PPC keeps track of production i.e. the purchase requisition is given to purchase department and sub-contact department. The purchase now comes to the IGS (Inwards Goods Section) where it is tested in IGI. The pieces that are okayed are then stored in holding stores.
  • 22. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING MANAGER RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES Analyse and evaluate efficient working of all projects and administer all processes and methods according to required supply standards and systems. Assist to organize and approve all labour and supply cost annually and prepare reports to measure all labour performance. Analyse all product costs and assist to reduce all negative variance on same and prepare strategies to reduce labour and wastage in all engineering projects. Assist Industrial Engineering department to design business plans and develop salary for all employees and prepare all required reports on weekly and monthly basis and manage all communication with production management. Develop salary model budgets for all industrial engineering processes and provide support to all world class manufacturing facilities and analyse all waste elimination plans and develop appropriate factory flow analysis on processes. Maintain and update knowledge for all manufacturing engineering processes and design all processes for manpower and associate program and monitor all productivity and ensure compliance to all safety standards. Evaluate and perform investigation on all variances for all planned and actual results for industrial processes and maintain track of all information and ensure integrity of all results for processes. Supervise reporting processes on everyday basis and manage everyday activities and ensure adherence to all fiscal budgets and prepare strategic models.
  • 23. MACHINE SHOP AND ANTTENA FABRICATION BHARAT ELECTRONCS LIMITED THE STUDY OF CNC MACHINE IN MACHINE SHOP Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. There are more than hundred machines in each department of Bharat Electronics Limited which are operated my computer and some are also manually operated.
  • 24. 1) CNC Lathe machine: CNC: Computer Numerical Control A numerical control, or “NC”, system controls many machine functions and movements which were traditionally performed by skilled machinists. •Numerical control developed out of the need to meet the requirements of high production rates, uniformity and consistent part quality. •Programmed instructions are converted into output signals which in turn control machine operations such as spindle speeds, tool selection, tool movement, and cutting fluid f low. •The most basic function of any CNC machine is automatic precise, and consistent motion control. •Rather than applying completely mechanical devices to motion as is required on most conventional machine tool machines allow motion control in a revolutionary manner •All forms of CNC equipment have two or more direction motion, called axes. These axes can be precisely and automatically positioned along their lengths of travel. •The two most common axis types are linear (driven along straight path) and rotary (driven along a circular path). CNC Lathe  Automated version of a manual lathe.  Programmed to change tools automatically.  Used for turning and boring wood, metal and plastic.  Controlled by G and M codes.  These are number values and co-ordinates.  Each number or code is assigned to a particular operation.
  • 25. 2) CNC MILLING MACHINE CNC milling is a specific form of computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining. Milling itself is a machining process similar to both drilling and cutting, and able to achieve many of the operations performed by cutting and drilling machines. Like drilling, milling uses a rotating cylindrical cutting tool. However, the cutter in a milling machine is able to move along multiple axes, and can create a variety of shapes, slots and holes. In addition, the work- piece is often moved across the milling tool in different directions, unlike the single axis motion of a drill. CNC milling devices are the most widely used type of CNC machine. Typically, they are grouped by the number of axes on which they operate, which are labelled with various letters. X and Y designate horizontal movement of the work-piece (forward-and-back and side-to- side on a flat plane). Z represents vertical, or up-and-down, movement, while W represents diagonal movement across a vertical plane. Most machines offer from 3 to 5 axes, providing performance along at least the X, Y and Z axes. Advanced machines, such as 5-axis milling centres, require CAM programming for optimal performance due to the incredibly complex geometries involved in the machining process. These devices are extremely useful because they are able to produce shapes that would be nearly impossible using manual tooling methods. Most CNC milling machines also integrate a device for pumping cutting fluid to the cutting tool during machining. Computer numeric controlled machining centres are used to produce a wide range of components, and tooling costs involved have continued to become more affordable. In general, large production runs requiring relatively simple designs are better served by other methods, although CNC machining can now accommodate a wide range of manufacturing needs. CNC milling centres are ideal solutions to everything ranging from prototyping and short-run production of complex parts to the fabrication of unique precision components.
  • 26. 3) CNC DRILLING MACHINE: Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Drilling is commonly implemented for mass production. The drilling machine, however, is often a multi- function machining centre that also mills and sometimes turns. The largest time sink for CNC drilling is with tool changes, so for speed, variation of hole diameters should be minimized. The fastest machines for drilling varying hole sizes have multiple spindles in turrets with drills of varying diameters already mounted for drilling. The appropriate drill is brought into position through movement of the turret, so that bits do not need to be removed and replaced. A variety of semi-automated drilling machines are also used. An example is a simple drill press which, on command, drills a hole of a set depth into a part set up beneath it. 4) TURRET PUNCH (NC) MODEL: PEGA 30 40 50 MODEL SPECIFICATION PRESS CAPACITY 30 TON MAXIMUM TRANSVERSE (MM) 1000X11270 MAXIMUM SHEET SIZE (MM) 1000X2540 SHEET THICKNESS (AL) 6.35 STROKE/MIN 350 MAXIMUM FEED SPEED (M/MIN) 50 TURRET SPEED (RPM) 30 NUMBER OF STATION 56 AUTO INDEXING 2 ACCURACY +-0.1
  • 27. A typical CNC turret punch has a choice of up to 60 tools in a "turret" that can be rotated to bring any tool to the punching position. A simple shape (e.g., a square, circle, or hexagon) is cut directly from the sheet. A complex shape can be cut out by making many square or rounded cuts around the perimeter. As a press tool requires a matching punch and die set, there are two corresponding turrets, above and below the bed, for punch and die. These two turrets must rotate in precise synchronisation and with their alignment carefully maintained. Several punches of identical shape may be used in the turret, each one turned to a different angle, as there is usually no feature to rotate the sheet work piece relative to the tool. 5) SHOT BLASTING MACHINING Shot Blasting is a surface treatment process using high velocity steel abrasive. Shot blasting is method through which it is possible to obtain excellent cleaning and surface preparation for secondary finishing operations. Shot blasting is commonly used for: • The cleaning of iron, steel, non-cast parts, forgings, etc. • Mechanical cleaning of sheets, rods, coils, wire, etc. • Shot peening to alter mechanical properties (increasing resistance to fatigue for springs, gears, etc.) • Preparing surfaces to be painted, coated, etc. Other than these there are also many machines that are manually operated since the cost of one RADAR is too much therefore the machining are done by specialised workers only under the antenna fabrication department and machine shop. The welding section uses variety of welding technique for the manufacturing of RADAR parts and also for assembling them as per the requirement.
  • 28. FABRICATION DEPARTMENT IN BEL Metal fabrication is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling processes:  Cutting is doneby sawing, shearing, or chiselling (all with manual and powered variants); torching with hand-held torches (such as torches or plasma torches); and via numerical control (CNC) cutters (using a laser, mill bits, torch, or water jet).  Bending is done by hammering (manual or powered) or via press brakes and similar tools. Modern metal fabricators utilize press brakes to either coin or air-bend metal sheet into form. CNC-controlled back gauges utilize hard stops to position cut parts in order to place bend lines in the correct position. Off-line programing software now makes programing the CNC-controlled press brakes seamless and very efficient.  Assembling (joining of the pieces) is done by welding, binding with adhesives, riveting, threaded fasteners, or even yet more bending in the form of a crimped seam. Structural steel and sheet metal are the usual starting materials for fabrication, along with the welding wire, flux, and fasteners that will join the cut pieces. As with other manufacturing processes, both human labour and automation are commonly used. The product resulting from fabrication may be called a fabrication. Shops that specialize in this type of metal work are called fab shops. The end products of other common types of metalworking, such as machining, metal stamping, forging, and casting, may be similar in shape and function, but those processes are not classified as fabrication.
  • 29. Fabrication comprises or overlaps with various metalworking specialties:  Fabrication shops and machine shops have overlapping capabilities, but fabrication shops generally concentrate on metal preparation and assembly as described above. By comparison, machine shops also cut metal, but they are more concerned with the machining of parts on machine tools. Firms that encompass both fab work and machining are also common.  Blacksmithing has always involved fabrication, although it was not always called by that name.  The products produced by welders, which are often referred to as weldments, are an example of fabrication.  Boilermakers originally specialized in boilers, leading to their trade's name, but the term as used today has a broader meaning.  Similarly, millwrights originally specialized in setting up grain mills and saw mills, but today they may be called upon for a broad range of fabrication work.  Ironworkers, also known as steel erectors, also engage in fabrication. Often the fabrications for structural work begin as prefabricated segments in a fab shop, then are moved to the site by truck, rail, or barge, and finally are installed by erectors. METAL FABRICATION Metal fabrication is a value added process that involves the construction of machines and structures from various raw materials. A fab shop will bid on a job, usually based on the engineering drawings, and if awarded the contract will build the product. Large fab shops will employ a multitude of value added processes in one plant or facility including welding, cutting, forming and machining. These large fab shops offer additional value to their customers by limiting the need for purchasing personnel to locate multiple vendors for different services. Metal fabrication jobs usually start with shop drawings including precise measurements then move to the fabrication stage and finally to the installation of the final project
  • 30. Cutting The raw material has to be cut to size. This is done with a variety of tools. The most common way to cut material is by Shearing (metalworking); Special band saws designed for cutting metal have hardened blades and a feed mechanism for even cutting. Abrasive cut-off saws, also known as chop saws, are similar to mitre saws but with a steel cutting abrasive disk. Cutting torchescan cut very large sections of steel with little effort. Forming Forming is a process of material deformation. Forming is typically applied to metals. To define the process, a raw material piece is formed by applying force to an object. The force must be great enough to change the shape of the object from its initial shape. The process of forming can be controlled with the use of tools such as punches or dies. Machinery can also be used to regulate force magnitude and direction. Proper design and use of tools with machinery creates a repeatable form which can be used to create products for many industries, including jewellery, aerospace, automotive, etc. Machining Machining is a trade, in and of itself, although Fab shops will generally entail a limited machining capability including; metal lathes, mills, magnetic based drills along with other portable metal working tools. Welding Welding is the main focus of steel fabrication. The formed and machined parts will be assembled and tack welded into place then re-checked for accuracy. A fixture may be used to locate parts for welding if multiple weldments have been ordered. The welder then completes welding per the engineering drawings, if welding is detailed, or per his own judgment if no welding details are provided.
  • 31. Special precautions may be needed to prevent warping of the weldment due to heat. These may include re-designing the weldment to use less weld, welding in a staggered fashion, using a stout fixture, covering the weldment in sand during cooling, and straightening operations after welding. Straightening of warped steel weldments is done with an Oxy-acetylene torch and is somewhat of an art. Heat is selectively applied to the steel in a slow, linear sweep. The steel will have a net contraction, upon cooling, in the direction of the sweep. A highly skilled welder can remove significant warpage using this technique. Steel weldments are occasionally annealed in a low temperature oven to relieve residual stresses. Such weldments, particularly those employed for engine blocks, may be line-bored after heat treatment. The various machines that are used in the FABRICATION DEPARTMENT OF BEL are: Shearing machine Plate levelling machine Bending machine Bench Hydraulic press Fine coordinate Drilling machine
  • 32. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS USED IN BEL • Material Handling is defined as the movement, storage, protection and control of materials throughout the manufacturing and distribution process including their consumption and disposal. • Material handling equipment includes: • Transport equipment • Storage systems • Unitizing equipment • Identification and tracking systems 1) Industrial Trucks 2) Fork lift rider Trucks 3) Mono rails 4) Crane 5) Towing tractors
  • 33. WORK AND MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT IN BEL  Maintenance Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying engineering concepts to the optimization of equipment, procedures, and budgets to achieve better maintainability, reliability, and availability of equipment.  Maintenance engineering is increasing in importance due to rising amounts of equipment, systems, machineries and infrastructure. Since the Industrial Revolution, devices, equipment, machinery and structures have grown increasingly complex, requiring a host of personnel, vocations and related systems needed to maintain them.  A Maintenance Engineer should possess significant knowledge of statistics, probability and logistics, and additionally in the fundamentals of the operation of the equipment and machinery he or she is responsible for.  A Maintenance Engineer shall also possess high interpersonal, communication, management skills and ability to make quick decisions. MAINTENANCE TYPES  Preventive maintenance, where equipment is maintained before break down occurs. This type of maintenance has many different variations and is subject of various researches to determine best and most efficient way to maintain equipment. Recent studies have shown that Preventive maintenance is effective in preventing age related failures of the equipment. For random failure patterns which amount to 80% of the failure patterns, condition monitoring proves to be effective.  Operational maintenance, where equipment is maintained in using.  Corrective maintenance, where equipment is maintained after break down. This maintenance is often most expensive because worn equipment can damage other parts and cause multiple damages.
  • 34. Preventive maintenance is maintenance performed in an attempt to avoid failures, unnecessary production loss and safety violations. Corrective maintenance is probably the most commonly used approach, but it is easy to see its limitations. When equipment fails, it often leads to downtime in production. In most cases, this is costly business. Also, if the equipment needs to be replaced, the cost of replacing it alone can be substantial. It is also important to consider health, safety and environment (HSE) issues related to malfunctioning equipment. Corrective maintenance can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out, to bring it back to working order. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of this maintenance is much greater than preventive maintenance. Corrective maintenance is the program focused on the regular task that will maintain all the critical machinery and the system in optimum operating conditions. The major objectives of the program are to 1. Eliminating breakdown 2. Eliminating deviation 3. Eliminating unnecessary repairs 4. Optimize all the critical planned system
  • 35. RESULTS & CONCLUSION The industrial training at B.E.L. has given me an exposure of the activities of a defence unit. This being a large organization deals with wide spectrum of technologies. During my training in B.E.L, I came to know about working of different types of CNC or manually operated machines .The industrial‟s environment and the working culture of industry. The six weeks of summer training at BEL, GZB unit generated a lot more interest in my subject. It made me more aware of the scope of Mechanical Engineering. It has also made me appreciative of an industrial work environment. Undergoing training on the indoor substation has helped me integrate conceptual knowledge with real life application. I was fortunate to have personal guidance from experienced professionals who took been interest in explaining the working details of various equipment. I feel that without this opportunity, my own understanding of this subject and also the motivation to acquire more knowledge would have remained incomplete. Well, regarding future scope I think my training has given me enough motivation and an exposure that I will try to join defence services or get linked up with the defence of the country. “To know the technical know-how, industrial training is the best way to move forward.”