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Introduction to forestry

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Introduction to forestry

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Introduction to forestry

  1. 1. Definitions of basic terms related to forestry, objectives of silviculture,  stakeholders of forest,  forest classification and  salient features of Indian Forest Policies Unit I - Introduction
  2. 2. Forestry and related terms
  3. 3. Forest • Forest is defined as ‘an area set aside for the production of timber and other forest produce, or maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefits which it provides, e.g., climatic and protective • In ecology, it is defined as, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, usually with a closed canopy
  4. 4. Broad leaved forest
  5. 5. Coniferous forest
  6. 6. Forestry • Forestry is defined as ‘the theory and practice of all that constitutes the creation, conservation and scientific management of forests and the utilization of their resources’. • It is an applied science which is concerned with not only the raising or cultivation of forest crops but their protection, perpetuation, mensuration, management, valuation and finance as well utilization of the forest products for the service of the nation.
  7. 7. Silviculure and slivics • Silviculture is the branch of forestry which deals with the establishment, development,Care and reproduction and stands of timber •simple-‘The art and science of cultivating forest crops’ • Silvics is the study of life history and general characteristics of forest trees and crops with Particular reference to environmental factors, as the basis for the practice of siliviculture
  8. 8. Forest Cover: defined as all lands, more than one hectare in area, with a tree canopy density of more than 10%. (Such lands may or may not be statutorily notified as forest area). Very Dense Forest: All lands, with a forest cover with canopy density of 70% and above Moderately Dense Forest: All lands, with a forest cover with canopy density of 40-70%  Open Forest: All lands, with forest cover with canopy density of 10 to 40%
  9. 9. Forest cover
  10. 10. Very dense forest Medium dense forest Open forest
  11. 11. Tree Cover: Land with tree patches (blocks and linear) outside the recorded forest area exclusive of forest cover and less than the minimum mapable area of 1 hectare. Canopy: •The cover of branches and foliage formed by the crowns of trees in a wood. •The canopy is called as closed when the individual tree crown generally touch one other.
  12. 12. Closed canopy of forest
  13. 13. Conifers tree - A tree belongs to the order coniferales of the botanical group, gymnospermae, bearing cones and generally needle shaped or scale like leaves, usually evergreen and producing timber known as “softwood”. Broad leaved tree a tree belongs to the botanical group dicotyledons and producing timber usually known as ‘hard wood’
  14. 14. Plants may be classified into the following three categories: i)Herb, ii) Shrub iii) Tree Herb is defined as plant whose stem is always green and tender and height is usually not more than one metre. According to the span of life, it is called annual, biennia or perennial. Shrub is defined as a woody perennial plant differing from a perennial herb in its persistent and woody stem and less definitely from a tree in its low stature and its habit of branching from the base. A shrub is usually not more than 6 metres in height. Tree is defined as a large woody perennial plant having a single well defined stem (bole or trunk) and a more or less definite crown. A tree is usually more than 6 metres in height which can, according to species, be upto 127 metres
  15. 15. TREE Above the ground Below the ground i)The crown iii) The root ii) the stem The crown is defined as the upper branchy part of a tree above the bole. It is formed by the foliage of the branches springing from the bole The stem is defined as ‘the principal axis of plant from which buds and shoots are developed; in trees, stem, bole and trunk are synonymous’ but bole is ‘some times used to refer to only lower part of the stem upto a point where the main branches are given off.
  16. 16. • The root is that portion of the plant which develops inside the soil and away from light. •T he roots of trees support them firmly to the ground, absorb soil moisture containing mineral salts and send it to stem for onward transmission to the leaves. •They generally comprise of two kinds of roots, viz., the taproot and the lateral roots.
  17. 17. Deciduous tree • A tree is called deciduous if it normally remains leafless for sometime during the year In other words, it produces new flush of leaves after all the old leaves have been shed and it has remained leafless for sometime. • The leafless period varies with species and situation. • For example, sal is leafless for about a weak or ten days while Hymenodictyon excelsum remains leafless for about six months. Deciduous spp Acacia catechu, Adina cordifolia, Ailanthus excelsa, Bombax ceiba, Garuga pinnata, Holoptelia integrifolia, Lannea coromandelica, Melia azaderach, Tectona grandis, Terminalia tomentosa. .
  18. 18. Evergreen tree An evergreen is defined as perennial plant which is never entirely without green foliage, the old leaves persisting until a new set has appeared. The persistence of the old green leaves after the new leaves have been produced, depends upon species and in the same species upon the environment. Ex- in chir, the old leaves persist from one year five months to two or three years but in deodar, they persist for five or six years Evergreen spp Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Cupressus torulosa, Hopea parviflora, Mallotus philippinensis, Michelia champaca, Picea smithiana, Pinus wallichiana,.
  19. 19. Pinus wallichiana
  20. 20. Cedrus deodara Picea smithiana
  21. 21. a) Protection forestry b) Commercial forestry c) Social forestry 1) Farm forestry 2) Extension forestry i) Mixed forestry ii) Shelterbelts iii) Linear strip plantations 3) Reforestation of degraded forests 4) Recreational forestry Based on the objectives, forestry is classified as..
  22. 22. Protection forestry is the practice of forestry with the primary object of (1) protecting lands whether those upon which the forest is situated or those at a distance from it, against wind and water erosion, (2) conserving water supplies for human consumption, fish culture, etc., (3) reducing hazards from flood damage to human life and property and (4) amelioration of adverse climatic effects
  23. 23. Commercial forestry is the practice of forestry with the object of producing timber and other forest products as a business enterprise. Ex- saw mill, pulp mill, chemical plant or a combination of these. Social forestry is the practice of forestry on lands outside the conventional forest area for the benefit of the rural and urban communities
  24. 24. Farm forestry is the practice of forestry on farms in the form of raising rows of trees on bunds or boundaries of field and individual trees in private agriculture land as well as creation of wind breaks, which are protective vegetal screens created round a farm or an orchard by raising one at two lines of trees fairly close with shrubs in between. Extension forestry is the practice of forestry in areas devoid of tree growth and other vegetation and situated in places away from the conventional forest areas with the object of increasing the area under tree growth
  25. 25. • Recreational forestry is the practice of forestry with the object of raising flowering trees and shrubs mainly to serve as recreation forests for the urban and rural population. • The main object is not to produce timber, grass or leaf fodder but to raise ornamental trees
  26. 26. • Production of higher volume per unit area • Production of superior quality timber • Production of species of economic value • Reduction of rotation • Raising forests in blank areas(Afforestation) • Creation of manmade forests in place of natural forests(Reforestation) • Introduction of exotics Objectives of silviculture
  27. 27. NATIONAL FOREST POLICIES 1894, 1952, 1988.
  28. 28. FOREST POLICY 1894 • It is mainly concentrate only agriculture growth. • Supplying small timber for public benefits Diverting forest land to agricultural purposes
  29. 29.  Forest area divided in to 1.Protected forest- improvement of climatic 2. Commercial forest- supply of timber 3. Minor forests- collection of fire wood 4. Pasture lands- cattle raring
  30. 30. SPECIAL OBJECTS • Scientific management of forest ,Forest conservation ,Wild life conservation, Women involvement ,Tribal development, Forestry Research and education. • The sole object with which State forests are administered is the public benefit.
  31. 31. FOREST POLICY 1952 The First Forest Policy of 1894 was revised in 1952 . On the basis of six dominant needs of the country, essential national needs ; The need for balanced and complementary land-use. The need for checking of soil erosion Denudation in the catchments areas for soil and water conservation.
  32. 32. SPECIAL OBJECTS Establishing treelands- public use Ensuring increasing supplies of grazing, small wood for agricultural implements, sustained supply of timber - defense, communications and industry. Tree awareness among the people by publicity, by celebrating the VanaMahotsava.
  33. 33. CONTD.… • Maintaining one-third of its total land area under forests. • 60 % forests in the Himalayas, the Deccan, and other mountainous 20% forests-In the plains.
  34. 34. Functional classification of forests (A) Protection forests- Physical, climatic considerations (B) National forests-Defence, communications, industry (C) Village forest-Local requirements (D) Tree lands- Public use
  35. 35. FOREST POLICY 1988 To ensure environmental stability and maintenance of ecological balance Conserving the natural heritage of the country by preserving the remaining natural forests.  Checking soil erosion and denudation in the catchment areas of rivers
  36. 36. SPECIAL OBJECTS Increasing substantially through afforestation and social forestry programmes.  Meeting the requirements of fuel-wood, fodder, of the rural and tribal populations. Increasing the productivity of forests to meet essential national needs.
  37. 37. CONTD…… Creating a people's movement with the involvement of women, for achieving these objectives. Tribal development, symbiotic relationship between the tribal people and forests. Construction of dams and reservoirs, mining and industrial development compensatory by afforestation.
  38. 38. Forest area divided into 1.reserved forest 2.protected forest 3.unclass forest
  39. 39. SALIENT FEATURES OF 1988 Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and, where necessary, restoration of the ecological balance that has been adversely disturbed by serious depletion of the forests of the country. Conserving the natural heritage of the country by preserving the remaining natural forests with the vast variety of flora and fauna, which represent the remarkable biological diversity and genetic resources of the country.
  40. 40. Increasing the productivity of forests to meet essential national needs.  Encouraging efficient utilisation of forest produce and maximising substitution of wood. Checking the extension of sand-dunes in the desert areas of Rajasthan and along the coastal tracts.
  41. 41. Reference • www.nlsenlaw.org/forest/law-policy/old-forest-po • www. forest.ap.nic.in/Forest%20Policy- 1952.htm envfor.nic.in/divisions/fp/nfp india.gov.in/sectors/environment/forest policy.

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