Definitions of basic terms related to forestry,
objectives of silviculture,
stakeholders of forest,
forest classification and
salient features of Indian Forest Policies
Unit I - Introduction
• Forest is defined as ‘an area set aside for the
production of timber and other forest produce,
or maintained under woody vegetation for certain
indirect benefits which it provides, e.g., climatic
• In ecology, it is defined as, a plant community
predominantly of trees and other woody
vegetation, usually with a closed canopy
• Forestry is defined as ‘the theory and practice of
all that constitutes the creation, conservation and
scientific management of forests and the
utilization of their resources’.
• It is an applied science which is concerned with not
only the raising or cultivation of forest crops but
their protection, perpetuation, mensuration,
management, valuation and finance as well utilization
of the forest products for the service of the nation.
Silviculure and slivics
• Silviculture is the branch of forestry which deals
with the establishment, development,Care and
reproduction and stands of timber
•simple-‘The art and science of cultivating forest
• Silvics is the study of life history and general
characteristics of forest trees and crops with
Particular reference to environmental factors, as the
basis for the practice of siliviculture
Forest Cover: defined as all lands, more than one
hectare in area, with a tree canopy density of more than
10%. (Such lands may or may not be statutorily notified
as forest area).
Very Dense Forest: All lands, with a forest cover with
canopy density of 70% and above
Moderately Dense Forest: All lands, with a forest cover
with canopy density of 40-70%
Open Forest: All lands, with forest cover with canopy
density of 10 to 40%
Very dense forest
Medium dense forest
Tree Cover: Land with tree patches (blocks and linear)
outside the recorded forest area exclusive of forest cover
and less than the minimum mapable area of 1 hectare.
•The cover of branches and foliage formed by the crowns of
trees in a wood.
•The canopy is called as closed when the individual tree
crown generally touch one other.
Conifers tree - A tree belongs to the order coniferales of the
botanical group, gymnospermae, bearing cones and generally needle
shaped or scale like leaves, usually evergreen and producing timber
known as “softwood”.
Broad leaved tree a tree belongs to the botanical group dicotyledons
and producing timber usually known as ‘hard wood’
Plants may be classified into the following three categories:
Herb is defined as plant whose stem is always green and tender and
height is usually not more than one metre. According to the span of
life, it is called annual, biennia or perennial.
Shrub is defined as a woody perennial plant differing from a perennial
herb in its persistent and woody stem and less definitely from a tree in
its low stature and its habit of branching from the base. A shrub is
usually not more than 6 metres in height.
Tree is defined as a large woody perennial plant having a single well
defined stem (bole or trunk) and a more or less definite crown. A tree is
usually more than 6 metres in height which can, according to species,
be upto 127 metres
Above the ground Below the ground
i)The crown iii) The root
ii) the stem
The crown is defined as the upper branchy part of a tree above the bole.
It is formed by the foliage of the branches springing from the bole
The stem is defined as ‘the principal axis of plant from which buds and
shoots are developed; in trees, stem, bole and trunk are synonymous’ but
bole is ‘some times used to refer to only lower part of the stem upto a
point where the main branches are given off.
• The root is that portion of the plant which develops inside the soil and
away from light.
•T he roots of trees support them firmly to the ground, absorb soil moisture
containing mineral salts and send it to stem for onward transmission to the
•They generally comprise of two kinds of roots, viz., the taproot and the
• A tree is called deciduous if it normally remains leafless for sometime
during the year In other words, it produces new flush of leaves after all
the old leaves have been shed and it has remained leafless for sometime.
• The leafless period varies with species and situation.
• For example, sal is leafless for about a weak or ten days while
Hymenodictyon excelsum remains leafless for about six months.
Acacia catechu, Adina cordifolia,
Ailanthus excelsa, Bombax ceiba,
Garuga pinnata, Holoptelia integrifolia,
Lannea coromandelica, Melia azaderach,
Tectona grandis, Terminalia tomentosa.
An evergreen is defined as perennial plant which is never entirely without
green foliage, the old leaves persisting until a new set has appeared.
The persistence of the old green leaves after the new leaves have been
produced, depends upon species and in the same species upon the
Ex- in chir, the old leaves persist from one year five months to two or
three years but in deodar, they persist for five or six years
Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara,
Cupressus torulosa, Hopea parviflora,
Mallotus philippinensis, Michelia champaca,
Picea smithiana, Pinus wallichiana,.
a) Protection forestry
b) Commercial forestry
c) Social forestry
1) Farm forestry
2) Extension forestry
i) Mixed forestry
iii) Linear strip plantations
3) Reforestation of degraded forests
4) Recreational forestry
Based on the objectives, forestry is classified as..
Protection forestry is the practice of forestry
with the primary object of
(1) protecting lands whether those upon which
the forest is situated or those at a distance
from it, against wind and water erosion,
(2) conserving water supplies for human
consumption, fish culture, etc.,
(3) reducing hazards from flood damage to
human life and property and
(4) amelioration of adverse climatic effects
Commercial forestry is the practice of forestry with
the object of producing timber and other forest products
as a business enterprise.
Ex- saw mill, pulp mill, chemical plant or a combination of
Social forestry is the practice of forestry on lands
outside the conventional forest area for the benefit of the
rural and urban communities
Farm forestry is the practice of forestry on farms in the
form of raising rows of trees on bunds or boundaries of field
and individual trees in private agriculture land as well as
creation of wind breaks, which are protective vegetal screens
created round a farm or an orchard by raising one at two
lines of trees fairly close with shrubs in between.
Extension forestry is the practice of forestry in areas
devoid of tree growth and other vegetation and situated in
places away from the conventional forest areas with the
object of increasing the area under tree growth
• Recreational forestry is the practice of forestry with
the object of raising flowering trees and shrubs mainly to
serve as recreation forests for the urban and rural
• The main object is not to produce timber, grass or leaf
fodder but to raise ornamental trees
• Production of higher volume per unit area
• Production of superior quality timber
• Production of species of economic value
• Reduction of rotation
• Raising forests in blank areas(Afforestation)
• Creation of manmade forests in place of natural
• Introduction of exotics
Objectives of silviculture
FOREST POLICY 1894
• It is mainly concentrate only agriculture
• Supplying small timber for public benefits
Diverting forest land to agricultural purposes
Forest area divided in to
1.Protected forest- improvement of climatic
2. Commercial forest- supply of timber
3. Minor forests- collection of fire wood
4. Pasture lands- cattle raring
• Scientific management of forest ,Forest
conservation ,Wild life conservation, Women
involvement ,Tribal development, Forestry
Research and education.
• The sole object with which State forests are
administered is the public benefit.
FOREST POLICY 1952
The First Forest Policy of 1894 was revised in
On the basis of six dominant needs of the
country, essential national needs ; The need
for balanced and complementary land-use.
The need for checking of soil erosion
Denudation in the catchments areas for soil
and water conservation.
Establishing treelands- public use Ensuring
increasing supplies of grazing, small wood for
agricultural implements, sustained supply of
timber - defense, communications and industry.
Tree awareness among the people by publicity,
by celebrating the VanaMahotsava.
• Maintaining one-third of its total land area
• 60 % forests in the Himalayas, the Deccan,
and other mountainous 20% forests-In the
Functional classification of forests
(A) Protection forests- Physical, climatic
(B) National forests-Defence,
(C) Village forest-Local requirements
(D) Tree lands- Public use
FOREST POLICY 1988
To ensure environmental stability and
maintenance of ecological balance
Conserving the natural heritage of the
country by preserving the remaining natural
Checking soil erosion and denudation in the
catchment areas of rivers
Increasing substantially through afforestation
and social forestry programmes.
Meeting the requirements of fuel-wood,
fodder, of the rural and tribal populations.
Increasing the productivity of forests to meet
essential national needs.
Creating a people's movement with the
involvement of women, for achieving these
Tribal development, symbiotic relationship
between the tribal people and forests.
Construction of dams and reservoirs, mining
and industrial development compensatory by
Forest area divided into
SALIENT FEATURES OF 1988
Maintenance of environmental stability through
preservation and, where necessary, restoration
of the ecological balance that has been
adversely disturbed by serious depletion of the
forests of the country.
Conserving the natural heritage of the country
by preserving the remaining natural forests
with the vast variety of flora and fauna, which
represent the remarkable biological diversity
and genetic resources of the country.
Increasing the productivity of forests to meet
essential national needs.
Encouraging efficient utilisation of forest
produce and maximising substitution of
Checking the extension of sand-dunes in the
desert areas of Rajasthan and along the