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  1. 1. Values Vivek Sharma ISMC
  2. 2. Values Name and define five values you believe are especially important for students in the 21st century. Support your proposal with research, theory, and statements the requirements of being successful in an information age economy. How would recommend educators go about teaching those values?
  3. 3. Values Values are defined in literature as everything from eternal ideas to behavioral actions. <ul><li>Criteria for determining levels of goodness, worth or beauty. </li></ul><ul><li>Act of valuing </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the affective system </li></ul><ul><li>Also provide an important filter for selecting input and connecting thoughts and feelings to action </li></ul>
  4. 4. Values <ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Sociability </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul>
  5. 5. Values <ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Benevolence </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Truthfulness </li></ul>
  6. 6. Values Others <ul><li>The Character Education Partnership, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Council for Global Education </li></ul><ul><li>Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development </li></ul>
  7. 7. Values Education Values education is an explicit attempt to teach about values and/or valuing. <ul><li>Inculcation </li></ul><ul><li>Moral development </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Values clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Action learning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Inculcation Values as socially or culturally accepted standards or rules of behavior <ul><li>Social versus individualistic orientations </li></ul><ul><li>Certain values are universal and absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Major contributors </li></ul>
  9. 9. Moral Development <ul><li>Focuses primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesizes six levels </li></ul>
  10. 10. Moral Development
  11. 11. Moral Development <ul><li>Focuses primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Other values given less consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Based on work of Piaget, Erikson and others </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesizes six levels </li></ul><ul><li>Moral dilemmas </li></ul>
  12. 12. Moral Development <ul><li>Critiqued Kohlberg’s work in terms of moral development of girls and women </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships and the morality of care </li></ul>
  13. 13. Moral Development
  14. 14. Moral Development <ul><li>Critiqued Kohlberg’s work in terms of moral development of girls and women </li></ul><ul><li>Equivocal empirical support </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis versus a priori classification system </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships and the morality of care </li></ul>
  15. 15. Moral Development More recent proponents of this view <ul><li>Larry Nucci </li></ul><ul><li>Rheta DeVries </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Lapsley </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Students urged to provide verifiable facts about the correctness or value of the topics or issues </li></ul>Analysis Developed mainly by social science educators <ul><li>Emphasizes rational thinking and reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Major assumption--valuing is the cognitive process of determining and justifying facts and beliefs derived from those facts </li></ul>
  17. 17. 2. Questioning and substantiating relevance Analysis A variety of higher-order cognitive and intellectual operations are frequently used 1. Stating issues 3. Applying analogous cases 4. Pointing out logical and empirical inconsistencies 5. Weighing counter arguments 6. Seeking and testing evidence
  18. 18. 2. Assemble purported facts Analysis A representative instructional model 1. Identify and clarify the value question 3. Assess the truth of purported facts 4. Clarify the relevance of facts 5. Arrive at a tentative value decision 6. Test the value principle implied in the decision
  19. 19. <ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul>Values Clarification Arose primarily from humanistic psychology and the humanistic education movement <ul><li>Gordon Allport </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Sidney Simon </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Kirschenbaum </li></ul>
  20. 20. Values Clarification Central focus <ul><li>Rational thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Examine personal behavior patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify and actualize their values </li></ul>
  21. 21. Values Clarification Relies on internal cognitive and affective decision making process An individualistic rather than a social process
  22. 22. Values Clarification Individual makes choices and decisions affected by the internal processes of willing, feeling, thinking, and intending Assumed that as the individual develops, the making of choices will more often be based on conscious, self-determined thought and feeling
  23. 23. Values Clarification Person is seen as an initiator of interaction with society and environment The educator should assist the individual to develop his or her internal processes
  24. 24. Values Clarification Methods used <ul><li>Large- and small-group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and group work </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothetical, contrived, and real dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Rank orders and forced choices </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity and listening techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Songs and artwork </li></ul><ul><li>Games and simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal journals and interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Self-analysis worksheets </li></ul>
  25. 25. Values Clarification <ul><li>Choosing from alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing freely </li></ul><ul><li>Prizing one's choice </li></ul><ul><li>Affirming one's choice </li></ul><ul><li>Acting upon one's choice </li></ul><ul><li>Acting repeatedly, over time </li></ul>
  26. 26. Action Learning Derived from a perspective that it is important to move beyond thinking and feeling to acting Related to the efforts of some social studies educators to emphasize community-based rather than classroom-based learning experiences
  27. 27. Action Learning Advocates stress the need to provide specific opportunities for learners to act on their values Place more emphasis on action-taking inside and outside the classroom Service learning carries on the tradition of action learning
  28. 28. Action Learning Values are seen in the interaction between the person and society The process of self-actualization is viewed as being tempered by social factors and group pressures
  29. 29. Action Learning <ul><li>Input Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Output Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Review Phase </li></ul>
  30. 30. Action Learning First two phases of Huitt's model are almost identical to the steps used in analysis Skill practice in group organization and interpersonal relations and action projects <ul><li>Major difference--does not start from a preconceived notion of moral development </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to that of Kohlberg's &quot;Just School&quot; program </li></ul>
  31. 31. Summary Each of the approaches to values education has <ul><li>purposes, processes and methods used in the approach </li></ul><ul><li>view of human nature </li></ul>
  32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Instill or internalize </li></ul><ul><li>Change the values of students to more nearly reflect certain desired values </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Games and simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul>Inculcation Purpose Methods
  33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Help students develop more complex moral reasoning patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Urge students to discuss the reasons for their value choices and positions </li></ul><ul><li>Moral dilemma episodes with small-group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively structured and argumentative without necessarily coming to a &quot;right&quot; answer </li></ul>Moral Development Purpose Methods
  34. 34. Summary <ul><li>Help students use logical thinking and scientific investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Help students use rational, analytical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Structured rational discussion that demands application of reasons as well as evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Testing principles </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing analogous cases </li></ul><ul><li>Research and debate </li></ul>Analysis Purpose Methods
  35. 35. Summary <ul><li>Help students become aware of and identify own values </li></ul><ul><li>Help students communicate openly and honestly </li></ul><ul><li>Use both rational thinking and emotional awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Role-playing games </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Contrived or real value-laden situations </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth self-analysis exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity activities </li></ul><ul><li>Small group discussions </li></ul>Values Clarification Purpose Methods
  36. 36. Summary <ul><li>Purposes listed for analysis and values clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportu-nities for personal and social action </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to view selves as interactive beings </li></ul><ul><li>Methods listed for analysis and values clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Projects within school and community practice </li></ul><ul><li>Skill practice in group organizing and interpersonal relations </li></ul>Action Learning Purpose Methods
  37. 37. Summary Preferred method of values education depends as much (if not more) on view of human beings and desired outcomes as it does on research on effectiveness
  38. 38. The End