ECOSYSTEMENERGY FLOW,WATER AND CARBON CYCLE Vivek Kumar St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering and Technology, Nagpur Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM?• System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole• Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community and its physical environment treated together as a functional system
OR, MORE SIMPLY• An ecosystem is composed of the organisms and physical environment of a specified area.• SIZE: micro to MACRO
ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS• All organisms require energy, for growth, maintenance, reproduction, locomotion, etc.• Hence, for all organisms there must be:• A source of energy• A loss of usable energy
An ecosystem has abiotic and biotic components:• ABIOTIC components:• Solar energy provides practically all the energy for ecosystems.• Inorganic substances, e.g., sulfur, boron, tend to cycle through ecosystems.• Organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex molecules, form a link between biotic and abiotic components of the system.
AUTOTROPHS• Autotrophs (=self-nourishing) are called primary producers.• Photoautotrophs fix energy from the sun and store it in complex organic compounds(green plants, algae, some bacteria). lightsimple complexinorganic photoautotrophs organiccompounds compounds
HETEROTROPHS • Heterotrophs (=other-nourishing) cannot produce their own food directly from sunlight+ inorganic compounds. • They require energy previously stored in complex molecules. heatcomplex simpleorganic heterotrophs inorganiccompounds compounds
• Heterotrophs can be grouped as:• Consumers• Decomposers
Energy flow• Simplistically: heat Producers Consumers Decomposers heat• This pattern of energy flow among different organisms is the TROPHIC STRUCTURE of an ecosystem.
TYPES OF WATER ECOSYSTEMS• The water on earth is categorized into two groups: freshwater ecosystems and saltwater ecosystems.• Saltwater is water that has a lot of salt in it.• Freshwater is water that contains very little salt.
SALTWATER ECOSYSTEMS• Oceans, seas, and some lakes are examples of saltwater ecosystems.• The amount of salt in each one is not the same.• Plants and animals live in the shallow (not deep) parts because the suns shines more in these areas.
Animals Found in Saltwater Ecosystems crustaceans fish sharks sponges penguins whales
FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS• These include rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds.• Rivers and streams have moving water. The water may be moving fast or slow.• Lake are usually larger and deeper than ponds.• Just like in the oceans, plants and animals live in the shallow (less deep) parts. The sun shines more in the shallow parts.
Animals Found in Freshwater Ecosystems Grebe TurtleTrout Pufferfish Otter Pelican Bullfrog
Global Carbon CycleCarbon is exchanged between the active pools due to various processes –photosynthesis and respiration between the land and the atmosphere, anddiffusion between the ocean and the atmosphere.