St. Vincent Pallotti
College of Engineering
and Technology, Nagpur
Sound that is unwanted or disrupts one’s quality of life is
called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the
environment, it is termed as noise pollution.
Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal
activities such as working, sleeping, and during
It is an underrated environmental problem because of the
fact that we can’t see, smell, or taste it.
World Health Organization stated that “Noise must be
recognized as a major threat to human well-being”
According to the USEPA, there are direct links between
noise and health. Also, noise pollution adversely affects the
lives of millions of people.
Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological
High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption,
hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related
to noise pollution.
It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and
Transportation systems are the main source of noise
pollution in urban areas.
Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot
of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers,
loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers.
Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state
of noise pollution.
Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air
conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing
Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating
sources is an effective solution for noise pollution.
Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively
reduce the noise pollution.
Buildings can be designed with suitable noise absorbing
material for the walls, windows, and ceilings.
Workers should be provided with equipments such as ear
plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection.
Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and
servicing should be done to minimize noise generation.
Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block
unwanted noise from outside.
Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play
loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places.
Factories and industries should be located far from the
Community development or urban management
should be done with long-term planning, along with an
aim to reduce noise pollution.
Social awareness programs should be taken up to
educate the public about the causes and effects of
Waste management is the collection, transport,
processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of
The two conventional principles of waste
management were: ‘Dilute and disperse’ or
‘concentrate and contain’.
The main necessity of waste management is to
enrich the resources which are being depleted due
to rising population and increasing consumption
Exposure to hazardous waste can affect human
health, children being more vulnerable to these
Improperly operated incineration plants cause air
pollution and improperly managed and designed
landfills attract all types of insects and rodents that
Direct handling of solid waste results in chronic
diseases with the waste workers and the rag pickers
being the most vulnerable.
Prevention of waste being created is known as waste
reduction which is an important method of waste
The modern concepts based on the three ‘R’s are:
Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
Methods of avoidance include reuse of second hand
products, designing products to be refillable or reusable,
repairing broken items instead of buying new etc.
Integrated solid waste management through the
following processes can provide a better reliable
solution for the problem of municipal solid waste
SHREDDING OR PULVERIZING
From individual houses, wastes can be collected in
person with the help of vehicle.
To minimize the time and cost involved in collecting
waste through vehicles, public can be given
instruction to dump their house wastes in one place
(nearby their street).
Segregation of wastes into degradable and non-
degradable wastes is to be done to recover or divert
non-degradable wastes (electric items, plastics, tyres
etc.) and degradable items (wood, textiles etc.) to its
recycling plant and if possible, it can be reused.
It is a tedious process which therefore needs labour.
Magnets can also be used to segregate ferrous metals.
This process will help in reducing the amounts of waste
going for composting and also earns money (through
selling wastes to recycling plant.
The non-degradable and degradable wastes can be
recycled very economically in the recycling
Apart from sending wastes to recycling plant,
recycling of some organic waste is possible.
Some of the waste recycling techniques are: Fly ash,
Organic wastes, Slag and scrap, Industrial gases,
Waste waters, Recovery of silver from photographic
This process involves in size reduction of organic
wastes before it goes for composting.
This process reduces the overall volume by 40%.
It will increase surface area availability for bacterial
Facilitates easy handling of moisture content and
Aerobic composting is one of the cheapest and
easiest methods that are being available for MSW.
Generally, composting can be carried out in three
techniques. They are
i) windrow composting
ii) Aerated static pile method
iii) In vessel method