Speaking Skills


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Speaking Skills

  1. 1. Improving Oral Presentations
  2. 2. The most important thing in a Oral Presentation is….? Audience You Content Topic Time Visual Aids
  3. 3. <ul><li>Planning the Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing the Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing the Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering the Presentation </li></ul>Preparing an Oral Presentation
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. Identify your purpose: reporting, explaining, persuading, motivating etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide what you want your audience to believe, remember, or do when you finish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim all parts of your talk toward your purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Analyze the audience: identify demographic factors, their level of knowledge about your topic and psychological needs. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Timing </li></ul><ul><li>4. Delivery Method: Memorizing, Reading, Speaking from the notes </li></ul>Planning the Presentation
  5. 5. <ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get the audience involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture attention by opening with a promise, story, startling fact, question, quotation, relevant problem, or visual aid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening should introduce the topic, identify the purpose, and preview the main points of the presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish your credibility by identifying your position, expertise, knowledge, or qualifications. </li></ul></ul>Organizing the Presentation
  6. 6. <ul><li>2. The Body of the Presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the body logically, according to the topic and audience needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop four to five main points. Streamline your topic and summarize its principal parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange the points logically: chronologically, from most important to least important, by comparison and contrast, or by some other strategy. </li></ul>Organizing the Presentation
  7. 7. <ul><li>Organize the body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare transitions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use “bridge” statements between major parts (I’ve just discussed three reasons for X; now I want to move to Y). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use verbal signposts (however, for example, etc.). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have extra material ready. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared with more information and visuals if needed. </li></ul></ul></ul>Organizing the Presentation
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. Organize the conclusion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish on a strong, upbeat note, leaving your audience with a clear and simple message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review/Summarize your main points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a final focus. Tell your listeners how they can use this information, why you have spoken, or what you want them to do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan a graceful exit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions/discussions should be handled by all team members. </li></ul></ul>Organizing the Presentation
  9. 9. <ul><li>1. A promise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the end of this presentation, you will be able to . . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell a moving story; describe a serious problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Eye contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command attention at the beginning by making eye contact with as many people as possible. </li></ul></ul>Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention
  10. 10. <ul><li>4. Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave the lectern area. Move toward the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for a show of hands. Use rhetorical questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6. Demonstrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include a member of the audience. </li></ul></ul>Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention
  11. 11. <ul><li>7. Samples/gimmicks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Award prizes to volunteer participants; pass out samples. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8. Visuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a variety of visuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>9. Self-interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience wants to know “What’s in it for me?” </li></ul></ul>Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention
  12. 12. Building Audience Rapport <ul><li>Use effective imagery. Analogies, metaphors, similes, anecdotes, statistics, worst-and best-case scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Include verbal signposts. Previewing, summarizing, switching directions </li></ul><ul><li>Send positive nonverbal messages. Look terrific, animate your body, punctuate your words, move about, vary your expression </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Select the medium. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the size of the audience and the degree of formality desired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider cost, ease of preparation, and potential effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highlight the main ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on major concepts only. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid overkill. Showing too many graphics reduces effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep all visuals simple. </li></ul></ul>Designing and Using Graphics
  14. 14. <ul><li>Ensure visibility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use large type for transparencies and slides. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position the screen high enough to be seen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure all audience members can see. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhance comprehension. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the audience a moment to study a visual before discussing it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase its verbal message; don’t read it. </li></ul></ul>Designing and Using Graphics
  15. 15. <ul><li>Practice using your visual aids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearse your talk, perfecting the handling of your visual aids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice talking to the audience and not to the visual. </li></ul></ul>Designing and Using Graphics
  16. 16. Presentation Enhancers <ul><li>Multimedia Slides </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead Transparencies </li></ul><ul><li>Handouts </li></ul><ul><li>Flipchart </li></ul><ul><li>Write-and-wipe Board </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Use slides only to summarize major points. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what each point means. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for audience to absorb meaning. </li></ul>Using PowerPoint Effectively
  18. 18. <ul><li>Keep the lights as bright as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rely totally on PowerPoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for the worst; have transparencies or alternate media ready. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let your slides upstage you! </li></ul>Using PowerPoint Effectively
  19. 19. Overcoming Stage Fright
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>Stomach butterflies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pounding heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage of breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweaty palms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry throat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsteady voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trembling hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wobbly knees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tied tongue </li></ul></ul>Overcoming Stage Fright Symptoms of Stage Fright
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Select a familiar, relevant topic. Prepare 150 percent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use positive self-talk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert your fear into anticipation and enthusiasm and positive eneegy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift the focus from yourself to your visuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on familiar faces. </li></ul></ul>Overcoming Stage Fright Ways to Overcome Stage Fright
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Give yourself permission to make an occasional mistake. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore stumbles; keep going. Don’t apologize. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the listeners your partners. Get them involved. Use natural gestures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just before you speak, practice deep breathing. </li></ul></ul>Overcoming Stage Fright Ways to Overcome Stage Fright
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Reading from the slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye Contact/Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand in the pockets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed/Tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight on main issues and not on unimportant ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A group presentation should reflect good teamwork. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Introduction with the agenda for the presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency in the information presented by all members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate rehearsal time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce time limits strictly </li></ul></ul>Observations
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>How can internet be used to find a job? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can your organization or institution improve its image? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should people invest in a company or scheme? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should employees be able to use computers in a work environment for anything other than work-related business? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the pros and cons of videoconferencing for an organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your opinion of the statement, “Advertising steals our time, defaces the landscape, and degrades the dignity of public institutions”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read chapter 15. for the next class. </li></ul></ul>