Секреты виртуализации - Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V


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Авторский учебный курс от Архитектора Microsoft Алексея Кибкало.
Что такое Hyper-V
Версии Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V
Аппаратные требования к Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V
Установка Hyper-V
Сетевые возможности Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V
Что такое Live Migration
Высокодоступные кластеры Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V
Аварийное восстановление и Hyper-V Replica
Азы управления при помощи System Center
При поддержке "Звезды и С" www.stars-s.ru

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  • ARP = Address Resolution ProtocolND = Neighbor Discovery (replaces ARP, ICMP router Discovery, ICMP Redirect) (RFC 2461)http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa916049.aspx
  • inMon – sFlow (Capture)5Nine - Virtual firewall (filtering)Cisco – NNexus 1000v (forwarding; UCS (forwarding for SR-IOV)NEC – OpenFlow (forwarding)
  • Секреты виртуализации - Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V

    1. 1. Секреты виртуализацииWindows Server 2012 Hyper-V (Введение)Алексей Кибкало www.stars-s.ru
    2. 2. Hyper-V Virtualization Technology OverviewHyper-V technology virtualizes hardware to allow for runningmultiple operating systems at the same time on a single physicalcomputerEach operating system runs isolated in a virtual machine alsocalled a GuestHyper-V role provides management tools in the form of theHyper-V Manager UI or the new inbox PowerShell moduleSystem Center 2012 SP1Applications of this technology include:Establishing a Private Cloud environmentIncreasing hardware utilization which can lead to cost savingsImproving business continuityEstablishing or expanding a VDI environmentImproving efficiencies in Test and DevelopmentFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20121
    3. 3. Scaling Mission Critical WorkloadsWindows Server 2008 R2 limited to 4 VPs and 64 GB memory pervirtual machineMission critical Tier-1 applications typically run with 16 or moreprocessors and 8 GB RAM per logical processor (SQL workloads as anexample)Current systems available with 10-core processors, 16-sockets in a system andsupporting 2TB or more of physical memoryHyper-V in Windows Server 2012 supports up to 320 LPs and 4TB ofsystem memory on the Host. Virtual machines can be configured withup to 64 VPs and 1TB memory eachHosts are limited to 2,048 VPs and 1,024 VMsNUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Access) – implementation whereprocessors have faster access to local memory. Modern operatingsystems and applications can take advantage of the NUMA architectureCan project a virtual NUMA topology into a virtual machine.Default is to match Host NUMA topology (Dynamic Memory configurationresults in a ‘flat’ (one NUMA node) NUMA topology being projected into theGuest)FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20122
    4. 4. Scaling Mission Critical Workloads (Part 2)Dynamic MemoryHigher consolidation numbersUsing Minimum RAM settingLowers costs in environments that have many idle or low-load VMssuch as in pooled VDI environmentsAbility to change some memory runtime configurations providesincreased agility to respond to requirement changes (increaseMaximum memory and decrease Minimum memory)Smart Paging for reliable virtual machine restart allows for assigninglower amounts of minimum memoryUses disk resources for temporary storage when physical memory notavailableTemporary until Memory Manager (Host) can allocate sufficient memory tothe VMOnly used when a VM is restartedHyper-V Failover ClustersScale to 64 nodes supporting 8,000 virtual machinesFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20123
    5. 5. NetworkingCore functionality remains (Virtual Switch supports virtual networks)Hyper-V Networking development transitioned to the Networking Product TeamBandwidth ManagementConfigure minimum and maximum (QoS) bandwidthPer virtual network configurationHardware Acceleration (physical NIC support required)Dynamic Virtual Machine Queuing (VMQ)Adaptive network processing across CPUsIPsec OffloadingSR-IOV(Single-Root I/O Virtualization)System chipset + Network card support requiredRemapping of interrupts and DMA allows SR-IOV capable devices to be assigned to VMs (VirtualFunction (VF) of physical adapter is assigned to a VM) thus bypassing the virtual switchIncreases network throughput, reduces latency, and decreases CPU overheadAssociated only with External Virtual SwitchesAdvanced FeaturesMAC Address management and MAC address spoofingDHCP and Router GuardPort MirroringMonitoring VM network trafficNetwork Adapter TeamingTeam virtual NICsMust use Mac address spoofingFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20124
    6. 6. Networking (Part 2)Virtual Switch ExtensibilityNon-Microsoft extensions (3rd Party) written to emulate full capabilitiesof hardware-based devicesSupports NDIS filter drivers and Windows Filtering Platform (WFP)Allows software vendors to add monitoring, filtering, forwardingfunctionality without replacing all of the vSwitch functionalityExtensions can extend or replace three aspects of switch processing –ingress filtering, destination look-up and forwarding and egressfiltering.Extensions can also gather statistical data by monitoring traffic atdifferent layers of the vSwitchNIC Teaming (LBFO)Inbox NIC teaming solutionWorks with all vendor adapters (must be RSS capable adapters)Allows for NIC teaming in VMsIncompatible with SR-IOV, RDMA, and TCP ChimneyFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20125
    7. 7. Networking (Part 3)Network VirtualizationInfrastructure as a Service (IaaS) scenariosProvide on demand server instances to multiple customers (Multi-Tenant scenario) in a DynamicDatacenter environment and guarantee secure isolation of all workloadsCurrent solution is to use Virtual LANs (VLANs)Cumbersome re-configuration if moving workloads within a datacenterLimited scalabilityVLANs cannot span multiple logical subnetsVirtual Machine IP AddressingMoving to the cloud requires re-assigning IP addressesPolicies are tied to IP addressesPhysical locations determine VM IP addressTopological dependencies of VM deployments and traffic isolationKey BenefitsUncouples workloads from internal IP addressesDecouples server and network administrationRemoves tenant isolation dependency on VLANsEnables flexible workload placementSimplifies the network and improves server and network resource utilizationWorks with existing infrastructure and emerging technologiesSupport configuration by using PowerShell and WMISystem Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) in System Center 2012 SP1Custom management applicationFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20126
    8. 8. StorageNew VHD Format (VHDX)VHDX supports capacities up to 64TBData corruption protection during power failuresUses internal log data for change trackingImproved alignment to work better with large sector disksLarger block sizes for dynamic and differencing disks4KB logical sector disk that allows for increased performance when used by workloads designedfor 4KB sectorsSupports ‘trim’ which results in smaller file sizes and allows underlying storage to reclaim unusedspaceSupport for Native 4K DrivesSupport for VHDs on native 4K drives (4K aligned with ‘padding’)Improved performance of VHDs on 512e disksRead-Modify-Write (RMW)Offload Data Transfer (ODX)Hyper-V storage stack can take advantage of ODXHyper-V over SMBStoring VM files on SMB file sharesTakes advantage of SMBv3 featuresVirtual Fibre ChannelVirtualized FC adapters in VMVirtual Machine SnapshotsLive merge of snapshotsFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20127
    9. 9. Virtual Machine MobilityExport-ImportNew Import Virtual Machine functionalityQuick MigrationSame as in Windows Server 2008 + 2008 R2Live MigrationFaster with multiple, simultaneous Live Migrations in a clusterLive Migration outside of a clusterLive Storage MigrationJust migrate VM storageHyper-V ReplicaInbox DR solution that provides Business ContinuityFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20128
    10. 10. Hyper-V Resource MeteringProvides capability for organizations to track resourceusage (CPU, memory, network bandwidth) and then chargetenants appropriatelyOrganizations can adjust resource requirements to matchneeds resulting in savingsService providers and software vendors can develop morereliable chargeback solutionsCan obtain usage data using Hyper-V PowerShell or newAPIs in Hyper-V WMIv2 providerResource Pools are logical containers that collect resourceusage by a tenant’s virtual workloads. Data is collected andreports generated on configured poolsFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/20129
    11. 11. SecurityInbox Hyper-V security implemented by AuthorizationManagerStill present but is being deprecated moving forwardOutside of Hyper-V, SCVMM is usedInstallation of Hyper-V role creates a VirtualizationAdministrators groupMembers of this group have unrestricted access to all Hyper-VfeaturesPart of new Simple Authorization modelAccess to VMConnect interface can also be restrictedMust configure with PowerShellFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201210
    12. 12. Automation and ManageabilityPrimary manageability interfaces:Hyper-V Manager UIRemote Server Administration Tools (RSAT)WMI ScriptingSystem Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM)Beginning with WS2012, Hyper-V has a PowerShell Modulethat can be used for automation and managementFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201211
    13. 13. Client Hyper-VHyper-V capabilities in specific Windows 8 Client SKUsEnterprise and ProfessionalClient Hyper-V has same requirements as server versionwith the additional requirement for a SLAT capableprocessorWireless Network adapters are supportedVMs can run on either version of Hyper-VFeatures not included in client:RemoteFXLive Migration of VMs (Live Storage migration is available)Hyper-V ReplicaSR-IOV networkingSynthetic Fibre ChannelFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201212
    14. 14. Installing the Hyper-V RoleServer ManagerAdd roles and Features Wizard (ARFW)Additional configurations:Virtual SwitchesVirtual SANsMigration settingsDefault stores for virtual hard disk and configuration filesServer Manager PowerShell ModuleInstall-WindowsFeature –Name Hyper-V –IncludeManagementToolsReboot is requiredAdd –Restart to PowerShellHyper-V Navigation pane entry in Server ManagerNumerous firewall rules configuredHyper-V Replica HTTP/HTTPS Listener rules not enabled by defaultFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201213
    15. 15. Upgrading to Windows Server 2012 Hyper-VUpgrade ScenariosWS2012 RC to WS2012 RTM – not supportedHyper-V Server 2012 RC to Hyper-V Server RTM – not supportedWindows Server 2008 (SP2) both Full and CORE to WS2012 –Standalone is supported. Hyper-V Failover Clusters are not supportedDelete saved states. Saved states for snapshots will also have to be deletedWindows Server 2008 R2 (SP1) both Full and Core to WS2012 -Standalone is supported. Hyper-V Failover Clusters are not supportedDelete saved states. Saved states for snapshots will also have to be deletedHyper-V Server 2008 (SP2) to Hyper-V Server 2012 - Standalone issupported. Hyper-V Failover Clusters are not supportedDelete saved states. Saved states for snapshots will also have to be deletedHyper-V Server 2008 R2 (SP1) to Hyper-V Server 2012 - Standalone issupported. Hyper-V Failover Clusters are not supportedDelete saved states. Saved states for snapshots will also have to be deletedFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201214
    16. 16. Virtual Machine MigrationsFor scenarios not supporting in-place upgrades, virtualmachines must be migratedRecommended steps:Verify Guest OS is supported in WS2012 Hyper-VIt is highly recommended that Integration Services in supportedGuests be updated to the latest version before migrationAll VM Saved States must be discarded. Recommendation is toproperly shutdown VMExporting VM is not requiredIf HA VM, use Migrate Role functionality in Failover ClusterDo not delete VMs in Hyper-V ManagerRecommend compacting all dynamic disksFormulate a plan for transporting VM files to WS2012 machinesUse Import Virtual Machine Wizard in Hyper-V ManagerVerify all VMs start after import process completesFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201215
    17. 17. Hyper-V Integration ServicesAll Integration Services are backOne new Integration Service – Hyper-V Remote Desktop VirtualizationServiceDesigned to work with Remote Desktop Virtualization Host in VDI scenariosIntegration Services are user mode componentsParent Partition loads a series of DLLs to interface with Child PartitioncomponentsVmickvpexchange.dllVmicshutdown.dllVmicheartbeat.dllVmicrdv.dllVmicteimesync.dllVmicvss.dllIntegration Component installation has not changedDetermining if Guest ICs are out of synch with HostEvent ID 1040 in Hyper-V-IntegrationAdmin logHyper-V BPAHyper-V PowerShell (Get-VMIntegrationService)In Hyper-V Failover Cluster, run Hyper-V validation moduleFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201216
    18. 18. Hyper-V Management InterfaceHyper-V in Server Manager Navigation paneCan add all servers with Hyper-V role installed to centrally manageMultiple TilesEvents TileServices TileBest Practice Analyzer TilePerformance TileRoles and Features TileAccess Hyper-V Manager in Servers tile, Tools in Menu Bar, Startscreen, Apps screen, Administrative Tools in Control Panel, addto blank MMCNew additionsImport Virtual MachineVirtual Switch ManagerVirtual SAN ManagerEnable Replication (VM context)FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201217
    19. 19. Hyper-V Server SettingsFor the most part, on the surface looks the sameImportant changes in:Hyper-V Server SettingsPhysical GPUsNUMA SpanningLive MigrationsStorage MigrationsReplication ConfigurationVirtual Switch ManagerExtensionsVirtual SAN ManagerCreate Virtual Fibre Channel to support Virtual Fibre Channel Adaptersin VMsCan configure many of these settings using Hyper-VPowerShell moduleFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201218
    20. 20. Hyper-V Security ModelHyper-V and Authorization Manager still present but beingdeprecated going forwardSimple Authorization ModelEnterprise customers – complex authorization. Use SCVMMAzMan not capable of handling complex authorization policiesSmall and Medium Businesses – use AzManSimple Authorization uses a Local and Domain-level security groupcalled Hyper-V Administrators which is created when the Hyper-Vrole is installedGives users Hyper-V administrator privileges without making them localadministrators on the Hyper-V serverVirtual Machine Connection (VMConnect) AuthorizationUse PowerShell to restrict access to VMConnectGrant-VMConnectAccess and Revoke-VMConnectAccessUses an ACL placed on the VM configuration fileFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201219
    21. 21. Creating Virtual MachinesMajor change in Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V is thatthere is a built-in Hyper-V PowerShell module. This can beused to create virtual machinesNew-VM cmdletScript examples in the ModuleCreating virtual machines using the New Virtual MachineWizard in Hyper-V Manager remains the same as beforeNew functionality in Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V is nowvirtual machine files can be stored on SMBv3 File SharesDynamic Memory can also be enabled when the virtualmachine is createdThe default virtual hard disk format is VHDX thus allowingdisks up to 64 TB in sizeFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201220
    22. 22. Virtual Machine SettingsAdd HardwareVirtual Fibre Channel AdapterMemory SettingsMinimum RAM settingMaximum RAM is now 1 TBSmart PagingProcessor SettingsMaximum processors per VM is 64Processor compatibility setting moved to its own section under ProcessorNUMA ConfigurationNetwork AdaptersBandwidth Management (QoS)Hardware AccelerationVMQ, IPSec, SR-IOVNIC must support these featuresAdvanced FeaturesDHCP Guard, Router Guard, Port mirroring, Network adapter teamingFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201221
    23. 23. Virtual Machine Connection (VMConnect) InterfaceInstalled with Hyper-V role, Client Hyper-V and RemoteServer Administration Tools (RSAT)VMConnect in Client Hyper-V can connect to Hyper-Vservers running in Windows Server 2012 or Hyper-V Server2012Biggest change is with respect to securityPowerShell can be used to restrict access to virtual machines usingVMConnectGrant-VMConnectAccess –VMName VM1 –UserName ContosotsmithRevoke-VMConnectAccess –VMName VM1 –UserName ContosotsmithFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201222
    24. 24. Migrating Virtual Machines to Windows Server 2012Customers will want to move virtual workloads from Windows Server2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V servers to Windows Server2012In the past one had to Export and then Import virtual machinesTime consuming processHardware configuration differences not accounted for and manualreconfiguration was requiredExportImport process is still supported, however, the Export piece isno longer requiredNew Import process only requires the folder containing the virtualmachine data files be accessible to the Hyper-V serverNew Import wizard detects and fixes more than 40 different types ofincompatibilitiesImport process:Creates a copy of virtual machine configuration fileValidates hardware configuration settingsCompiles a list of incompatibilitiesDisplays relevant pages allowing the user to update configuration settingsRemoves copy of configuration file when virtual machine is ready to startFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201223
    25. 25. Migration ScenariosMigrate from Windows Server 2008 or 2008 R2 (also includes Hyper-VServer 2008 and 2008 R2)Shutdown all virtual machines ensuring no Saved StatesPlace the virtual machine data folders in a location accessible to the WindowsServer 2012 Hyper-V serverUse the Import Virtual Machine Wizard to import each VMMake configuration changes as neededStart each VM and update Integration ServicesMigrate from standalone Hyper-V servers to a Windows Server 2012Failover ClusterPlace the VM data files on a shared cluster disk, preferably a CSV volumeUse the Import Virtual Machine Wizard to import the VM into Hyper-VUse Failover Cluster Manager to make the VM highly availableStart the virtual machine and update Integration ServicesMigrate from Windows Server 2008 Failover ClustersUse Migrate Role functionality. Documented in Failover Cluster trainingMigrate from Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover ClusterUse Migrate Role functionality. Documented in Failover Cluster trainingFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201224
    26. 26. Hyper-V Server ManagementHyper-V Server management is accomplished usingHyper-V Manager UIHyper-V PowerShell ModuleSystem Center 2012 SP1 Virtual Machine ManagerSconfig in Hyper-V Server 2012 for basic server configuration outside of theHyper-V role itselfHyper-V ManagerPart of Hyper-V Management Tools installed as part of the Hyper-V roleAlso part of the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT)Hyper-V PowerShell ModuleInstalled as part of the Hyper-V Management ToolsIn Windows Server 2012 CORE or Hyper-V Server 2012, only the PowerShellmodule is available locally. The Hyper-V Manager UI is used remotelySystem Center 2012 SP1 Virtual Machine ManagerShould be available shortly after Windows Server 2012 releases (GA)System Center 2012 is a suite of products classified as ‘Microsoft Private CloudProducts’FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201225
    27. 27. Hyper-V PowerShell ModuleWindows PowerShell® is a task-based command-line shell and scriptinglanguage designed especially for system administrationWindows PowerShell helps IT professionals and power users control andautomate the administration of the Windows operating system andapplications that run on Windows (e.g. SQL and Exchange)The Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) is a hostapplication for Windows PowerShellRun commands, write, test and debug scripts in a GUIPowerShell V3.0 is installed as part of the Windows Server 2012 (andWindows 8 Client)Access PowerShell environment:On the Desk Top click on the icon in the taskbarIn the Start screen, the PowerShell tile is availableServer Manager allows for PowerShell remoting to other servers in the environmentAccessing PowerShell ISECan be found in Apps under Administrative ToolsIn Control Panel under Administrative ToolsCan be pinned to the Start screen or the TaskbarProvides help about PowerShell Modules containing over 2300 cmdletsMore difficult to find in Client but it is thereFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201226
    28. 28. Hyper-V NetworkingDevelopment of the Hyper-V Virtual Switch was moved tothe Networking teamChanges in support model and call routingDoes not necessarily apply to all regionsChanges to case coding using MSSolve (Support Topics)Hyper-V Engineers still require a good understanding ofHyper-V networking features and functionalityMaterial in this part of the training has been pulled in fromthe Networking trainingPossibility of supplemental training for Hyper-V engineers deliveredby Networking specialty trainersFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201227
    29. 29. Hyper-V Networking OverviewThe ‘basics’ have not changedVirtual machines still have communication requirements ondifferent types of virtual networks mapped to properlyconfigured virtual switchesExternal, Internal, PrivateVirtual machines will still be configured to use Network (Synthetic)Adapters or Legacy Network AdaptersProper functioning of Network Adapters requires the correct version ofIntegration Services be installed in a virtual machineHyper-V Virtual Switch Manager module in Hyper-VManager, or the corresponding PowerShell cmdlets areused to configure Hyper-V NetworkingSystem Center 2012 SP1 (SCVMM) can also be usedFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201228
    30. 30. Hyper-V Networking FeaturesVirtual Switch Manager moduleDynamic Switch PortsVirtual Switch Expanded FunctionalitySingle Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV)Dynamic Virtual Machine Queuing (VMQ)IPSec Task OffloadNetwork Adapter Teaming in virtual machinesNetwork VirtualizationFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201229
    31. 31. Virtual Switch Expanded Functionality (VM Adapter)ARP/ND Poisoning (Spoofing) Protection (Router Guard)Provides protection against a VM (prevents VM) using Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)spoofing to steal IP addresses from other VMsProvides protection against attacks that can be launched for IPv6 using Neighbor Discovery (ND)spoofingImplemented in Advanced FeaturesDHCP GuardProtects against a malicious VM representing itself as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) server (rogue DHCP server) for man-in-the-middle attacksDrops packets from any unauthorized guest VMs sending DHCP server trafficImplemented in Advanced FeaturesPort ACLsProvides traffic filtering based on Media Access Control (MAC) or Internet Protocol (IP)addresses/ranges, which enables you to set up virtual network isolation by creating white listsand black listsImplemented using PowerShell (Add-VMNetworkAdapterAcl)Trunk Mode to a Virtual MachineVLAN in trunk mode carries traffic from multiple VLANsConfigures a VM as a virtual appliance and directs traffic from various VLANs to that VMTrunking Protocol (802.1q)In W2K8(+R2), could not set a switch port to trunk mode so no multiple VLAN assignments to avirtual network adapterImplemented using PowerShell (Set-VMNetworkAdapterVlan)Required for Port MirroringFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201230
    32. 32. Network Traffic MonitoringReview packet traffic traversing a network switchTraffic is viewed inside a VM using Packet Capture utilities (e.g.Network Monitor)Mirroring Mode is set to either Source or DestinationImplemented in Advanced FeaturesUse Set-VMNetworkAdapter cmdletRequires Trunk modeIsolated (Private) VLAN (PVLAN)Allows administrators to segregate traffic on multiple VLANsUsed to establish isolated tenant communitiesHosted Cloud ProviderImplemented using PowerShell (Set-VMNetworkAdapter)Bandwidth ManagementPseudo QoS Policy implemented on a VM network adapter to helpdeliver agreed upon SLAs for a virtual workloadFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201231
    33. 33. Virtual Switch ExtensibilityExtend vSwitch functionality so 3rd Parties can addmonitoring, filtering and forwarding functionality withouthaving to replace vSwitch functionalityExtensions are implemented as either NDS Filter drivers orWindows Filtering Platform (WFP) callout driversNDIS - An NDIS filter driver is a filtering service to monitor ormodify network packets in WindowsWFP – allows vendors to filter and modify TCP/IP packets, monitoror authorize connections, filter Internet Protocol security (IPsec)-protected traffic, and filter remote procedure calls (RPCs)Extensions may extend or replace three aspects of vSwitchprocessing – ingress filtering, address look-up andforwarding, and egress filteringExtensions support VM mobility scenariosFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201232
    34. 34. Virtual Switch ArchitectureFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201233
    35. 35. Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV)Requires support in the Hyper-V server chipset (firmware)and in a Network Adapter (NIC) (driver + firmware) in thehostRemaps interrupts and provides Direct Memory Access to virtualmachinesIncreases network throughputReduces network latencyReduces CPU overhead on the Hyper-V hostVirtual Functions (VF) in the SR-IOV-capable adapter aremapped directly to the virtual machineVM network traffic bypasses the vSwitchVery similar to basic RDMA functionalitySR-IOV is supported in VM mobility scenariosNot enabled if a destination Host does not support SR-IOVFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201234
    36. 36. Dynamic Virtual Machine Queuing (VMQ)VMQ support first introduced in W2K8R2Requires support in the Network Adapter in the HostPhysical NIC inspects incoming packets for destination MAC addressesVMQ-capable NIC uses receive queues based on VM MAC addresses toroute traffic to the designated VM (Network Adapter)Very efficient transfer of received network traffic to a VMVMQ-capable NICs use DMA functionality thus reducing CPU overheadon the HostVMQ provides the most benefit to virtual workloads that receive largeamounts of network traffic (e.g. file backup, database replication,database mirroring, printer servers, etc…)WS2012 supports automatic configuration and tuning for VMQVMQ is enabled automatically on the VM Network Adapter (HardwareAcceleration settings) but will not be used unless the NIC supports itand it is enabledVMQ functionality on the Host level is enableddisabled on the physical NICitselfPowerShell can also be used to enable VMQ (Set-VMNetworkAdapter)FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201235
    37. 37. IPSec Task OffloadEncryptionDecryption places an increased load on the Hyper-V serverprocessorsChecksum calculations (in software) also place an increased load on theHyper-V server processorsWS2012 provides the capability to offload checksum calculations to anNIC that also supports IPSec offloadingCheck the NIC capabilities to see if the NIC supports coexistence of Checksumand IPsec offloadCheck if the outbound Security Association (SA) is already offloaded to the NICCheck if the packet is not going to benefit from the implicit checksum offloadthat is part of the LSO fast pathDetermine if the endpoint of the transport connection is local to this box (IPsecSA is transport mode)IPSec Task Offloading is enabled automatically on the VM NetworkAdapter (Hardware Acceleration settings) but will not be used unlessthe NIC supports it and it is enabledIPSec Offload functionality on the Host level is enableddisabled on the physicalNIC itselfPowerShell can also be used to enable VMQ (Set-VMNetworkAdapter)FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201236
    38. 38. Network Adapter Teaming in Virtual MachinesWS2012 provides inbox NIC Teaming functionalityVirtual Machines can also take advantage of this capabilityAllows a VM to have Network Adapters connected to more thanone External vSwitch thus allowing network connectivity if the Hostlooses connectivityImportant when using SR-IOV because SR-IOV traffic does not gothrough the vSwitchVM with NIC teaming enabled that is connected to vSwitchessupported by SR-IOV-capable adapters, can failover VFsConfigured in Advanced FeaturesAt the Host level, NIC Teaming is not supported with SR-IOV, RDMA, or TCP ChimneySR-IOV and RDMA data is delivered directly to the adapterbypassing the network stack therefore not allowing path redirectionTCP chimney is not supported with NIC TeamingFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201237
    39. 39. Hyper-V Network VirtualizationA feature specifically targeted for the Cloud and Cloud ServiceProviders that support multiple tenantsDecouples a tenant’s logical topology from a datacenter’s physicaltopologyVirtualizes tenant networks providing the illusion of their own IP address spaceregardless of the Provider’s address spaceImplemented by the Hyper-V vSwitch and the Hyper-V Parent Partitionnetworking stackSeparates the Customer Address (CA) (Tenant) space from the Provider Address(PA) space which the Cloud Provider managesRequires Datacenter Management Software (DCM) such as SystemCenter 2012 SP1 Virtual Machine Manager to configure the IP mappingtables (Policies) for the CA and PA address spaces for each tenantWhen implemented, Tenant VMs can be arbitrarily placed on any physical hostin the datacenterTenants can communicate with non-virtualized workloads (usingnormal physical IP addresses) by way of a Network VirtualizationGatewayFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201238
    40. 40. Multi-Tenant Environments TodayVLANs are used today as an isolation mechanism in multi-tenantenvironmentsCumbersome configuration when VMs need to be moved within adatacenter. Could result in an inadvertent network outageLimited scalability (maximum of 4094 VLANs)Physical switch support may be limited as wellVLANs cannot span multiple subnetsWS2012 Hyper-V vSwitch also supported PVLANsAddresses some of the scalability issues associated with VLANsDesigned to reduce the number of IP subnets and VLANs for sometypes of network configurationsvSwitch can restrict communications of VMs on the same VLAN ornetwork segmentPVLANs are more suitable for Public Clouds where a tenant VM onlyrequires internet connectivity (e.g. web hosting)Port ACLs can also be used as an isolation techniqueChallenge is managing and keeping ACLs updatedFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201239
    41. 41. Benefits and Capabilities of Network VirtualizationShift workloads to shared IaaS with few changes on thecustomer (tenant) sideFlexible placement or workloads within a datacenterMulti-tenant isolation without VLANsIP Address re-use without VLANsDecouples server and network administrationPowerShell and WMI used to script automated tasksFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201240
    42. 42. Network Virtualization in ActionServer Virtualization – multiple virtual workloads run on a physical hostNetwork Virtualization – multiple virtual network infrastructures runningon a physical network potentially with overlapping IP Address spacesCustomer Address (CA) space - based on customer network infrastructureProvider Address (PA) space - assigned by a hoster based on the physicaladdress space in the datacenter (not visible to the VM)
    43. 43. Network Virtualization PoliciesFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201242Network Virtualization is Policy-based (Policy Management Server (e.g.System Center Virtual Machine Manager))Policies define the CA-PA mappings (isolation groups) for each tenantHyper-V Host implements the policies by translating the incoming andoutgoing packetsTenant environments work the same way when hosted in a providersenvironmentFunctionality is implemented using either IP Address Rewrite or GenericRoute Encapsulation (GRE) methods
    44. 44. FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201243IP Address Rewrite modifies customer address before transfer to physicalnetworkCan provide better performance because it is compatible with offloadtechnologies (e.g. VMQ)No need to upgrade adapters, switches, or other network appliancesGRE encapsulates VM packets with a new header before placingthem on the wireBetter scalability because same provider IP address can be used
    45. 45. Hyper-V StorageFunctionality in W2K8R2 carried forwardWS2012 Storage EnhancementsNative 4K drive supportNew virtual hard disk formatSupport for SMB 3.0 file sharesSupport for Virtual Fibre Channel in GuestsLive Storage MigrationSupport for Offloaded Data Transfer (ODX) functionalityCluster Shared Volumes v2.0Storage Resource PoolsFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201244
    46. 46. Native 4K Drive SupportToday, most drives support default standard of 512 byte sector sizesStandard is moving to 4KB sector sizesTransitional 512e drives availableImproved format efficienciesImproved schemes for error correction codes (ECC)Addresses compatibility issuesCannot directly write a 512-byte sector to the driveUses a Read-Modify-Write (RMW) processPerformance drops for writes that are not 4K alignedVHD 1.0 dynamic and differencing disks have performance problemson disks with other than 512-byte sectors512-byte sector bitmap in front of data payloads512-byte sector alignmentsApplications commonly issue reads and writes in multiples of 4KB sizes. Because ofthe 512-byte bitmap in front of the data payload, the 4KB blocks are not aligned tothe physical boundaryWS2012 mitigates performance effects on 512e disks on the VHD stackby preparing VHD structures for alignment on 4KB boundariesDone using a RMW process in software at the VHD layerNew VHDX format does not have this problem and is not backward compatibleFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201245
    47. 47. New Virtual Hard Disk FormatFormat is VHDXVHD still availableSupports larger disks up to 64 TBAdditional protection against data corruption during power failures bylogging updates to the VHDX metadata structures (transaction tracking)Improved alignment of the virtual hard disk format to work well on largesector disksLarger block sizes (32 MB for fixed and dynamic and 2 MB for differencingdisks), which allows these disks to tune to the needs of the workload4-KB logical sector virtual disk that allows for increased performance whenused by applications and workloads that are designed for 4-KB sectorsThe ability to store custom metadata about the file that the user mightwant to record, such as operating system version, or patches appliedEfficiency (called trim) in representing data, resulting in smaller file sizesand allowing the underlying physical storage device to reclaim unusedspace. (Trim requires pass-through or SCSI disks and trim-compatiblehardware on the backend)FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201246
    48. 48. Support for SMB 3.0 File SharesVirtual machine data files are now supported on a File Serversupporting the SMBv3 protocolNew File Server features provide a similar level of reliability,availability, manageability and high performance that you wouldexpect from SAN storageAdvantages:Ease of provisioning and management - managing files shares is mucheasier than managing a storage fabric and logical unit numbers (LUNS)Increased flexibility - provides for dynamic relocation of virtualmachines within a data centerAbility to take advantage of existing investments in a convergednetwork - use an existing converged network with no requirement forspecialized storage networking hardwareReduced Capital expenditures - capital expenses (acquisition costs) aresignificantly reducedReduced operating expenditures - reduced operating costs becausethere is no need for specialized storage expertiseFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201247
    49. 49. SMB FeaturesSMB Transparent FailoverHA File Servers provide zero downtime (Continuous Availability)Requires WS2012 Failover ClusterPreferred configuration would be a Scale-Out File Server so CSV volumes could be used tostore dataSMB Multi-ChannelAggregate network bandwidth and provide fault toleranceRequires Windows 8 Client or Windows Server 2012Leverages NIC teaming configurationsMultiple NICs, adapter support for RSS, one or more adapters that support RDMAGet-SmbServerNetworkInterfaceSMB DirectAdapter must support RDMARequires Windows 8 Client or Windows Server 2012VSS Provider for Remote File SharesNew VSS Provider allows for app-consistent shadow copies of application data onWS2012 file sharesInbox Windows Server Backup does not support this functionalitySMB PowerShell cmdletsCan manage SMBv3 end-to-end in PowerShellFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201248
    50. 50. Implementing Hyper-V over SMBFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201249Requires a properly configured SMB file share on a WS2012 File Server and avirtual machine configured to use the file share to store its data filesPreferred configuration would be HA file shares hosted in a cluster (Scale-Out FileServices (SOFS) )
    51. 51. Support for Virtual Fibre Channel AdaptersPrevious versions of Hyper-V supported only IDE, SCSI or iSCSIconnections to storage supported in VMVirtual Fibre Channel Adapter in a VM provides access to SAN storagewhere Host is connected by way of FC HBAsVirtual SAN Manager in Hyper-V Manager is used to configure a VirtualSAN that maps to the physical HBA(s) configured in the HostFibre Channel Adapter in the VM connects to the Virtual SANStorage hardware (HBA and SAN) must support NPIV (N_Port IDVirtualization)Single FC HBA supports multiple logical ports by creating virtual pairs (WWNN,WWPN)Storage Administrator uses LUN maskingzoning paradigm to mapLUNs to Host and to VM using the provided WWNN and WWPNinformationWhen configuring HA VMs in a cluster, multiple WWNNWWPNinformation must be provided to support mobility scenarios (LMQM)FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201250
    52. 52. Live Storage MigrationLive Migration in WS2012 has multiple aspects associated with itLive Migration of a virtual machine in a Failover ClusterOne or more simultaneous live migrations between cluster nodesLive Migration of a virtual machine between two non-clustered Hyper-V serversLive Migration of only the virtual machine storageMost common scenario for Live Storage Migration is whenupgrading physical storage devicesCan also use when moving to more economical storage such aSMB shares on a WS2012 File ServerOnly supported when VM is using VHDVHDX, Snapshot files(AVHDAVHDX)Pass-through disks are not supportedVM data files can be moved to the same or different locationsFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201251
    53. 53. Live Storage Migration ProcessFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201252Disk reads and writes are to the source virtual hard disk when the migrationis initiated (1)While reads and writes are still to the source, the disk contents are copiedto the new destination (2)After initial copy completes, reads and writes are mirrored to both sourceand destination (3)When the disks are synchronized, the VM is switched over to the destination(4)The source virtual disks are deleted (5)VM continues to runduring the migrationprocess
    54. 54. 53FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/2012Live Storage Migration initiated in Hyper-V Manager or using PowerShell(Move-VMStorage)Hyper-V Manager shows status of the migration
    55. 55. Support for Offloaded Data Transfer (ODX)Traditional file transfers travel via the operating system on the source and destination machinesSource reads and transfers and then the destination writes data back to the storageInefficient and time consumingNew Offloaded Data Transfer (ODX) (also referred to as Copy Offloading) technology isdesigned to work with storage that supports the functionalityODX uses the copy manager function on the storage device to perform the move based oninformation received in the token provided by the operating systemODX functionality is part of the Windows copy engineWindows queries storage devices for ODX capability when the storage is enumeratedTo be supported, the source and destination storage must be managed by the same storage-side copy managerIf copy offloading fails, Windows reverts back to traditional methodsIn WS2012 Hyper-V, the VHDVHDX driversparsers can take advantage of ODX when availableGuest takes advantage of this by way of StorVSC and StorVSPApplies only to VM storage attached to SCSI controllers (IDE controllers do not support theSCSI command set)Compressed or encrypted files are not supportedSparse files (much of the data is zeros and is represented by metadata) are not supportedBitlocker protected volumes are not supportedScenarios that can take advantage of this include Live Storage Migration and snapshot mergingFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201254
    56. 56. Dynamic MemoryDynamic Memory was first introduced in W2K8R2 SP1Dynamic Memory helps use physical memory moreefficientlyHyper-V treats memory as a shared resource that can beautomatically reallocated among virtual machines based ondemand and configuration settings set by theadministratorRedistribution of memory is based on priority and the levelof memory pressureDynamic Memory VSC running in the Guest communicates memorypressure to the VSP in the Host via the VMBusVSP communicates the information to the Memory Balancerrunning in VMMSMemory Balancer makes decisions to redistribute memory amongstthe VMsFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201255
    57. 57. Dynamic Memory ArchitectureFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201256
    58. 58. Windows Server 2012 Dynamic Memory ChangesCore functionality remains the sameImprovements allow for greater VM densities in the HostLeads to lower costs especially in VDI scenariosDynamic Memory settings in WS2012 have changed slightlyStartup RAM: memory VM is given to start withMinimum RAM: memory VM is assigned when runningThis can be decreased while the VM is runningCan be less than Startup RAMAllows Hyper-V to reclaim unused memory once VM has startedCan cause problems if VM is restarted and memory pressure across the Host does not allow forrequired memory allocation(S)Maximum RAM: maximum memory a VM can be assignedThis can be increased while the VM is runningSecond Level PagingMemory Management technique that uses physical disk resources as temporary memorystorage during VM restart onlyMay temporarily degrade VM performanceUsage is not expected to be for periods longer than 10 minutesNot used when VM is started from an Off stateNot used during Live or Quick Migration in a clusterNot used for oversubscription in a running VMUse internal Guest paging, which is managed by the Windows Memory ManagerHyper-V removes additional allocated memory from a VM after restart is successfulFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201257
    59. 59. RemoteFxFirst introduced in W2K8-R2 SP1Enhances the end user experience in remote desktop computingby providing a rich, local-like desktop environment over thenetworkMost applicable in a VDI scenarioAllows for minimum hardware requirements on the endpointdevice (e.g. Thin Clients)RequirementsWS2012 and hardware that supports Hyper-VSLAT-capable processors (EPT for Intel, NPT for AMD)GPU that is compatible with RemoteFxWS2012 RemoteFx feature setRemoteFx integration across the entire Remote Desktop feature setRemoteFx for WANRemoteFx Adaptive GraphicsRemoteFx Media RemotingRemoteFx Multi-touchFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201258
    60. 60. RemoteFx (Part 2)GPU Management in Hyper-V ManagerDisplays which GPUs are installed and which are compatible with RemoteFxView the capabilities of each GPUFilter out which GPUs are being used by the Host and which ones can be usedby RemoteFxShows which VMs are associated with each GPU that is being used by RemoteFxShows GPU resource usage by virtual machineManaging a RemoteFx Virtual MachineIn W2K8-R2 SP1, a RemoteFx enabled VM could not be managed by the VirtualMachine Connection (VMConnect) interface. Had to RDP into the VMIn WS2012, VMConnect can be used as long as an RDP session to the VM doesnot exist. Once an RDP connection is made, VMConnect is disconnectedMulti-monitor SupportRemoteFx Codec ImprovementsIncreased compression ratios that helps reduce bandwidth consumptionFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201259
    61. 61. Backup and RestoreHyper-V servers, and the virtual machines running in them, can bebacked up using Windows Server Backup (WSB) or 3rd Partyapplications written to use the Hyper-V VSS writerWSB is a feature and must be enabled in the HostWSB cannot be used to backup a Guest if it is configured with a Pass-Throughdisk, a disk connected via iSCSI, a disk connected via Synthetic Fibre Channel,disk cannot be on an SMB shareBackup applications running in the Guest can be used to overcome the documentedrestrictionsWSB UI or PowerShell module can be usedThe expectation is 3rd Party applications or Data Protection Manager(DPM) will be used as the preferred backup solutionWindows Server backup capabilitiesBackup a Hyper-V server including virtual machines (note restrictions previouslymentioned)Including virtual machines that have snapshotsSelectively Backup only the Hyper-V server or only VMs (running or not)Backup VSS and Non-VSS capable operating systems running in the GuestDoes not conflict with other 3rd Party backup applicationsFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201260
    62. 62. Hyper-V Selectable Items in Windows Server BackupFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201261Virtual machines + Host Component
    63. 63. Virtual Machine SnapshotsSnapshot is a point-in-time picture of a virtual machineSnapshots can be taken in a VM as long as it is not in a Paused stateSnapshot files use the *.avhd (*.avhdx) extensionSnapshots are intended to be used in a Test and DevelopmentscenarioSnapshots should not be used in a production environment andare not a replacement for a backup strategySnapshots have been used by customers in production environmentsas a way to back out of problems encountered when patching a virtualmachine. This is a temporary measureSnapshots are used by Hyper-V Replica and are stored on ReplicaserversSnapshots can be taken using Hyper-V Manager, VMConnect,SCVMM (called Checkpoints in SCVMM) or the Checkpoint-VMPowerShell cmdletWS2012 snapshot behavior has changed in that when snapshotsare deleted, the merging process (if needed) occurs(asynchronously) while the VM is still runningFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201262
    64. 64. Virtual Machine Mobility ScenariosImporting Virtual Machines (Module 3)Hyper-V Replica (Module 5)Live Migration within a Failover ClusterAvailable since W2K8-R2Not under control of cluster serviceLimited to one in-progress LM between same pair of cluster nodesWS2012Cluster service handles the live migration via a handoff from Hyper-V(virtual machine resource DLL (vmclusres.dll) is used)Hyper-V Failover clusters, by default, can execute 2 simultaneous livemigrations but can be configured (Hyper-V Server setting) to allow moreFailover Cluster Network module is used to configure Live MigrationSettings (enable and prioritize networks)Failover Cluster Manager allows user to multi-select VM roles and executemultiple live migrations up to the configured limitAnything above the limit is queued for executionFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201263
    65. 65. Virtual Machine Mobility Scenarios (Part 2)Live Migration Outside a Failover ClusterLive Migration outside of a Failover Cluster can be executed whenthe VM is using local storage (on the source Hyper-V server) orSMB File Shares (File Server outside the Hyper-V server)If using local storage, the VM storage is mirrored to the destinationHyper-V server over the network while the VM continues to runIf using an SMB file share, the VM is moved to another Hyper-V serverbut the storage remains on the file serverThe Live Migration process outside of Failover Cluster is basically acombination of the live migration process executed within a clusterand a Live Storage Migration process (previously described in thismodule)The Live Storage Migration piece executes first except for the deletionof the files on the source Hyper-V server (local storage only) whichdoes not happen until the VM is running on the destinationFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201264
    66. 66. Hyper-V Replica Scenario OverviewFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201265Hyper-V Replica enables organizations to implement an affordable BusinessContinuity and Disaster Recovery (BCDR) solution for virtualized workloadsVirtual machines running in a Primary site can be replicated to a secondarylocation (Replica site) usually across a WAN linkHyper-V Replica provides a storage-agnostic and workload-agnostic solutionthat replicates efficiently, periodically and asynchronously over IP-basednetworks (typically to a remote site)In the event of a failure at the Primary site, failover of production workloadsto the Replica site can happen within minutes thus incurring minimal down timeWorkloads can be restored to a point-in-timeHyper-V Replica can be offered as IaaS by hosting providers
    67. 67. Technical Overview - PrerequisitesHardware that supports the Hyper-V role in WindowsServer 2012Sufficient storage at the Primary and Replica sites to hostvirtual workloadsNetwork connectivity between the Primary and ReplicasitesProperly configured firewall rules to permit replicationConfigured by default but not enabledX.509v3 certificate(s) to support Mutual Authenticationwith certificates (if needed but not reauired)FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201266
    68. 68. Hyper-V Replica: Technical Overview – Functional Description67 www.stars-s.ru
    69. 69. Technical Overview – Functional DescriptionReplication EngineHeart of Hyper-V ReplicaManages replication configuration details and handles initial replication, deltareplication, failover, and test-failover operationsTracks virtual machine and storage mobility eventsChange TrackingVirtual machine level change tracking mechanismStorage agnosticNetwork ModuleProvides secure and efficient network channel to transfer replicas between sitesCommunications use HTTPHTTPS protocolsHyper-V Replica Broker RoleConfigured in Windows Server 2012 Failover (Replica) ClustersProvides seamless replication even if virtual workloads change node ownershipRedirects all virtual machine specific events to the correct node in the clusterManagement ExperienceHyper-V Manager, Failover Cluster Manager, PowerShell scripting, Hyper-V WMImodule, remote management using RSATFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201268
    70. 70. Security ConsiderationsNo requirement for Hyper-V servers to be members of an ADDomain unless a Failover (Replica) Cluster is involvedHyper-V Replica can also be implemented between un-trusteddomains/workgroupsUses Hyper-V Simple Authorization ModelHyper-V Replica can be configured to restrict replication traffic tospecific Primary serversFirewall rules must be configured to allow incoming replicationconnectionsMutual Authentication can use Integrated Authentication (ADDomain) or certificatesCertificates are required by all Hyper-V servers and the CAP associatedwith a Hyper-V Replica Broker in a Failover ClusterAdditional security is provided by configuring a ReplicationAuthorization TagFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201269
    71. 71. Hyper-V Replica Communications ArchitectureFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201270
    72. 72. Replication ConfigurationFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201271
    73. 73. InstallingEnabling Hyper-V ReplicaHyper-V Replica is installed as part of the Hyper-V roleEach Hyper-V server must be enabled for replicationReplication Configuration under Hyper-V Server SettingsFirewall rules (inbound) must be enabled on each Hyper-Vserver based on the Authentication method selectedReplication can be allowed for any authenticated server orrestricted to specific serversConfigure storage location and Security Tag settingsFailover (Replica) Clusters require Hyper-V Replica Brokerrole be installed and CAP be used as the connection pointfor replicating virtual machinesUse the Broker to configure replication settings across allcluster nodesEnable the correct firewall rules on each node in the clusterFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201272
    74. 74. Enabling Virtual Machines for ReplicationReplication is enabled on a per virtual machine basisEnable Replication WizardReplica server FQDNVerify connection parametersChoose which VHDs to replicateConfigure Recovery HistoryLatest Recovery PointAdditional Recovery Points (Standard Replica)Incremental VSS (application-Consistent Replica)Choose Initial Replication MethodFailover TCP/IP SettingsPre-configure IP addressing for replicated virtual machines if DRsite uses different addressing schemeRequires Windows Server 2012 Integration ComponentsFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201273
    75. 75. Client Hyper-V PlatformDeficiencies in current client virtualization product – VirtualPC with XP ModeWill not have a Windows 8 versionClient Hyper-V enables developers and IT Professionals todevelop and test on Windows 8 Client machines(Professional and Enterprise SKUs only)After testing on client, can deploy to serverLeveraged by consultants, sales force, and MVPs who havebeen asking for years for efficient ways to rundemosoftware on laptopsUser experience is the same as in Windows Server 2012Hyper-V Manager and Hyper-V PowerShell moduleFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201274
    76. 76. Hardware RequirementsHardware assisted virtualization enabled in the BIOSProcessor must support Second Level Address Translation(SLAT)EPT on IntelRVI on AMDRun msinfo32.exe on client before enabling Client Hyper-VfeatureRun systeminfo.exe and look at the output (Hyper-VRequirements)Download Sysinternals tool coreinfo.exe and run it beforeenabling the Client Hyper-V featureFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201275
    77. 77. Client Hyper-V LimitationsFollowing features are not supported:SR-IOV networkingSynthetic Fibre ChannelLive Migration of Virtual MachinesLive Storage Migration is supportedRemoteFxHyper-V ReplicaFollowing capabilities apply to Client Hyper-V but not toHyper-V role in Windows Server 2012Virtual switch can bind to wireless network adaptersPower Features (sleep and hibernate)FL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201276
    78. 78. Install and Configure Client Hyper-VFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012Hyper-V06/11/201277Client Hyper-V is a Windows Feature and must be turned OnCan also be enabled using PowerShell –Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature –Online –FeatureName Microsoft-Hyper-V –AllHyper-V Platform selection is greyed-out if pre-requisites are not met
    79. 79. Managing Client Hyper-VHyper-V Manager and the Hyper-V PowerShell Module can beused to interact with Hyper-V and with virtual machinesHyper-V Manager is accessible using the Start or Apps page orAdministrative ToolsVirtual Machine Connection interface is accessible using theStart or Apps page but is not listed under Administrative ToolsWhile Hyper-V Manager ‘looks and feels’ the same in Client,there are some configuration options that are not available dueto some features not being supported (refer to previous list)Hyper-V Manager in Client can connect to WS2012 and managethose serversWhen connected to WS2012, features available in server can beenabledconfiguredFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201278
    80. 80. Using Wireless Network InterfacesIn Client Hyper-V, the vSwitch is capable of binding theHyper-V Virtual Switch Protocol to an External VirtualNetwork Adapter being supported by a Wireless AdapterTo accomplish this a bridging solution has beenimplementedARP Proxy (IPv4) and Neighbor Discovery Proxy (IPv6)Replaces Virtual NIC MAC address with WiFi Adapter MAC AddressBridge maintains an internal mapping between Virtual NIC IP addressand its MAC Address to ensure routing for incoming packets is correctFL2012HVS: Введение в виртуализацию Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V06/11/201279