Application Prototyping - Pablo González - Capturing and Managing Requirements
User-Centred Design An Overview
Challenges and advancements… of software developmentAdvancements New Project Management methodologies New Software Development tools New Testing tools Other tools (Bug tracking, Code review, Project Management)Challenges Outsourcing y Offshoring More sofisticated and changing needs Cost reduction Time-to-market reduction
Application definition: User-centred Design“ User-centred design is a process inwhich the needs, wants, and limitationsof end users of a product are givenextensive attention at each stage of thedesign process ” Wikipedia
User-centred Design: the Goal The user is the kingThe functional and user-experience requirements are validated and tested with the users
User-centred Design: in Terms of Requirements STANDARDS & NORMS BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS OTHER USER USER EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS
User-centred Design: in Terms of Profiles Project ManagersBusiness Analysts User Experience Analysts Technical Architects Web/mobile gui Designers
User-centred Design: the Lifecycle CAPTURE MANAGEEXPECTATIONS COMMUNICATE VALIDATE
User-centred Design: the ProcessCONCEPTION Abstract ANALYSIS & Planning out the objectives Project space, Project PLANNING and goals, specifying schedule, Briefing organisational requirements CONCEPT & Definition of scope, user Personas & Scenarios, REQUIREMENTS needs, content and Feature set information requirements, functional specifications INFORMATION & Structural design of the Information STRUCTURE information space to architecture, Interaction DESIGN facilitate intuitive access to design, Prototypes, content and features Progressive disclosure, User paths, Navigation, Visual hierarchy VISUAL DESIGN Designing the presentation Typography, Colour of information to facilitate Palette, Alignment …COMPLETION understanding Concrete
User-centred Design: Methods and TechniquesANALYSIS & REQUIREMENTSSTICKY NOTESComparing notes is a useful tool to aid decision making. Ideas are written down onindividual sticky notes, weighed against one another and organised according topriority or other criteria. This technique can also be used with users to get them toput their considerations in order of importance.USER REQUIREMENTSIt is vital to use all available resources to gather information about the users’requirements. Successful projects use different sources of information: focus groups,contextual or individual interviews, observation, surveys …PERSONAS & SCENARIOSA persona is an archetype comprised of habits and characteristics of the targetaudience. Scenarios are little stories describing how typical user tasks are carriedout. They help to anticipate and identify the decisions a user will have to make ateach step in their experience and through each system state they will encounter.
User-centred Design: Methods and TechniquesINFORMATION, STRUCTURE & VISUAL DESIGNRAPID VISUALISATIONVisualising ideas and concepts rapidly using pen and paper is helpful tocommunicate them to the team and to test ideas quickly without investing time andresources into polished design. Rough and unpolished looking sketches, wireframesand storyboards encourage constructive feedback and stimulate discussion.PROTOTYPINGPrototypes are models that can be used to evaluate responses to form (looks-likeprototype) or aspects of build and functionality (works-like prototype) of a product.They typically evolve from concept sketches or wireframes to low and high-fidelitymodels as they progress through the definition cycle.USER TESTINGEvaluating a product by testing it with representative users helps to identify usabilityproblems by collecting quantitative data on the users’ performance (e.g. error rate)and establishing their satisfaction with the product.
User-centred Design: the Benefits Increase User Adoption Reduce Rework / Costs Reduce Risks Reduce Time-to-market Increase Sales
APPLICATION PROTOTYPINGGathering and Validating functional requirements through prototypes and simulations
User Centred Design: Prototyping USER SCOPE & PLAN REQUIREMENTS PERSONAS &USER TESTING SCENARIOS PROTOTYPING
Application Prototyping: Questions Could you imagine VOLKSWAGEN producing cars without designing prototypes and testing these prototypes? Could you imagine IKEA producing furnitures without designing prototypes or proof of concepts?
The Value of Prototyping1. It’s Generative2. Show and Experience3. Reduces Misinterpretations4. Saves Time and Money5. Reduces Waste
Common Application Definition ModelsRequirements documents Wireframes Prototyping All requirements Functional requirements Functional requirements Difficult to communicate Easy to communicate Easy to communicate Difficult to validate Difficult to validate Easy to validate Difficult to get approval Difficult to get approval Easy to get approval
Wireframing to Prototyping Wireframes DocumentsSmall websites Mockups Documents Intranets, Large websites Prototypes Documents RIA, Mobile apps
Wireframe – Mockup – Prototype LOW FIDELITY HIGH FIDELITY Wireframe Mockups Prototypes/Simulations High InteractionInformation architecture Desing & Clicks Data Behaviour Validation & Rules Why to create Mockups & Prototypes? To validated the king requirements and get his engagement:
Prototypes and ApplicationsMy recommendations: Applications PrototypesSmall & Static websites From Sketchs to Clickable MockupLarge Websites & Intranets Clickable MockupRich Interactive Applications High-Fidelity PrototypeMobile ApplicationsERPs High-Fidelity PrototypeBusiness Applications
Barriers for Prototyping We don’t have time for prototypes We don’t have budget for prototypes We need to change our design process
The Biggest MistakeI want to reuse the code of my prototype Why not? It’s time to define the right solution !!! It’s time to fast iterations and changes !!! Are you sure you want the code before a technical design (UML, Database design,…)?
Benefits of a Prototyping-oriented processPrototype does have a cost. It’s not free but … Proposal are: 50 % accurate Request for clarification from developers: 80 % Amount of rework and bug fixes: 25 %
JUSTINMIND SOLUTIONS If I can’t draw it… I can’t understand it Albert Einstein If It can’t be experienced … it can’t be validated
Justinmind ProductsProducts Justinmind Prototyper: Prototyping and simulation tool Justinmind Usernote: Allows to Publish prototypes, Get Feedback from users and run User TestsWhat kind of software can be prototyped? Web Apps Websites, Portals, Intranets Smartphones (Iphone, Android, Ipad, Blackberry …) SAP
Justinmind Usernote Allows to capture and manage feedback from users and customers and perform user tests Publish prototypes Review and validate prototypes with the user’s web browsers Conversational annotations over the elements of a prototype User testing tools integration
Prototyping process with Justinmind PROTOTYPECHANGES COMMUNICATE VALIDATE & TEST
Usage scenarios Functional Team Users Team leaders, Key usersBusiness Analysts, UX Designers … • Visual communication • Business – IT alignment • Avoid misunderstandings Functional Team Development Team Team leaders, Internal or externalBusiness Analysts, UX Designers … development team • Prevent changes in critical stages • Speed up time-to-market • Avoid risks