Vyatka State UniversityBiotechnology: the main research directions and results
The Biotechnology DepartmentThe Biotechnology Department was organized in VyatkaState University in 1994. ВятГУ The Department was created for satisfaction of requirements of the enterprises and organizations in the biotechnology engineers, and also for the decision of tasks of protection the environment in Volga-Vyatka region. Annually 20 persons are accepted on the first course of education.
The Biotechnology DepartmentThe specialization of educational training is Technology ofBioconversion of Vegetative Raw Material. ВятГУ The stuff of the Department includes 18 persons, 5 of them are the doctors of sciences and 6 are the candidates of sciences, other employees have higher education. Research and development of the Biotechnology Department has repeatedly supported by grants from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and other organizations.
The Main Scientific InterestsConversion of Ecological Foodvegetative raw Biotechnology Biotechnology material Agricultural Bioorganic Biotechnology Chemistry
CONVERSION OF VEGETATIVE RAW MATERIALThe method of thermo-mechanic-chemical hydrolysis of cellulosicmaterialThe Development of theoretical bases and technologicalprinciples of biochemical processing of vegetative raw materialThe method of obtaining protein additives withmedicinal and prophylactic propertiesThe method of obtaining bioactive substances from arborealgreenery
The Development of Theoretical Bases and Technological Principles of Biochemical Processing of Vegetative Raw MaterialWe have developed a non-waste method ofprocessing fruit and berry materials to obtainbioactive preparations for medical, alimentaryand fodder application. The method has beenimplemented in the form of a small-capacitypilot production facility. Оболочка плодовая Оболочка плодовая шиповника Плоды шиповника на приготовление чая Фермент шиповника Вода Мезга На приготовление сиропа шиповника Мезга Осадок На приготовление Растительное холосаса масло Орешки шиповника Сухой осадок Каротолин Спирт Возврат спирта Осадок Растворитель Спиртованный морс в ликеро-водочное производство Осадок На приготовление кормовой добавки Масло на дегазацию Азот Масляный концентрат Послеэкстракционный шрот
The method of obtaining protein additives with medicinal and prophylactic propertiesObtaining an immunostimulating additive tothe livestock ration on the basis of the culturesof the genera Leuconostoc, Saccharomycesand Trichosporon.Objectives:- studying the immunostimulating propertiesof the cultures;- research into the mutual influence of thecultures;- developing a method of growing;- research into the effect of the additive onanimal organisms;- turning out a pilot batch of the bioactiveadditive.
The method of obtaining bioactive substances from arboreal greeneryThe wood and arboreal greenery of such conifersas pine, fir, etc. are an indispensable source ofraw materials for obtaining bioactive substances.The purpose of this work is to study the processof isolating bioactive substances from conifers,as well as to develop a method of obtainingmedical preparations from the components ofarboreal greenery.Two groups of research problems need to besolved in order to accomplish the purpose:-the analytical research to identify individualcomponents of essential oils, polyprenols, resinacids and neutrals that are extracted fromarboreal greenery;- the technological research: selection andoptimization of the way of extracting bioactivesubstances from arboreal greenery,substantiation of the method for separating essential oils, development of theisolation techniques and calculation of the equipment needed.
ECOLOGICAL BIOTECHNOLOGYIsolation and selection of strains of the microorganismsdecomposing polychlorinated biphenylsProduction, in the laboratory amount, of the biomassnecessary for the bioremediation of soils
Isolation and selection of strains of the microorganisms decomposing polychlorinated biphenyls, as well as production, in the laboratory amount, of the biomass necessary for the bioremediation of soilsThe resistant organic pollutants include toxicpolychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins, dibenzofurans,pesticides – such as aldrin, heptachlorine, dieldrin,DDT, mirex, toxaphen, chlordane, endrin andhexachlorobenzene, as well as polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCB). The properties common to all thesecompounds are hydrophobicity, liability toaccumulation in ecosystems, resistance to chemicaland biological transformation, and high toxicity. The work carried out in this area involves:- isolation and species identification of the isolatedstrains of the microorganisms that decompose PCB;- study of the mechanisms of PCB transformation bythe isolated strains;- verification of the possibility to use thesepreparations for decontamination of the soils pollutedwith PCB.
AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGYCell selectionMicroclonal reproductionUse of associations between microbes andplants
Cell selectionMajor efforts of the biotech research areconcentrated on creating improved andfundamentally new genotypes of crops thatpossess either singular or combinedresistance to both biotic and abiotic stressfactors of the environment (fungous, viral,bacterial diseases; the acidity and salinity ofsoils, a drought, presence of heavy metals,etc.) while preserving and even increasingtheir productivity and quality.The method consists in introducing the plant into an in vitro culture andselecting the isolated tissues and cells on the growth media that containspecific types of selective agents in various combinations. The most frequentobjects of research are cereal and leguminous crops. The cell selectionreduces the time needed to create new breeds of crops by expanding thegenetic variety when isolated tissues are cultivated in vitro.
Microclonal reproductionThis is a challenging method of the vegetativereproduction of plants that makes it possible to obtaingenetically uniform and sanified planting stock, tohave high net reproduction, to reduce the duration ofthe selection process and to carry out the workthroughout the year, thus saving the areas for growingcrops. The objects of research are fruit, berry andflower crops.The method consists in removing the crown meristemfrom the stem, introducing it into an in vitro cultureand then micrografting the set on a hormonal medium.In order to increase the efficiency of microclonalreproduction, individual cultivation conditions(physical factors and the composition of the medium)should be arranged for each plant species.
Use of associations between microbes and plantsA technology for the combined application of thetraditional methods of tissue culture and the inoculationof plants in vitro is being developed. The positive effectis based on the capacity of some microorganisms thathave a stable association with plants – e.g.,methylobacteria – to synthesize vitamins and hormones(most often, auxins and cytokinins).This makes it possible to use biotechnologicallypromising strains as substitutes for some ingredients ofthe phytohormonal composition of the medium whencultivating isolated cells and tissues. The logicalcontinuation of the research is the creation of abiopreparation of the microbial origin (a growthregulator).
FOOD BIOTECHNOOGYCreation of bioactive food additives Processing both agricultural and recyclable materials to obtain bioactive substances to be used in the food industry Study of physical and chemical properties and structure of biological active substances Designing bioactive food additives obtained from plant materials. The work is under way to obtain bioactive food additives from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).Research aimed at extending the range offunctional food products
BIOORGANIC CHEMISTRYStudy of the structural features of pectinpolysaccharides and their biological activityStudy of the biopolymers of themicroorganisms used for creatingpreparations with probiotic properties
Study of the structural features of pectin polysaccharides and their biological activityPectin polysaccharides are capable of a wide range of physiologicalactivities. The antimicrobial, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer andanticoagulant action of pectins is well known. Among the possible ways ofusing pectin substances in medicine is modifying them chemically to createpreparations with specified properties. It was proved, in particular, that anumber of medicines, when combined with pectins, enhance and prolongtheir therapeutic properties, as well as reduce unwanted side effects.The work in this area consists in studyingthe composition of pectin substances in thehips of a number of brier (Rosa) species,their structural features and physiologicalactivities. The pectins in the pap of theRosa rugosa hips were proved to bind low-density lipoproteids in human blood, tomodulate the adhesiveness of peritonealmacrophage in mice and to stimulateformation of serum antibodies (ОВА-IgG-log2) to the protein antigen (OBA) in mice.
Study of the biopolymers of the microorganisms used for creating preparations with probiotic properties - the effect of the medium composition (source of carbohydrates) on the composition, structure and physiological activity of exopolysaccharides of lactic-acid bacteria; - the effect of the medium composition (source of carbohydrates) on the composition, structure and physiological activity of the cytoderm polysaccharides (peptidoglycane) of lactic-acid bacteria;- application of the data on the fatty-acid composition of cytoplasmicmembranes for the species identification of lactic-acid bacteria.
Laboratory equipmentThe Department has a modern research equipment, which provides awide range of issues. The basic list is:1. Equipment for gas chromatography andgas chromatography mass spectrometry;2. Atomic absorption spectrometry, FTIR;3. Equipment for high-precision weighing;4. SEM, TEM, SPM and set of equipmentfor sample preparation for electronmicroscopy.
The industrial part is represented by a technological line on complex processing of fruits of Wild Rose (Rose hips).The essence of the technology is that the dry fruits of Wild Rose are divided on a peel and seeds. Vitamin syrup for children and persons suffering diabetes, medical preparations “Karotolin” and “Holosas” are received from a peel.From seeds by extraction with organic solvent (2 extractors, volume of one extractor is 25 liters) is received a medical preparation ”Oil of Rose hips”. The preparation has passed certification in State Institute on Standard and Control of Medicinal Preparations.On a basis of rest after extraction of oil from seeds of Rose hips, the fodder additive in ration of fur animals is obtained.
The technological line on complex processing ofRose hips includes several sections:- preparation of the feedstock- production of a tea beverage Фермент Сахар Жидкая фаза Вода Оболочка Плоды шиповника Сироп Семена- production of a vitamin syrup Пульпа Осадок Растительное Участок подготовки сырья Участок приготовления сиропаof Rose hips масло Участок экстракции Растворитель Приготовление каротолина- production of oil of Rose hips Каротолин Осадок Шрот на приготовление кормовой добавки-production of an additive to the Мисцелла Азот Масло шиповника Удалениеfodder of fur animals Масло остатков растворителя
A list of recent publicationsA.A. Zlobin, E.A. Martinson, I.A. Ovechkina, E.A. Durnev, R.G. Ovodova, S.G. LitvinetsComposition and Properties of Pectin polysaccharides of St. John’s Wort HypericumPerforatum// Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 38, No.7, pp.697-701Злобин А.А., Мартинсон Е.А., Литвинец С.Г., Овечкина И.А., Дурнев Е.А., Оводова Р.Г.Пектиновые полисахариды рябины обыкновенной Sorbus aucuparia L.// Химиярастительного сырья. 2011. №1. С.39-44.Злобин А.А., Мартинсон Е.А., Оводов Ю.С. Антиоксидантная и антимикробнаяактивность пектинов ряда растений европейского Севера России// Известия Коминаучного центра УрО РАН. Выпуск 3(7). Сыктывкар, 2011 –с.33-37Бывалов А.А. Влияние температуры культивирования и носительства fra-оперонаYersinia pestis на морфологические особенности Yersinia pseudotuberculosis// Журналмикробиологии, эпидемиологии и иммунобиологии, 2011. - № 2. - С. 72-75Martinson E.A., Zlobin A.A., Starkova E.V., Litvinets S.G. Lignin quantitative determinationas well as lignin-degrading products at cultivation of lignin-decomposed microorganisms//International Conference “Renewable Wood and Plant Resources: Chemistry, Technology,Pharmacology, Medicine”. Saint-Petersburg, June 21-24, 2011.-P.104Старкова Е.В., Синцов К.Н., Дурнев Е.А., Береснева И.С., Мартинсон Е.А., ЛитвинецС.Г. Выделение микромицетов, способных к деструкции лигнинсодержащего сырья//Иммунопатология, аллергология, инфектология. 2010.-№1. С.267-268
Contact InformationSergey G. Litvinets, Vice-Rector on ScienceRussia, 610000, Moskovskaya st., 36Tel +7 (8332)641591Fax +7 (8332)641591E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgEkaterina A. Martinson, Head of DepartmentRussia, 610000, Moskovskaya st., 36Tel +7 (8332)321649Fax +7 (8332)321649E-mail: email@example.com