Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Fat soluble vitamines

1,213 views

Published on

Fat soluble vitamines

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Fat soluble vitamines

  1. 1. Fat soluble Vitamins (A, D, E, K) Vishnu Vardhan Reddy.P TVM/2015-29
  2. 2. What are vitamins • Vitamins are tasteless organic substances that are indispensable to the normal metabolic processes of organisms. They are essential to maintain health and performance, and have to be supplied with the feed. • Vitamins do not provide energy themselves, but a deficiency of any vitamin can cause serious symptoms.
  3. 3. History • The term vitamin was coined by biochemist Casimir Funk. • In 1912 When scientists trying to isolate fat soluble factor B, they discovered a substance containing nitrogen which was chemically an amine, and which was in therefore named vitamin (vita = life).
  4. 4. Classification of vitamins There are two main groups of vitamins: • Fat-soluble vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins have specific functions in the development and maintenance of tissue structures. • Water-soluble vitamins: Water-soluble vitamins participate in catalytic functions or act as control mechanisms in the metabolism, e.g. as co-enzymes.
  5. 5. Fat soluble vitamins • The vitamins A, D, E, K and ß-carotene (precursor of vitamin A) belong to the fat-soluble vitamins. • These are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess. • The sites of storage are inner organs such as the kidneys and liver, the muscles, the brain and fat tissue.
  6. 6. • In the small intestine, the fat-soluble vitamins are transported into the intestinal cells as part of micelles. • Once inside the intestinal cells, fat-soluble vitamins are packaged with fat and other lipids into a chylomicron. • The chylomicrons travel through the lymph system to the main circulation. • Excretion normally only occurs after transformation during metabolism.
  7. 7. Vitamin A • Vitamin A was discovered in 1909 in fish liver oil • The term vitamin A refers to a family of fat-soluble retinoids that include retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. • They contain a ring with a polyunsaturated fatty acid tail. Attached at the end of the fatty acid tail is either an alcohol group (retinol), an aldehyde group (retinal), or an acid group (retinoic acid).
  8. 8. Vitamin A terms • Retinoids The term used to describe the family of preformed vitamin A compounds. • Retinol The alcohol form of preformed vitamin A. • Retinal The aldehyde form of preformed vitamin A. • Retinoic acid The acid form of preformed vitamin A. • Retinyl ester The ester form of preformed vitamin A found in foods and stored in the body. • Beta-carotene One of the provitamin A carotenoids.
  9. 9. Natural sources and bioavailability • Vitamin A is found only in feeds of animal origin, e.g. liver, fish oil and high-fat fishmeal • Low in milk and eggs. • Feeds of plant origin (grass, carrots) only contain ß- carotene, a precursor that can be converted into vitamin A. • Conversion ratio of ß –carotene into vitamin A depending on animal species
  10. 10. Species Vitamin A per mg beta Carotene Conversion ratio Dairy cows 370 IU 8–10 : 1 Fattening cattle 440 IU 7–8 : 1 Horses 420 IU 6–10 : 1 Sheep 480 IU 6–8 : 1 Pigs 510 IU 6–7 : 1 Poultry 1667 IU 2 : 1
  11. 11. Conversion of Vitamin A Compounds Retinyl ester Retinol (alcohol form) Retinoic acid Retinal (aldehyde form) Beta-carotene
  12. 12. Metabolic Functions of Vitamin A • Each form of retinoid plays a specific role in the body. Retinal (the aldehyde form) participates in vision. • The hormone like action of retinoic acid (the acid form) is essential for growth and development of cells, including bone development. • Retinol (the alcohol form) supports reproduction and a healthy immune system. In addition to these critical roles, vitamin A may help prevent cancer.
  13. 13. Physiological role of vitamin A • Formation, protection and regeneration of skin and mucous membranes • Promotion of fertility • Control of growth and differentiation processes of the cellular metabolism • Increased resistance to infectious diseases
  14. 14. Interaction with other nutrients Vitamins Synergistic to Vitamin A • Vitamin E & Vitamin C : Due to their antioxidant activity. And vitamin E aids in stabilization of cell membranes. • Vitamin B6 : Because of its synergistic effect upon the mineral zinc. • Besides B6, vitamin B1, B2, B3, and B5 have been specifically described as vitamin A synergists.
  15. 15. Vitamins Antagonistic to Vitamin A • Fat soluble vitamins compete for absorption and transport so all other fat soluble vitamins are antagonistic In nature. • Vitamin E : The antagonistic effects are also indicated by the opposite effects on prostaglandin E1 and E2 (PGE2 PGE2) synthesis. • Vitamin C : Due to its copper lowering effect, causes oxidation of vitamin A by increasing tissue iron accumulation. • Vitamin B1, B12, B6.
  16. 16. Minerals Synergistic to Vitamin A • Zinc : Required for the mobilization of vitamin A from liver. Zinc is involved in maintaining the plasma retinal binding protein (RBP), a specific transporter for vitamin A. • Iron : Vitamin A facilitates the mobilization of stored iron for incorporation into erythrocytes. • Selenium : Involved in antioxidant activity. • Magnesium, Manganese, Potassium, and Phosphorus.
  17. 17. Minerals Antagonistic to Vitamin A • Iron : Excessive tissue causes destruction by peroxidation. • Selenium : Though selenium is an antioxidant, in large amounts it acts as a pro-oxidant. • Iodine : In the form of T4, although synergistic to vitamin A, is antagonistic as well. • The minerals copper, calcium, and sodium can have an indirect antagonistic effect upon vitamin A due to their interrelationship with the thyroid gland
  18. 18. Requirements • For dogs and cats (RE Per Kg of feed 1 RE=40,000 IU) • For Sheep and Goat (IU Per Kg of feed) Species Weaning(RE) Adult(RE) Peak lactation(RE) Dog 1515 1515 1515 Cat 1000 1000 2000 Species Growing lambs/Kids Growing ewes Lactating ewes Sheep 1567 3305 2667 Goat 1530 1530 1532
  19. 19. • For Cattle (IU Per Kg feed) • For Chicken (IU Per Kg feed) 1500 (for all types) Type Feedlot Cattle Pregnant heifer & cow Lactating cow Beef 2200 2800 3900 Type Lactating cows Fresh cows Dry pregnant cows Growing pregnant heifers Dairy 2123-3685 3490-5540 5576-8244 6486-7075
  20. 20. Deficiency symptoms • Cornification of skin and mucous membranes. • Retarded maturation of the ova and embryo mortality. • Increased risk of infections. • Nervous lesions. • Night blindness. • Xeropthalmia.
  21. 21. • In commercial supplement of vitamin A The active substance of these products is vitamin A acetate. The standard vitamin A content is normally 500 000 IU/g. Excretion: Most in urine as Oxo retinoic acid, small amounts in expired air, some in feces. Toxicity: Birth defects, Central nervous disorders, Liver abnormalities, Loss of bone density.
  22. 22. Vitamin D • Vitamin D3 was discovered in 1918 in fish liver oil • Vitamin D (calciferol) is called the “sunshine vitamin” because it is derived from the reaction between ultraviolet (UV) rays and a form of cholesterol found in the skin.
  23. 23. • Vitamin D is found in two forms. • Cholecalciferol or vitamin D3 is the form produced in the skin and found in animal foods. • Ergocalciferol or vitamin D2 is found in plants and dietary supplements. • Ergocalciferol and Cholecalciferol differ chemically in the structure of their side chains.
  24. 24. Natural sources and bioavailability • Vitamin D is found in very few products, e.g. as vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) in whole milk and liver oils, and as vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) in sun-dried green forage. • Vitamin D2 is formed under the influence of UV radiation from ergosterol in plants when they are dried. Vitamin D3 is formed in the epidermis from 7- dehydrocholesterol by UV radiation (exceptions: dogs, cats).
  25. 25. Metabolism of Vitamin D 7-dehydrocholesterol Previtamin D3 Calcidiol Cholecalciferol Calcitriol
  26. 26. Physiological role of vitamin D • Vitamin D3 has no direct metabolic activity 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 is the form with the largest biological effect. • It regulates calcium and phosphate absorption and metabolism and controls blood pressure. • It promotes germ cell production • It increases the performance of the immune system, and inhibits auto-immunisation.
  27. 27. Interaction with other nutrients • Magnesium : It activate vitamin D into a biologically active form, and required to maintain calcium in the body and is essential for bone health. • Vitamin K : It helps in calcium absorption from foods. And also helps in strengthening of bones. • Zinc : Hepls in absorption of vitamin D into the cells. • Boron : Hepls in absorption of Ca by bones.
  28. 28. • Vitamin A : Vitamin A and vitamin D work together for animal health. • Calcium : Low levels of vitamin D causes decreased calcium absorption. • Phosphorus : Ca and P ratio is important for vitamin D. • Vitamin E : May cause vitamin -D dependent bone mineralization problems.
  29. 29. Requirements • For dogs and cats (RE Per Kg of feed 1 RE=40,000 IU) • For Sheep and Goat (IU Per Kg of feed) Species Weaning(RE) Adult(RE) Peak lactation(RE) Dog 13.8 13.8 13.8 Cat 5-6 7 7 Species Growing lambs/Kids Growing ewes Lactating ewes Sheep 84 98 67 Goat 136 136 136
  30. 30. • For Cattle (IU Per Kg feed) • For Chicken (IU Per Kg feed) 200 (for all types) Type Feedlot Cattle Pregnant heifer & cow Lactating cow Beef 275 275 275 Type Lactating cows Fresh cows Dry pregnant cows Growing pregnant heifers Dairy 600-685 951-1511 1520-2249 804-858
  31. 31. Deficiency symptoms • Disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism. • Rickets in young animals & Osteomalacia in adults. • Extraction of mineral substances from the bones. • Deformed bones and joints (softening of the bones). • Growth disorders. • Spontaneous bone fractures. • Poor eggshell stability.
  32. 32. • Commercial supplement of vitamin D formulations normally have a vitamin D3 content of 500 000 IU/g. Toxicity kidney damage, Nausea, Weakness, Disorientation. Excretion • Bile > feces > urine
  33. 33. Vitamin E • Vitamin E was discovered 1922 in wheat germ oil. • There are eight different forms of naturally occurring vitamin E, but one form, alpha-tocopherol (α- tocopherol), is most active in the body with a side chain of saturated carbons.
  34. 34. Natural sources and bioavailability • Grass, clover, alfalfa, green meal and uncrushed oilseeds are rich in vitamin E. • Humidity and long storage have an adverse effect on vitamin E stability and content. • Cereals and middlings mainly contain Beta, gama and delta tocopherols (70–90%) with a biological activity significantly lower than that of alpha tocopherol.
  35. 35. Physiological Role • Reduces the production of lipid peroxyl radicals from highly unsaturated fatty acids. • Antitoxic effect in cell metabolism. • Reduces the incidence of liver necrosis and muscular degeneration. • Antioxidant effect and . • Stabilization of fat (protection against oxidation) in animal products (meat, milk, eggs).
  36. 36. • Controls metabolism of the hormones via the anterior lobe of the hypophysis. • Maintains membrane stability, especially of the cardiac and skeletal muscles. • Controls the development and function of the gonads. • Stimulates antibody production, phagocytosis and the bactericide effects of phagocytes. • Protection against abortion.
  37. 37. Interaction with other nutrients Nutrients Synergistic to Vitamin E • Selenium : Function closely linked to vitamin E (needed for GSH peroxidase). • Vitamin C : Helps in anti oxidant property. • Sulfur containing amino acids.
  38. 38. Nutrients antagonistic to Vitamin E • Vitamin A : Vitamin E Inhibits carotene absorption and conversion to retinol. • Vitamin K : May impair absorption. • May cause vitamin -D dependent bone mineralization problems.
  39. 39. Requirements • For dogs and cats (mg Per Kg of feed) • For Sheep and Goat (IU Per Kg of feed) Species Weaning(mg) Adult(mg) Peak lactation(mg) Dog 30 30 30 Cat 38 38 31 Species Growing lambs/Kids Growing ewes Lactating ewes Sheep 15 15 15 Goat - - -
  40. 40. • For Cattle (IU Per Kg feed) • For Chicken (IU Per Kg feed) 10-5 (for all types) Type Feedlot Cattle Pregnant heifer & cow Lactating cow Beef - - - Type Lactating cows Fresh cows Dry pregnant cows Growing pregnant heifers Dairy 16-27 39-35 81-120 80-113
  41. 41. Deficiency symptoms • Damage to cardiac and skeletal muscles (dystrophy, myopathy) • Sudden death through damage to the heart muscle (mulberry heart disease) • Liver lesions and changes in fat deposits (yellow-fat disease in mink, brown coloration of bacon). • Locomotory disorders and muscle incurvation (banana disease) in pigs.
  42. 42. • Stiff lamb disease and White muscle disease due to dystrophic alteration in calves and lambs. • Fertility disorders • Changes in the vascular and nervous system. • Exudative diathesis. • Nutritional encephalomalacia. • Reduced hatchability and exudative diathesis (increased plasma secretion of the blood) in poultry.
  43. 43. Toxicity • There isn’t any known risk of consuming too much vitamin E from natural food sources. • Because vitamin E can act as an anticoagulant and interfere with blood clotting, excess amounts in the body increase the risk of hemorrhage.
  44. 44. Vitamin K • Vitamin K was discovered in 1929 in alfalfa Natural sources and bioavailability • Vitamin K is a generic term for vitamin K1 (phylloquinone), K2 (menaquinone) and K3 (menadione). • Green plants are rich in vitamin K1, Vitamin K2 is produced by bacteria in the rumen and in the large intestine.
  45. 45. • Vitamin K3 (menadione) is an industrial form. • The fat-soluble forms K1 and K2 can only be absorbed when pancreas lipase and bile acid are secreted. • This is not necessary for the water-soluble vitamin K3. • All three forms serve as a basis for the production of menaquinone-4, which is highly active in the metabolism.
  46. 46. Physiological role • Synthesis of blood coagulation factors II (pre- thrombin), VII, IX and X. • Production of the calcium transport protein osteocalcin for bone mineralization Participation in carboxylation of other proteins.
  47. 47. Interaction with other nutrients • Vitamin A & Vitamin E : May reduce the absorption of Vitamin K. • Vitamin E : interfere with blood clotting mechanism of Vitamin K.
  48. 48. Requirements • For dogs and cats (mg Per Kg of feed) • For Cattle (IU Per Kg feed) • For Chicken (IU Per Kg feed) 0.5 (for all types) Species Weaning(mg) Adult(mg) Peak lactation(mg) Dog 1.64 1.63 1.60 Cat 1 1 1 Type Lactating cows Fresh cows Dry pregnant cows Growing pregnant heifers Dairy 2200 2200 2200 2200
  49. 49. Deficiency symptoms • Hemorrhages in various tissues and organs. • Blood coagulation disorders. • Growth disorders. Antagonists • Dicoumarol. • Coumarin derivatives. • Sulphonamides. • Mycotoxins.
  50. 50. Commercial supplement of vitamin K Vitamin K3 is offered in three different product forms: 1. Menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB), with a minimum content of 50% menadione 2. Menadione pyrimidinol bisulphite (MPB), with a content of approx. 23% or 43% menadione 3. Menadione nicotinamide bisulphite (MNB), with a content of 23% or 43% menadione and 16% or 31% nicotinamide
  51. 51. Toxicity • Occurs rarely. • Vitamin K, excessive amounts can cause the breakdown of red blood cells and liver damage.
  52. 52. THANK YOU Vishnu Vardhan Reddy.P TVM/2015-029

×