VALUE EDUCATIONUnit I:Education is a social process; Education is growth;Education is not preparation for life; Education is life itself. --- John DeweyValues:Values are the good habits that are contagious. They are passed down throughgenerations. Values bind us together and set us apart. Today, our society is seeing aterrible amount of lack of value. People are discriminating and being discriminatedagainst. Value is a conception, explicit, distinctive of an individual or characteristic of agroup of the desirable which influences the selection from available, means and ends ofaction.Values are the desirable ends, goals or modes of action which makes human behaviourselective. Value not only orients but also determines human behaviour.Classification of values:1.Gail M. Inlaw Classification * Traditional and cultural values * Economic values * Political values * Values in science and technology * Philosophical values * Values of the new left * Values of the back community2. Sprangers Classification: * Theoretical values * Economic values * Aesthetic values * Social values * Political values * Religious values3. Parkers Classification of Values: * Biological values * Economic values * Affective values
* Social values * Intellectual values * Aesthetic values * Moral values * Religious valueNeed of Value Education“A 13 year old boy is a father of one”“17-yr old shoots 15, kills self’These are some of the incidents which were in news recently. Although these didn’t makeit to front page but that doesn’t mean that these should be neglected. If we scrutinizethese cases we will realize the fact that something was missing in the above mentionedstudents. That filler is of “Value Education”.We are living in the world which is full of temptation. There are friends who wantcompanion to help them in wrong doings. There are people who will offer easy but wrongchoices. Without the backing of Value Education picked during school life, the studentswill face life nervously and slip into a lifestyle where the only values will be of survivalat any cost which is quiet evident from the above mentioned cases. The guy who killed15 others has survived in the minds of the people but at the cost of his own life.In our own country, we are producing talented students every year who are able to marktheir presence in national as well as international scenario. But how many of them arehaving value education inculcated in them? I do not doubt their talent, but the point to bediscussed is "are they really having that feeling of patriotism, love for nation in them?”Let’s keep aside the students, what about the normal public or those who are sitting onrespectable positions are they possessing this filler in them? Only handful is the answerValues are actually a very special power in the universe. It is one our minds can grasp forthe purpose of uplifting life. Values are actually spiritual skills -- a divine gift that comesto us from the infinite Source of things. The highest of principles -- such as Oneness,Love, Beauty, and others -- descend from the heavens, and are reinterpreted as values byour minds. For example, the spiritual principle of Oneness is recognized by our minds asvalues of cooperation, integration, teamwork, and others. Likewise, the universalprinciple of Love expresses through values of goodness, selflessness, self-givingness,openness, tolerance, respect for others, and a number of others.Tolerance, openness, respect for the individual, and teamwork are several great humanvalues, while Oneness, Love, Beauty, and Truth are some of higher spiritual values thatthey derive from. At certain points, the human and spiritual values come together andblend into one another, expressing through spiritualized human values such asselflessness, self-givingness, and gratitude.
Values education:Values education is a term used to name several things, and there is much academiccontroversy surrounding it. Some regard it as all aspects of the process by which teachers(and other adults) transmit values to pupils. Others see it as an activity that can take placein any organisation during which people are assisted by others, who may be older, in aposition of authority or are more experienced, to make explicit those values underlyingtheir own behaviour, to assess the effectiveness of these values and associated behaviourfor their own and others long term well-being and to reflect on and acquire other valuesand behaviour which they recognise as being more effective for long term well-being ofself and others.This means that values education can take place at home, as well as in schools, colleges,universities, offenders institutions and voluntary youth organisations. There are two mainapproaches to values education. Some see it as inculcating or transmitting a set of valueswhich often come from societal or religious rules or cultural ethics . Others see it as atype of Socratic dialogue where people are gradually brought to their own realisation ofwhat is good behaviour for themselves and their community.There has been very little reliable research on the results of values education classes, butthere are some encouraging preliminary results. • explicit values education is associated with those different pedagogies, methods or programmes that teachers or educators use in order to create learning experiences for students when it comes to value questions. • Implicit values education on the other hand covers those aspects of the educational experience resulting in value influence osex r learning, which can be related to the concept of hidden curriculum.Value education is important to help everyone in improving the value system that he/sheholds and put them to use. Once, everyone has understood their values in life they canexamine and control the various choices they make in their life. One has to frequentlyuphold the various types of values in his life such as cultural values, universal values,personal values and social values.Thus, value education is always essential to shape ones life and to give him anopportunity of performing himself on the global stage. The need for value educationamong the parents, children, teachers etc, is constantly increasing as we continue towitness increasing violent activities, behavioral disorder, lack of unity in the society etc.The family system in India has a long tradition of imparting value education. But with theprogress of modernity and fast changing role of the parents it has not been very easy forthe parents to impart relevant values in their wards. Therefore many institutes todayconduct various value education programs that are addressed to rising problems of themodern society. These programs concentrate on the development of the children, youngadults etc. focusing on areas like happiness, humility, cooperation, honesty, simplicity,love, unity, peace etc.
Self-confidenceSelf-discipline can be considered a type of selective training, creating new habits ofthought, action, and speech toward improving yourself and reaching goals. Self-disciplinecan also be task oriented and selective. View self-discipline as positive effort, rather thanone of denial. Self-discipline is the ability to get yourself to take action regardless of youremotional state.The word confidence originates from the Latin “confidere”, meaning to trust. Trustingand believing in ourselves, having faith in our ability in whatever situation we need toperform.The socio-psychological concept of self-confidence relates to self-assuredness in onespersonal judgment, ability, power, etc., sometimes manifested excessively.Another definition is the belief of believing in you; to believe that one is able toaccomplish what one sets out to do, to overcome obstacles and challenges (Peixe, 2009).Compare: • confidence (often equivalent to self-confidence) • hubris (excessive self-confidence) • self-esteem (conceit, or favourable opinion of oneself, or self-acceptance).Lack of self-confidence is called timidness or timidity. Being afraid of failure is a signof this.The five pillars of self-discipline are: Acceptance, Willpower, Hard Work, Industry, andPersistence.Source of self confidenceRecent studies (Peixe, 2009) show that self confidence is something you act on, notsomething you learn. Ex: dressing sharper and more often, getting a stylish haircut, andoverall making appearance more appealing to others. Waking up in the morning, gettingdressed well can make a person feel far more confident in their daily routine, and thisnewfound confidence radiates in any interaction. It takes time and practice, but willcertainly work.Important Values in Society – EmpathyThe most important values in life and in society revolve around empathy. How can oneconcentrate on co-existing on the same planet, without a speck of empathy. We need tobe able to accept others for what they are, not what they can do for us. We need to stopconcentrating on how we can reduce competition and focus on how we can grow
together. While we all have to look out for ourselves at the end of the day, we need toremember this quote, "The day we stop fighting for each other, we stop being humans!"Self-empathy:Self-empathy is a peculiar process. It is one that often comes last on our list of personaldevelopment "must dos" and yet it has such tremendous power to support, nurture andstrengthen our spirit and resiliency.Empathy allows us to re-perceive our world in a new, fresh way and move on. By moveon I do not mean forget, repress, leave behind, but rather, to find meaning, to rememberthe specialness of what we are, to be with ourselves in a way that engenders growthrather than self-hatred or self-forgetting.With self-empathy, practiced with compassion and Presence we can move beyond guilt,shame, anger to healing. We can move beyond right and wrong to what needs or valueswe were meeting and an awareness of other needs that we may have liked to give moreattention to or acted in more harmony with. When we hear internal self-criticism we arereally saying "I am not acting in harmony with my own needs or values" and this is anopportunity to celebrate this awareness and self connection.CompassionCompassion (from Latin: "co-suffering") is a virtue —one in which the emotionalcapacities of empathy and sympathy (for the suffering of others) are regarded as a part oflove itself, and a cornerstone of greater social interconnectedness and humanism —foundational to the highest principles in philosophy, society, and personhood.There is an aspect of compassion which regards a quantitative dimension, such thatindividuals compassion is often given a property of "depth," "vigour," or "passion." Morevigorous than empathy, the feeling commonly gives rise to an active desire to alleviateanothers suffering. It is often, though not inevitably, the key component in whatmanifests in the social context as altruism. In ethical terms, the various expressions downthe ages of the so-called Golden Rule embody by implication the principle ofcompassion: Do to others what you would have them do to you.Forgiveness:Forgiveness is typically defined as the process of concluding resentment, indignation oranger as a result of a perceived offense, difference or mistake, and/or ceasing to demandpunishment or restitution. The Oxford English Dictionary defines forgiveness as to grantfree pardon and to give up all claim on account of an offense or debt. The concept andbenefits of forgiveness have been explored in religious thought, the social sciences andmedicine. Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the person who forgivesincluding forgiving themselves, in terms of the person forgiven and/or in terms of therelationship between the forgiver and the person forgiven. In some contexts, forgivenessmay be granted without any expectation of restorative justice, and without any response
on the part of the offender (for example, one may forgive a person who isincommunicado or dead). In practical terms, it may be necessary for the offender to offersome form of acknowledgment, apology, and/or restitution, or even just ask forforgiveness, in order for the wronged person to believe himself able to forgive.Most world religions include teachings on the nature of forgiveness, and many of theseteachings provide an underlying basis for many varying modern day traditions andpractices of forgiveness. Some religious doctrines or philosophies place greater emphasison the need for humans to find some sort of divine forgiveness for their ownshortcomings, others place greater emphasis on the need for humans to practiceforgiveness of one another, yet others make little or no distinction between human and/ordivine forgiveness.Courage:Courage, bravery, fortitude, will, and intrepidity, is the ability to confront fear, pain,risk/danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. "Physical courage" is courage in the face ofphysical pain, hardship, death, or threat of death, while "moral courage" is the ability toact rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, or discouragement.Important Values in Society – Honesty:We all claim to follow the above values in society, right? In our own way, we think weare perfect. Honesty in society is to accept yourself for what you are, and let everyoneknow that as well. This honesty will help you make yourself better, simply because youhad the ability to admit your flaws and work towards improving yourself. It is thishonesty that will make others helps you out, not because you need it. But, because theyhave flaws too, which you can help out with. This honesty will help us follow the othervalues in society and, truly, "heal the world"! But, you could always gain moreperspective by knowing is honesty the best policy?Unit II:Karma Yoga in Hinduism:This yoga aims to reverse the natural order workings of karma. Karma is generated byevery action a person performs during their lives, and, it is the working out of karma thatrequires rebirth after death. So, Karma Yoga reasons, if a person could live withoutgenerating karma, then there would be nothing to cause rebirth.This task is accomplished by detachment, namely, the detachment of ones Self (onesatman) from ones actions. This is done by removing all involvement, including onesintent, from their activity. This can be accomplished either through the knowledge of
ones true Self (like Jnana yoga) or by putting all the actions onto ones god (following apath similar to Bhakti yoga).Karma yoga basically consists of entirely selfless service, in which the Ego is given up tothe desire to serve the divine in every thing, be it man, animal or plant.Karma Yoga is also the path of doing the right thing, of following ones personal Dharmaand accepting destiny as it comes. If the Karma Yogi is a householder, he will accept thatrole as much as he would accept the role of a servant to any in need, without seeking anyremuneration in the shape of wealth, satisfaction, name or fame.Karma means action, including all acts done by the individual from birth to death. Onewho is not attached to his actions and performs actions because they are unavoidable,performs karma with a disinterested interest and does not adopt wrong means.Karma performed by right means does not harm anybody and is in accordance with thelaw of dharma. That is karma yoga. To drop the doer from the action is karma yoga. Tosee oneself as a mere tool of the divine and to offer the fruit of our actions to the divine,is karma yoga. Karma Yoga is an expression of divine love, of the unity of everythingthat is yoga. Karma Yoga means to help, heal, and share.Of course, solutions are as illusionary as their problems. The only help one can truly giveis in promoting truth and spiritual growth, the only real end to any suffering. Thusteaching is an integral part of karma yoga and also the teacher should be aware that theresult of the teaching is out of his or her hands and that the power of the teaching comesfrom nowhere but the divine. To teach means to let the divine word speak for itself.To act, to think, to feel and to do nothing. So if you act, act in selfless service, which isKarma Yoga.Karma-yoga begins with the understanding that selfish action binds the soul. By givingup the fruits of action, one is relieved from the reactions to self-centred activities.Thisdoes not mean giving up the activity itself, for karma-yoga, on a lower level,recommends that all activities be linked to a greater cause. Karma-yoga specificallyrefers to sacrifices offered to various deities to attain material necessities in this life andthe next, without accruing any reaction. On the highest level, karma-yoga means theunreserved dedication of all activities to serve the Supreme Lord. Karma-yogis tend tohave a materially progressive attitude towards the world and their aim is often theheavenly planets.ChristianityFriendliness and LoveChristianity teaches us about the importance of friendliness and love. These qualities helpto bring together the members of the family, the community, and the nation. The Bibleteaches us that we should love our neighbors as ourselves (Matthew 22:39). It is love
which makes a person ready to share what he has with others.Jesus also commanded his followers to love one another (John 13:34, 35). It is furtherstressed in the Bible that love is the greatest human value (1 Corinthians 13:1-7,13).Respect for LifeThe life in us has been given to us by God, therefore, we must value human life greatlyand do everything to keep it and not destroy it. The Bible teaches us how to value life.For example, when Cain killed his brother Abel, God was displeased. He considered it tobe a terrible sin, and cursed him (Genesis 4:8-12).Killing a human being has been, from the earliest times, considered unlawful andimmoral. That is why one of the Ten Commandments given to the Israelites stated: Donot commit murder (Exodus 20:13). Jesus further explained this commandment to meanthat we should not even be angry with other people (Matthew 5:21-24). Murder is,therefore, not allowed in any society.JusticeJustice is one of the important moral values on which other moral behaviors depend.For instance, we must try to be fair and just to others. The trader should not tamper witheither his weighing scale or goods or sell his commodities above fixed prices. The civilservant too should be honest and hardworking to justify the salary he or she receivesmonthly. And most important of all, judges should administer justice without fear orfavor. They should always treat all men equally before the law.Brotherhood in Islam:The importance of brotherhood in Islam can not be over stressed. Accordingly if one ofthe parts is injured or hurt then the rest of the body immediately feels that pain and iscertainly uncomfortable at the situation until it is rectified without delay. Thebrotherhood of Muslims is a very deep and wide concept that gaurantees the safety andwell being of the Society at large. Islam being a complete way of life is primarily for thesociety, it promotes a healthy and a well disciplined life style in every sense of the word.It is forbidden, for example, for two Muslims to start a whispering conversation in thepresence of the third. This might offend the one left out and weaken the Brotherhood. It isnot permissible for a Muslim to sever relations with his brother for more than three days."It is sufficient evil for a Muslim that he should look down upon his brother. The life,wealth, and honour of a Muslim are inviolable by another Muslim"[Sahih Muslim].Brotherhood is synonynous with Islam. It is a force for good, a purveyor of peace andjustice for everyone. It provides stablility in a quarrelsome world.Muslims are notallowed to kill the women and children of their enemies even in war. A Muslim is notreally a believer if he eats his full while ignoring the plight of a hungry neighbour.
When giving commands regarding the Islamic Brotherhood, the Quran uses a beautifulstyle with a profound message.But when you enter the houses, greet one another with a greeting from Allâh (i.e. say:As-Salâmu Alaikum - peace be on you) blessed and good.O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be atrade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill oneanother). Surely, Allâh is Most Merciful to you.[Surah An-Nisaa Ayah 29]."A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. He does not oppress him, nor does he leavehim at the mercy of others." (Sahih Muslim Book 032, Number 6219)The Prophet said, "None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brotherwhat he likes for himself." (Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 2, Number 12)As the teachings of Islam clearly show us that Brotherhood and unity in Islam are basedsolely on the `Aqeedah of Islam (which is the foundation of Muslim belief).Compassion in Buddhism:Compassion is that which makes the heart of the good move at the pain of others. Itcrushes and destroys the pain of others; thus, it is called compassion. It is calledcompassion because it shelters and embraces the distressed. - The Buddha.Compassion or karuna is at the transcendental and experiential heart of the Buddhasteachings. He was reputedly asked by his personal attendant, Ananda, "Would it be trueto say that the cultivation of loving kindness and compassion is a part of our practice?"To which the Buddha replied, "No. It would not be true to say that the cultivation ofloving kindness and compassion is part of our practice. It would be true to say that thecultivation of loving kindness and compassion is all of our practice."The Dalai Lama has said, "If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If youwant to be happy, practice compassion." The American monk Bhikkhu Bodhi states thatcompassion "supplies the complement to loving-kindness: whereas loving-kindness hasthe characteristic of wishing for the happiness and welfare of others, compassion has thecharacteristic of wishing that others be free from suffering, a wish to be extended withoutlimits to all living beings.At the same time, it is emphasised that in order to manifest effective compassion forothers it is first of all necessary to be able to experience and fully appreciate ones ownsuffering and to have, as a consequence, compassion for oneself. The Buddha is reportedto have said, "It is possible to travel the whole world in search of one who is more worthyof compassion than oneself. No such person can be found."Compassion is the antidote to the self-chosen poison of anger.
Ahimsa in jainism:In Jainism, the understanding and implementation of ahimsa is more radical,scrupulous, and comprehensive than in any other religion. Non-violence is seen as themost essential religious duty for everyone (ahi sā paramo dharma , a statement ofteninscribed on Jain temples).When Mahavira revived and reorganized the Jain movement in the 6th or 5th centuryBCE, ahimsa was already an established, strictly observed rule. Parshva, the earliest Jainleader (Tirthankar) whom modern Western historians consider to be a historical figure,lived in about the 8th century BCE. He founded the community to which Mahavira’sparents belonged. Ahimsa was already part of the "Fourfold Restraint" (Caujjama), thevows taken by Parshva’s followers.There is some evidence, however, that ancient Jain ascetics accepted meat as alms if theanimal had not been specifically killed for them. Modern Jains deny this vehemently,especially with regard to Mahavira himself. According to the Jain tradition either lacto-vegetarianism or veganism is mandatory.Killing of animals for food is absolutely ruled out. Jains also make considerable effortsnot to injure plants in everyday life as far as possible. Jains go out of their way so as notto hurt even small insects and other minuscule animals. Eating honey is strictly outlawed,as it would amount to violence against the bees. Eating honey is strictly outlawed, as itwould amount to violence against the bees. because they consider harsh words to be aform of violence, they often keep a cloth to ritually cover their mouth, as a reminder notto allow violence in their speech.In contrast, Jains agree with Hindus that violence in self-defense can be justified, andthey agree that a soldier who kills enemies in combat is performing a legitimate duty.Jain communities accepted the use of military power for their defense, and there wereJain monarchs, military commanders, and soldiers.Unit III:Society:The relationship of men to one another when associated in any way; companionship;fellowship; company.The persons, collectively considered, who live in any region or at any period; anycommunity of individuals who are united together by a common bond of nearness orintercourse; those who recognize each other as associates, friends, and acquaintances.Unit IV:
Honesty:As defined by positive psychologists, honesty and authenticity as a subset of couragemeans more than simply telling the truth. It involves integrity in all areas of one’s life andthe ability to be true to oneself and one’s role in the world across circumstances.Though perhaps one would not immediately associate honesty with courage, there areobvious situations in life where to be honest and authentic requires a great deal ofstrength in the midst of fear. The positive view societies have of honesty can be seenfrom the fact that it is something people try to develop in young children andadolescents. While all people seem to grow in their understanding of the moralimportance of honest and integrity as they grow older, there are certain individuals whoseem to especially excel in this human strength. This trait is important in many areas oflife, so much so that many measurements have been developed in an effort to identifyespecially honest individuals. These measurements test both overt honesty, the thoughtsone has about blatant dishonesty such as stealing, and covert honesty, which is verysimilar to conscientiousness and dependability. Of all the subcategories under courage inthe VIA, Honesty shows the most promise as a distinct, well defined area ofclassification.Important Values in Society - Mutual RespectIt is clear, we all have our strengths as well as weaknesses. Mutual respect means havingrespect in our minds for everyone. Even if you are up against a person, wherein it is yourhonor against theirs, it is important to have mutual respect. It is this respect that makes ushuman. Without this respect, we become like animals. This respect can help us keep thebalance between welfare state and social Darwinism in society. We need to respect ourfriends for their friendship and our enemies for their ability to be competitive and theirconviction. Mutual respect in one of the important values in a relationship.