TAMIL NADU AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
Coimbatore-641003

Production technology of Spice crops
PSM 502 (2+1)
Assignment
on
PRO...
 Queen of spices
 Habitat – Western Ghats
 Cross pollination crops
 perennial , monocot , herbaceous

 Area- 71,170 h...
Types of propagation
 Seed

propagation

 Vegetative

propagation

 Rapid

clonal propagation

 Micro

propagation
Steps –
Primary nursery
Selection of seeds
Pre sowing Seed treatment
Sowing
Mulching
Secondary nursery
-bed nursery
...
 Sloppy

land
 Raise the bed:20cm ht, 1 m width, convenient
length
 Soil solarisation
Seed extraction from ripen capsule in sept-oct
 Seed collection from mother plant having:









Vigorous growth...
After picking capsules are immersed in water
 Seed extraction with gently press
 Seeds are wash in water to remove mucil...






Line sowing
1 kg of seed to get 5000 seedling, i.e. half kg seed for an acre
Cover with thin layer sand
Germina...
With paddy straw & dry leaves
 Sometimes with coconut coir dust & goose berry le
Bed nursery
 Poly bag nursery

 Preparations

of bed same as primary nursery
 Cattle manure thoroughly mixed with soil
 Seedling transplanted at 4-5 l...
 Through division of rhizomes

-

Portion of rhizome with one old and one young
shoot
- Bear earlier than seedling
Rhizomes of cardamom
Planting unit: one grown up sucker & a young growing shoot
Trenches with 45 cm width, 45 cm depth, length convenient opene...
 32-42

suckers produced from one planting unit
after 12 months
 Hence in one hectare of clonal nursery about
1,48,144 –...
Micropropagation

“… the art and
science of multiplying
plants in vitro.”
First commercial level tissue culture production
 Explant- young sprouting tillers (8-10 cm) in march to may is
ideal
 T...
Micropropagation stages
1. Selection of plant material

2. Establish aseptic culture
3. Multiplication
4. Shoot elongation...
Procedure
Preparation of media(Schenk & Hidebrandt Medium)

Transplant of explant in media
For shoot induction , addition ...
Rooting percentage 86-93%
4-5 cm rooted shoots transferred for hardening and acclimatization
Planting medium:- sterilized ...
Tip bud
Leaf

Axillary
bud
Internode

Root

Starting material for
Micropropagation
Callus formation
Shoot organogenesis
Rooting
Hardening process
Propagation of cardamom
Propagation of cardamom
Propagation of cardamom
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Propagation of cardamom

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Propagation of cardamom

  1. 1. TAMIL NADU AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Coimbatore-641003 Production technology of Spice crops PSM 502 (2+1) Assignment on PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES IN SMALL CARDAMOM BY:- VISHNU KUMAR MISHRA ID NO 13-533-011 1st M.Sc.(Hort)
  2. 2.  Queen of spices  Habitat – Western Ghats  Cross pollination crops  perennial , monocot , herbaceous  Area- 71,170 ha, Production- 11,000 t Max. production- Kerala (8545t) 2011-2012
  3. 3. Types of propagation  Seed propagation  Vegetative propagation  Rapid clonal propagation  Micro propagation
  4. 4. Steps – Primary nursery Selection of seeds Pre sowing Seed treatment Sowing Mulching Secondary nursery -bed nursery -poly bag nursery
  5. 5.  Sloppy land  Raise the bed:20cm ht, 1 m width, convenient length  Soil solarisation
  6. 6. Seed extraction from ripen capsule in sept-oct  Seed collection from mother plant having:       Vigorous growth High yielding Compact panicle High % of fruit set Free from pests and diseases More no. of tillers
  7. 7. After picking capsules are immersed in water  Seed extraction with gently press  Seeds are wash in water to remove mucilage  Seed are smeared with wood ash and shade dried  Acid treatment for better germination  Temperature have greater influence on germination  Treatment Mode Con. Nitric acid Soaking Conc. Hydrochloric Soaking acid 25 per cent Nitric Soaking acid Germination percentage Duration (increase or decrease over control) five nine per cent increase minutes five Increased germination minutes 10 55 per cent increase (fresh seeds) minutes 25 per cent increase (six to eight months old seeds)
  8. 8.      Line sowing 1 kg of seed to get 5000 seedling, i.e. half kg seed for an acre Cover with thin layer sand Germination starts in about 22-25 days Avoid direct sunlight, rainfall by providing pandal
  9. 9. With paddy straw & dry leaves  Sometimes with coconut coir dust & goose berry le
  10. 10. Bed nursery  Poly bag nursery 
  11. 11.  Preparations of bed same as primary nursery  Cattle manure thoroughly mixed with soil  Seedling transplanted at 4-5 leaf stage in June -July at 20-25 cm distance  Nutrition: 45g N, 30g P2O5 & 60g K2O in three equal splits at 45 days interval Poly bag nursery  Polythene bags size: 20x20 cm & 100 gauge thickness  Bags filled with jungle top soil, cowdung and sand (3:1:1)  Then transferred to main field in first week of June after 10 months of sowing
  12. 12.  Through division of rhizomes - Portion of rhizome with one old and one young shoot - Bear earlier than seedling
  13. 13. Rhizomes of cardamom
  14. 14. Planting unit: one grown up sucker & a young growing shoot Trenches with 45 cm width, 45 cm depth, length convenient opened Filled with jungle soil, compost, & top soil Planting units are planted at 1.8x0.6m spacing Overhead protection by erecting pandal Irrigation once in week, fertilizers given @ 48:48:96g NPK in two split doses
  15. 15.  32-42 suckers produced from one planting unit after 12 months  Hence in one hectare of clonal nursery about 1,48,144 – 1,94,439 plants produced in 12 months
  16. 16. Micropropagation “… the art and science of multiplying plants in vitro.”
  17. 17. First commercial level tissue culture production  Explant- young sprouting tillers (8-10 cm) in march to may is ideal  Tissue cultured plants are harden in sand filled cups in mist chamber at 80% RH 
  18. 18. Micropropagation stages 1. Selection of plant material 2. Establish aseptic culture 3. Multiplication 4. Shoot elongation 5. Root induction / formation 6. Acclimatization
  19. 19. Procedure Preparation of media(Schenk & Hidebrandt Medium) Transplant of explant in media For shoot induction , addition of BAP, KN & Coconut milk each @ 0.5mg/l and also IAA 2mg/l growth factors D- Biotin and calcium pantothenate @ The bud elongation takes place on M1 medium 0.1mg/l Transfer of shoots in fresh medium after every 5 weeks Primary culture is transferred to shoot multiplication medium M2 Achieve a ht of 30-40 mm in 12 weeks White’s rooting medium used for rooting and further shoot elongation Rate of multiplication 1:3/month
  20. 20. Rooting percentage 86-93% 4-5 cm rooted shoots transferred for hardening and acclimatization Planting medium:- sterilized top soil and compost Plantlets are acclimatized in nursery for 2-3 months transferred to main field at stage of 20-30 cm ht
  21. 21. Tip bud Leaf Axillary bud Internode Root Starting material for Micropropagation
  22. 22. Callus formation
  23. 23. Shoot organogenesis
  24. 24. Rooting
  25. 25. Hardening process

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