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Nanotechnology in surgery and medicine

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nanotechnology in surgery and medicine

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Nanotechnology in surgery and medicine

  1. 1. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE VISHNU AMBAREESH M S
  2. 2. History The possiblity of molecular engineering first described by Nobel laureate physicist Richard Feynman in 1959. Feynman gave a lecture at the California Institute of Technology called "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" in which he described the possibility of manipulating things atom by atom and using small machines down to the atomic level VAMS
  3. 3. Swallowing the surgeon It would be interesting in surgery if you could swallow the surgeon. You put the mechanical surgeon inside the blood vessel and it goes into the heart and “looks” around… other small machines might be permanently incorporated in the body to assist some inadequately- functioning organ. RICHARD P. FEYMAN 1959( nobel prize, physics 1965) VAMS
  4. 4. • Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University first defined nanotechnology in 1974. His definition still stands as the basic statement today. "'Nano-technology mainly consists of the processing of separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule." VAMS
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  7. 7. • Popularised in 1980s by K Eric Drexler – Student of Feynman • Drexler presented his key ideas in a paper on molecular engineering published in 1981, and expanded these themes in a layman comprehensible book Engines of Creation. VAMS
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  16. 16. What is it? Nanotechnology can be defined as the science and engineering involved in the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of materials and devices whose smallest functional organization in at least one dimension is on the nanometer scale or one billionth of a meter. Technology dealing with the manufacture and use of devices on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide  motors,  robot arms, and  even whole computers.
  17. 17. Size
  18. 18. Image of Dust Mite Sitting Atop a Nanotechnology Engine
  19. 19. How to make?? VAMS
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  22. 22. Molecular assembler • Device with molecular robotic arm, anchored to the substrate and immersed in feedstock. o Device about 100 nanometers long and contain about 4 million atoms, about the size of an average virus. o It would have six degrees of freedom of movement, and because of its tiny size, be able to move astonishingly quickly. o The free end would grab molecular fragments in the feedstock and hold them stiffly for reactions to build larger units.
  23. 23. Molecular assembler Model
  24. 24. Synthetic and Assembly Approaches • Different methods for the synthesis of assemblers. o“top down” approaches o“bottom up” approaches o and combinations
  25. 25. Top down approach • Begin with a macroscopic material or group of materials and incorporate smaller-scale details into them. o The best known example of a “top down” approach is the photolithography technique used by the semiconductor industry to create integrated circuits by etching patterns in silicon wafers
  26. 26. Bottom up • “Bottom up” approaches, begin by designing and synthesizing custom-made molecules that have the ability to self-assemble or self-organize into higher order macroscale structures. o synthesize molecules that spontaneously self-assemble upon the controlled change of a specific chemical or physical trigger, such as a change in pH, the concentration of a specific solute, or the application of an electric field.
  27. 27. Classification • The whole field of nanotechnology is again divided into 3 sub categories. • Type One: o Using thin Films. • Type Two: o Using nanoscale fibres. • Type Three: o Using nanoparticles.
  28. 28. Applications in medicine Development of • Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) • Biocompatible electronic devices othat have a significant potential for improving the treatment of many disorders
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  36. 36. • Human breast cancer cells (purple) are targeted by nanoparticles (green) developed by MIT professor Paula Hammond. The particles bind to receptors overexpressed by cancer cells. VAMS
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  65. 65. Chemically functionalized dendrimers • Highly branched molecules with a “tree-like” branching structure that can be used as o molecular building blocks for gene therapy agents o magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents o Nonviral delivery vehicle for DNA
  66. 66. Drug delivery systems • Novel drug delivery systems (specifically for the blood brain barrier) using nanoparticles. • Highly porous self-assembling bilayer tubule systems as biological membranes.
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  69. 69. Nanofilters and masks • Specialized membranes for the separation of low weight organic compounds . • This nanomembrane may allow very selective ultrafiltration of physiologic toxic compounds. o Used for making nanomasks
  70. 70. Molecular motors • Biomimetic self-assembling molecular motors such as o flagella of bacteria o the mechanical forces produced by RNA polymerase during protein transcription. • These molecular motors provide excellent examples of naturally occurring biological self-assembly.
  71. 71. Molecular motor
  72. 72. Medical Nanorobots • Several units ranging in size from 1-100 nm fitted together to make a working machine measuring 0.5-3 microns. o Three microns is about the maximum size for bloodborne medical nanorobots, due to the capillary passage requirement. • Carbon will be the principal element comprising the bulk of a medical nanorobot, probably in the form of diamond or diamondoid / fullerene nanocomposites.
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  80. 80. Proposed model of a medical nanorobot
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  83. 83. Examples Respirocytes - "Artificial Mechanical Red Cell" Clottocytes - "Artificial Mechanical Platelets" Microbivores - "Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes"
  84. 84. Respirocytes • Existing ones o Hemoglobin Formulations • Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin o Fluorocarbon Emulsions • Nanotecnological approach o Principle - active means of conveying gas molecules into, and out of, pressurized microvessels.
  85. 85. Molecular Sorting Rotor
  86. 86. Functioning • Sorts small gas molecules, and pump against high pressures up to 30,000 atm • Used to load or unload gas storage tanks, depending upon the direction of rotor rotation • Uses o Poisoning o Substitutes of RBCs o Deep sea diving – prevents BENDS
  87. 87. Respirocytes in blood – graphical representation
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  89. 89. Clottocytes Artificial Mechanical Platelets
  90. 90. Clottocytes • Serum oxyglucose-powered spherical nanorobot ~2 microns in diameter containing a fiber mesh that is compactly folded onboard. • Upon command from its control computer, the device unfolds its mesh packet in the immediate vicinity of an injured blood vessel -- following a cut through the skin.
  91. 91. Clottocytes • Soluble thin films coating the mesh dissolve upon contact with plasma , revealing sticky sections (e.g., complementary to blood group antigens unique to red cell surfaces) in desired patterns. Blood cells are immediately trapped in the overlapping artificial nettings released by multiple neighboring activated clottocytes ,and bleeding halts at once.
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  96. 96. Microbivores Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes using DIGEST AND DISCHARGE PROTOCOL Uses • Sepsis and Septicemia • Bacteremia • Viremia • Fungemia • Rickettsemia
  97. 97. Microbivore - Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes Proposed model
  98. 98. Treatment • Injection of a few cubic centimeters of micron-sized nanorobots suspended in fluid (probably a water/saline suspension). • The typical therapeutic dose may include up to 1-10 trillion (1 trillion = 1012) individual nanorobots. • Acts fast • No immune reactions due to their specific shape
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  109. 109. Nanosurgery
  110. 110. What Now • Japanese researchers have turned an atomic force microscope (AFM) into a surgical tool for cells that could add or remove molecules from precise locations inside a cell without harming it. • An AFM has a tiny tip attached to the end of a lever that can sense minute changes in the cell as it drags across a surface. • The AFM can sense the force it exerts on the cell, making it extremely precise.
  111. 111. • The team used a beam of energetic ions to sharpen a standard silicon AFM tip into a needle just eight micrometres long and 200 nanometres wide. • Researchers was able to insert the needle into a human embryonic kidney cell. • The cell membrane quickly returned to its original shape, and the needle was pushed into the cell's nucleus. • The needle will allow to inject molecules into specific regions of a cell. • It would also be possible to monitor the chemistry of a cell in real time.
  112. 112. atoms are being moved by the single atom tip of a Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Apart from allowing scientist to image atoms, this instrument also allows them to actually move them one at the time.
  113. 113. Femtosecond laser surgery • Femtosecond (one millionth of a billionth of a second) laser pulses are used which can selectively cut a single strand in a single cell. • One can target a specific organelle inside a single cell (a mitochondrion or a strand on the cytoskeleton) and destroy it without disrupting the rest of the cell.
  114. 114. Use of laser beams on individual molecules
  115. 115. Femtosecond laser surgery • When a femtosecond laser pulse is tightly focused into a nearly-transparent biological material, energy is deposited by nonlinear absorption only in the focus where laser intensity is high, resulting in disruption of the molecular structure and thus altering the cytoskeletal framework. • It is possible to carve channels slightly less than 1 micron wide, well within a cell's diameter of 10 to 20 microns . • This technique has been used for disrupting single neural axons in living organisms and manipulating sub-cellular structures in cells.
  116. 116. Femtolaser beams visualised through optic fibres Femtolaser emulator
  117. 117. Femtolaser Neurosurgery • Femtolaser acts like a pair of tiny "nano-scissors", which is able to cut nano-sized structures like nerve axons. • Once cut, the axons vaporize and no other tissue is harmed. Axon segments
  118. 118. Nanosurgery - Future
  119. 119. DNA Repair Machines • Floating inside the nucleus of a human cell, an assembler-built repair vessel performs genetic maintenance.
  120. 120. Cell repair • Poisoning, asphyxiation, drowning, require cell-by-cell repair. • A Nanorobot first envelopes the patient, then enters in between all his cells. • It disassembles the patient, surrounding each cell with its own repair machinery and vascular system.
  121. 121. Thrombosis – Nanosurgical transbot • Patrols the bloodstream, searching for unwanted developing internal clots. If a blood vessel occlusion occurs, in vivo nanorobots can immediately clear an opening so that free blood flow may resume, avoiding tissue ischemia.
  122. 122. Cancer therapy • A "Stinger" nanorobot engages in a delicate surgical operation to remove a cancer tumor. • Injects a toxin or medicine of choice, either autonomously, or through teleoperation.
  123. 123. "Drillers, Peepers, Stingers" • "Drillers, Peepers, Stingers" engage in a delicate surgical operation to remove a tumor. Whilst the Stingers inject a toxin, Drillers cut deep into the tumor. A Peeper broadcasts the whole video scene to the surgeon
  124. 124. Applications in common life
  125. 125. Nanotech Fabrics • Nanotechnology was first used in fabric in 1998 by a chemist named David Soane, who founded Nano-Tex while the first widespread commercial use began in 2001. • Fabrics are engineered on a molecular level so that clothing becomes wrinkle resistant, stain repellent and even able to brush away body moisture and body odour.
  126. 126. Nanotech fabrics therapeutics • Chemotherapeutic agents can be in corporated into fabrics which aids in the dose related sustained release of these chemotherapeutic drugs. o Nanotech vests for Breast carcinoma. o Nanotech briefs for Testicular tumours.
  127. 127. Nano food • Catalytic anti-oxidant device for use in restaurant deep-frying machines. • Keeps frying oil fresh significantly longer o surface areas are increased exponentially by reducing the surface particle size to the nano-level. o it exposes a huge surface area to the oil -- diverting oxygen away from the oil and prevents the oil from clumping. It also allows for a shorter frying time, with less oil remaining in the food.
  128. 128. Smart Surfaces • smart surfaces are self-cleaning. • Refrigerators have been made with interiors coated to be effective at self-sterilization and deodorization. They also have antibacterial properties that allow food to stay fresher for longer, and save energy by this means. They also are lined with nano-based insulation materials that reduce energy consumption. • Dishwashers have been made that wash and sterilize dishes and do so at lower temperatures. • Vanadium-oxide-coated glass is a potent oxidizer under UV light. This material can be coated in hydrophobic whiskers on the surface of glass, making it hydrophobic as well. As a result, dirt, debris, and organic material are easily oxidized in sunlight and washed off in rain, making for a self-cleaning window
  129. 129. The proposed concepts
  130. 130. Ageing • DNA repair machines can repair or replace damaged or miscoded sections of chromosomes. • Other medical nanorobots capable of cell repair can purge human tissue cells of unhealthy accumulated products and restore these cells to their youthful vigor.
  131. 131. Augmentation • Improvement of existing natural biological systems and the addition of new systems and capabilities not found in nature. Such re-engineering is commonly called "augmentation". o Wings o Implanted nanocomputers in brain
  132. 132. Cosmetics - COSMOBOTS • "Little robots hidden in the skin to dispense the pigments from their stores as programmed by their owners "
  133. 133. Flying Saucer Barberbots "used for 'non-buzz' haircuts. They can be programmed to cut a person's hair, to any style."
  134. 134. Cryostasis Dying patient could be frozen, then stored at the temperature of liquid nitrogen for decades or even centuries until the necessary medical technology to restore health is developed
  135. 135. Dental care • Medical nanobots capable of repairing the various tissues of the teeth and gums.
  136. 136. VAMS
  137. 137. Utility Foglet
  138. 138. Utility Foglets • Microscopic robot about the size of a human cell and 12 arms sticking out in all directions. A bucketfull of such robots might form a `robot crystal' by linking their arms up into a lattice structure. • Fill them to air in rooms. • The robots are called Foglets and the substance they form is Utility Fog, which may have many useful medical applications.
  139. 139. • Quoting President of India, A P J Abdul Kalam “…..in information technology, India has the potential of becoming the third largest knowledge power in the world, nanotechnology can push India as one of the most important technology-nations in the world….”
  140. 140. Predictions
  141. 141. • Things that become practical with mature Nanotechology (paraphrasing Dr. Drexler) • Nearly free consumer products • PC's billions of times faster then today • Safe and affordable space travel • Virtual end to illness, aging, death • No more pollution and automatic cleanup of existing pollution • End of famine and starvation • Superior education for every child on Earth • Reintroduction of many extinct plants and animals
  142. 142. VAMS LET THERE BE LIGHT………… THANK YOU……….

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