VISHNU AMBAREESH M S
The possiblity of molecular
engineering first described by Nobel
laureate physicist Richard Feynman
in 1959. Feynman gave a lecture at the
California Institute of Technology
called "There's Plenty of Room at the
Bottom" in which he described the
possibility of manipulating things
atom by atom and using small
machines down to the atomic level
Swallowing the surgeon
It would be interesting in surgery if you could
swallow the surgeon. You put the mechanical
surgeon inside the blood vessel and it goes
into the heart and “looks” around… other
small machines might be permanently
incorporated in the body to assist some
inadequately- functioning organ.
RICHARD P. FEYMAN 1959( nobel prize, physics 1965)
• Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University
first defined nanotechnology in 1974. His
definition still stands as the basic statement
"'Nano-technology mainly consists of the
processing of separation, consolidation, and
deformation of materials by one atom or
• Popularised in 1980s by
K Eric Drexler
– Student of Feynman
• Drexler presented his key
ideas in a paper on
published in 1981, and
expanded these themes
in a layman
Engines of Creation.
What is it?
Nanotechnology can be defined as the science and
engineering involved in the design, synthesis,
characterization, and application of materials and devices
whose smallest functional organization in at least one
dimension is on the nanometer scale or one billionth of a
Technology dealing with the manufacture and use of devices
on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide
robot arms, and
even whole computers.
• Device with molecular robotic arm,
anchored to the substrate and immersed in
o Device about 100 nanometers long and contain
about 4 million atoms, about the size of an
o It would have six degrees of freedom of
movement, and because of its tiny size, be able
to move astonishingly quickly.
o The free end would grab molecular fragments in
the feedstock and hold them stiffly for reactions
to build larger units.
Synthetic and Assembly
• Different methods for the synthesis
o“top down” approaches
o“bottom up” approaches
o and combinations
Top down approach
• Begin with a macroscopic material or
group of materials and incorporate
smaller-scale details into them.
o The best known example of a “top down”
approach is the photolithography technique
used by the semiconductor industry to create
integrated circuits by etching patterns in
• “Bottom up” approaches, begin by
designing and synthesizing custom-made
molecules that have the ability to self-assemble
or self-organize into higher order
o synthesize molecules that spontaneously self-assemble
upon the controlled change of a
specific chemical or physical trigger, such as a
change in pH, the concentration of a specific
solute, or the application of an electric field.
• The whole field of nanotechnology is again
divided into 3 sub categories.
• Type One:
o Using thin Films.
• Type Two:
o Using nanoscale fibres.
• Type Three:
o Using nanoparticles.
Applications in medicine
• Microelectromechanical systems
• Biocompatible electronic devices
othat have a significant potential for
improving the treatment of many
• Highly branched
molecules with a “tree-like”
that can be used as
o molecular building blocks
for gene therapy agents
o magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) contrast
o Nonviral delivery vehicle
Drug delivery systems
• Novel drug delivery systems (specifically for
the blood brain barrier) using nanoparticles.
• Highly porous self-assembling bilayer tubule
systems as biological membranes.
Nanofilters and masks
membranes for the
separation of low
• This nanomembrane
may allow very
of physiologic toxic
o Used for making
• Biomimetic self-assembling molecular motors
o flagella of bacteria
o the mechanical forces produced by RNA
polymerase during protein transcription.
• These molecular motors provide excellent
examples of naturally occurring biological
• Several units ranging in size from 1-100 nm
fitted together to make a working machine
measuring 0.5-3 microns.
o Three microns is about the maximum size for
bloodborne medical nanorobots, due to the
capillary passage requirement.
• Carbon will be the principal element
comprising the bulk of a medical
nanorobot, probably in the form of diamond
or diamondoid / fullerene nanocomposites.
• Existing ones
o Hemoglobin Formulations
• Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin
o Fluorocarbon Emulsions
• Nanotecnological approach
o Principle - active means of conveying gas
molecules into, and out of, pressurized
• Sorts small gas molecules, and pump
against high pressures up to 30,000 atm
• Used to load or unload gas storage tanks,
depending upon the direction of rotor
o Substitutes of RBCs
o Deep sea diving – prevents BENDS
Respirocytes in blood – graphical representation
• Serum oxyglucose-powered spherical
nanorobot ~2 microns in diameter
containing a fiber mesh that is compactly
• Upon command from its control computer,
the device unfolds its mesh packet in the
immediate vicinity of an injured blood vessel
-- following a cut through the skin.
• Soluble thin films coating the mesh dissolve upon
contact with plasma , revealing sticky sections (e.g.,
complementary to blood group antigens unique to
red cell surfaces) in desired patterns. Blood cells are
immediately trapped in the overlapping artificial
nettings released by multiple neighboring activated
clottocytes ,and bleeding halts at once.
Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes
using DIGEST AND DISCHARGE PROTOCOL
• Sepsis and Septicemia
Microbivore - Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes
• Injection of a few cubic centimeters of
micron-sized nanorobots suspended in
fluid (probably a water/saline
• The typical therapeutic dose may
include up to 1-10 trillion (1 trillion =
1012) individual nanorobots.
• Acts fast
• No immune reactions due to their
• Japanese researchers have turned an
atomic force microscope (AFM) into a
surgical tool for cells that could add or
remove molecules from precise locations
inside a cell without harming it.
• An AFM has a tiny tip attached to the end of
a lever that can sense minute changes in
the cell as it drags across a surface.
• The AFM can sense the force it exerts on the
cell, making it extremely precise.
• The team used a beam of energetic ions to
sharpen a standard silicon AFM tip into a
needle just eight micrometres long and 200
• Researchers was able to insert the needle into
a human embryonic kidney cell.
• The cell membrane quickly returned to its
original shape, and the needle was pushed
into the cell's nucleus.
• The needle will allow to inject molecules into
specific regions of a cell.
• It would also be possible to monitor the
chemistry of a cell in real time.
atoms are being moved by the single atom tip of a
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Apart from allowing
scientist to image atoms, this instrument also allows
them to actually move them one at the time.
• Femtosecond (one millionth of a
billionth of a second) laser pulses are
used which can selectively cut a
single strand in a single cell.
• One can target a specific organelle
inside a single cell (a mitochondrion or
a strand on the cytoskeleton) and
destroy it without disrupting the rest of
• When a femtosecond laser pulse is tightly
focused into a nearly-transparent biological
material, energy is deposited by nonlinear
absorption only in the focus where laser
intensity is high, resulting in disruption of the
molecular structure and thus altering the
• It is possible to carve channels slightly less
than 1 micron wide, well within a cell's
diameter of 10 to 20 microns .
• This technique has been used for disrupting
single neural axons in living organisms and
manipulating sub-cellular structures in cells.
Femtolaser beams visualised through
• Femtolaser acts like
a pair of tiny "nano-scissors",
able to cut nano-sized
• Once cut, the axons
vaporize and no
other tissue is
DNA Repair Machines
• Floating inside the
nucleus of a human
cell, an assembler-built
• Poisoning, asphyxiation, drowning,
require cell-by-cell repair.
• A Nanorobot first envelopes the
patient, then enters in between all his
• It disassembles the patient,
surrounding each cell with its own
repair machinery and vascular system.
Thrombosis – Nanosurgical transbot
• Patrols the bloodstream, searching for
unwanted developing internal clots. If a
blood vessel occlusion occurs, in vivo
nanorobots can immediately clear an
opening so that free blood flow may resume,
avoiding tissue ischemia.
• A "Stinger"
in a delicate surgical
operation to remove
a cancer tumor.
• Injects a toxin or
medicine of choice,
• "Drillers, Peepers,
Stingers" engage in
a delicate surgical
operation to remove
a tumor. Whilst the
Stingers inject a
toxin, Drillers cut
deep into the tumor.
whole video scene
to the surgeon
• Nanotechnology was first used in
fabric in 1998 by a chemist named
David Soane, who founded Nano-Tex
while the first widespread commercial
use began in 2001.
• Fabrics are engineered on a molecular
level so that clothing becomes wrinkle
resistant, stain repellent and even able
to brush away body moisture and
• Chemotherapeutic agents can be in
corporated into fabrics which aids in the
dose related sustained release of these
o Nanotech vests for Breast carcinoma.
o Nanotech briefs for Testicular tumours.
• Catalytic anti-oxidant device
for use in restaurant deep-frying
• Keeps frying oil fresh
o surface areas are increased
exponentially by reducing the
surface particle size to the nano-level.
o it exposes a huge surface area
to the oil -- diverting oxygen
away from the oil and prevents
the oil from clumping. It also
allows for a shorter frying time,
with less oil remaining in the
• smart surfaces are self-cleaning.
• Refrigerators have been made with interiors coated to
be effective at self-sterilization and deodorization. They
also have antibacterial properties that allow food to stay
fresher for longer, and save energy by this means. They
also are lined with nano-based insulation materials that
reduce energy consumption.
• Dishwashers have been made that wash and sterilize
dishes and do so at lower temperatures.
• Vanadium-oxide-coated glass is a potent oxidizer under
UV light. This material can be coated in hydrophobic
whiskers on the surface of glass, making it hydrophobic
as well. As a result, dirt, debris, and organic material are
easily oxidized in sunlight and washed off in rain, making
for a self-cleaning window
• DNA repair machines can repair or replace
damaged or miscoded sections of
• Other medical nanorobots capable of cell
repair can purge human tissue cells of
unhealthy accumulated products and restore
these cells to their youthful vigor.
• Improvement of existing natural biological systems and
the addition of new systems and capabilities not found in
nature. Such re-engineering is commonly called
o Implanted nanocomputers in brain
Cosmetics - COSMOBOTS
• "Little robots hidden
in the skin to dispense
the pigments from
their stores as
programmed by their
Flying Saucer Barberbots
"used for 'non-buzz'
They can be
cut a person's
hair, to any
Dying patient could be frozen, then stored at
the temperature of liquid nitrogen for
decades or even centuries until the
necessary medical technology to restore
health is developed
• Medical nanobots
various tissues of the
teeth and gums.
• Microscopic robot about the size of a
human cell and 12 arms sticking out in all
directions. A bucketfull of such robots might
form a `robot crystal' by linking their arms up
into a lattice structure.
• Fill them to air in rooms.
• The robots are called Foglets and the
substance they form is Utility Fog, which may
have many useful medical applications.
• Quoting President of India,
A P J Abdul Kalam
technology, India has the
potential of becoming the
third largest knowledge
power in the world,
nanotechnology can push
India as one of the most
in the world….”
• Things that become practical with mature
Nanotechology (paraphrasing Dr. Drexler)
• Nearly free consumer products
• PC's billions of times faster then today
• Safe and affordable space travel
• Virtual end to illness, aging, death
• No more pollution and automatic cleanup of
• End of famine and starvation
• Superior education for every child on Earth
• Reintroduction of many extinct plants and animals