Liposomes are concentric bilayered vesicles in which the
aqueous volume is entirely enclosed by a lipid bilayer
composed of natural or synthetic phospholipids which are
GRAS (generally regarded as safe) products. The lipid bilayer of
liposomes can fuse with other bilayers such as the cell
membrane, which promotes release of its contents, making
them useful for cosmetic delivery applications. Their ease of
preparation, enhanced absorption of active ingredients by skin
and continuous supply of agents into the cells over a sustained
period of time make them suitable for cosmetic applications.
Vesicles, other than liposomes are being used these days that
claim to further enhance the penetration of substances
across the skin, such as transferosomes, niosomes, and
• They are dispersions of nanoscale droplets of one
liquid within another.They are metastable systems
whose structure can be manipulated based on the
method of preparation. The components used for their
preparation are GRAS products and are safe to use.
Their smaller particle size provide higher stability and
better suitability to carry active ingredients; they
also increase the shelf life of the product.
• Nanocapsules are submicroscopic particles that are
made of a polymeric capsule surrounding an
aqueous or oily core. It has been found that the use of
nanocapsules decreases the penetration of UV filter
octyl methoxycinnamate in pig skin when compared
with conventional emulsions.
Solid lipid nanoparticles
• They are oily droplets of lipids which are solid at body
temperature and stabilized by surfactants.
• They can protect the encapsulated ingredients from
degradation, used for the controlled delivery of cosmetic
agents over a prolonged period of time and have been
found to improve the penetration of active compounds
into the stratum corneum.
• In vivo studies have shown to be more efficient in skin
hydration than a placebo.
• UV-resistant properties, which were enhanced when a
molecular sunscreen was incorporated and tested. Enhanced
UV blocking by 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylchitin (a good UV
absorber) was seen when incorporated into SLNs.
• They are aggregates comprising several hundred to
tens of thousands of atoms that combine into a
“cluster”. Typical sizes of these aggregates are
between 10 and 400 nm and they exhibit physical and
chemical properties somewhere between that of bulk
solids and molecules.
• They allow safe and effective passage through skin.
• are stable carbon nanoparticles with potential anti-oxidant
ability and cytoprotective effect.
• They have extremely small mean diameters (<100 nm).
Their large inner volume allows the loading of small
biomolecules while their outer surface can be chemically
modified to render themselves various novel features
that can be used to load proteins and genes for effective
• The conductivity of carbon nanotubes can be used to
make highly sensitive sub-organellar biomarker
sensor, thus, making the diagnosis of chronic skin
infections and malignancies possible at an early
Nanosilver and Nanogold
• Cosmetic manufacturers are harnessing the enhanced
antibacterial properties of nanosilver(Silver is
effective against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcous
aureus, onchomycosis, trichophtyon and dermal
leishmaniasis, to name a few in a range of applications.
Some manufacturers are already producing underarm
deodorants with claims that the silver in the product will
provide up to 24-hour antibacterial protection.
• Nano-sized gold, like nanosilver, is claimed to be highly
effective in disinfecting the bacteria in the mouth
and has also been added to toothpaste.
• Dendrimers are unimolecular, monodisperse, micellar
nanostructures, around 20 nm in size, with a well-defined,
regularly branched symmetrical structure and a
high density of functional end groups at their periphery.
• They contain large number of external groups suitable
• Cubosomes are discrete, sub-micron, nanostructured
particles of bi-continuous cubic liquid crystalline phase.
It is formed by the self assembly of liquid crystalline
particles of certain surfactants when mixed with water
and a microstructure at a certain ratio.
• Cubosomes offer a large surface area, low viscosity and
can exist at almost any dilution level. They have high heat
stability and are capable of carrying hydrophilic and
hydrophobic molecules.Combined with the low cost of the
raw materials and the potential for controlled release through
functionalization, they are an attractive choice for cosmetic
applications as well as for drug delivery.
• However, at present cubosomes do not offer controlled
release on their own. They have also been modified
using proteins. A number of companies including
L’Oréal, Nivia and Procter and Gamble are
investigating cubosomes for cosmetic applications.
Despite this interest, cubosomes have not yet led to
• They are 3D hydrophilic polymer networks that swell
in water or biological fluids without dissolving as a
result of chemical or physical cross-links.
• They can predict future changes and change their
property accordingly to prevent the damage.
• Buckminster fullerene, C60, is perhaps the most iconic
nanomaterial and is approximately 1 nm in diameter.
• It has found its way into some very expensive face
creams. The motivation is to capitalize on its capacity to
behave as a potent scavenger of free radicals.
• Although fullerenes are hydrophobic, they can be
organically functionalized by attaching hydrophilic
moiety and become water-soluble and capable of
carrying genes, proteins and other biomolecules for
• Their small size, spherical shape, and hollow interior all
provide therapeutic opportunities.
These have been proposed as rejuvenating cosmetic
products like sunscreens, moisturizers, long lasting
makeup, etc., Slow release kinetics are important in
perfumes, which can yield all day fragrance. 
Regardless of the desired application (transdermal or
topical), the transport characteristics of the nanocarriers
are related to its dimensions (hydrodynamic diameter
and shape-spherical, elliptical, nail-shaped) and the
pathway (via the intercellular route or the hair follicle).
• Picoparticles are approximately 2 to 3 orders of magni- tude
smaller than that of nanoparticles and appear to be on an
atomic or small-molecule scale. An example of a
picoparticle would be water or an atom of zinc or titanium.
• one manufacturer, BIoNoVA, Inc, for Barneys New York has
developed several proprietary nanotechnologies, which can
be used as a technological platform for creation of multiple
products oriented toward enhancement of self- healing
processes. This technological platform is based on
development of nanotechnology of bioactive complex
modeling, which has the ability to manipulate not only with
nano, but also with pico size particles.
NOVEL CARRIERS FOR COSMETICS AND
• It is a distinctive technology which utilizes microporous
beads (10- 25 microns in diameter) for the controlled
release of topical agents
• loaded with active agent having properties like
inertness with monomer, adequate stability in contact
with polymerization catalyst and process, immiscibility or
slight solubility in water.
• Microsponge delivery system (MDS) release of active
drug is carried out in a timely manner and also in
response to other stimuli like rubbing, temperature,
pH, moisture etc, onto the skin. MDS is being used in
cosmetics, over-the counter (OTC) skin care,
sunscreens and prescription products .
• Commonly used drugs for microsponge delivery system
are flubriprofen, benzylperoxide, fluocinolone
acetonide, retinol etc.
• A microsponge formulation provides extended release
with reduced irritation and improved patient
compliance. These are stable and are self sterilizing
capacity as particles are very small (0.25μm) size where
bacteria cannot penetrate.
• In cosmetic and dermal preparation wide variety of
applications like in sunscreens for long lasting
product efficiency and with improved safeguard for
better protection from sunburns and sun related
injuries even at high concentration and with
decreased irritancy and sensitization,
• in antipruritics for long- lasting and enhanced
• In rubefacients for prolonged activity with decreased
irritancy Greasiness and odour,
• , In skin depigmenting agents e.g. hydroquinone for
enhanced stabilization against oxidation with better
efficacy and aesthetic appeal,
• In antifungals for continuous release of active drug
• In antidandruff preparations like zinc pyrithione,
selenium sulphide it is used to decrease obnoxious
odour and also to minimise irritation and increase
level of safety and effectiveness for long duration
• In anti- acne preparations e.g. Benzoyl peroxide to
maintained efficiency with reduced skin irritation and
• in anti-inflammatory preparations e.g.
hydrocortisone for longer duration of activity with
decreased skin allergic response and dermatoses,
• Microsponge drug delivery system can also be used in
Line Eliminator Dual Retinol Facia treatment-In this
immediate and time released action of vitamin A is
obtained by fading the appearance of fine lines,
wrinkles and skin discolorations coupled with aging
Following are the some marketed products of Microsponge drug
delivery system with advantages
• Aramis fragrances- High Performance Antiperspirant Spray for 24
Hours release of fragrance.
• Carac Cream – It is prescribed as a single dose/day for the treatment
of actinic keratosis (AK).
• EpiQuin Micro- This is a prescription moisturizing fading cream that
decreases effects of conditions like melasma, post inflammatory hyper
pigmentation or solar lentigines and also helps in Age spots, Sun spots,
and Facial discoloration.
• Retin- for topical treatment of acne vulgaris.
• Retinol cream, Retinol 15 Night cream-A night time treatment
cream, continued use of Retinol 15 will help to reduce fine lines and
wrinkles, and prominent improvement in the skin discolorations occur
due to aging, and enhanced skin smoothness.
• Sports creams RS and XS - Topical analgesic-anti-inflammatory
and counterirritant used for managing
• Micro Peel Plus/Acne Peel- These microcrystals target
the correct areas on the skin that need improvement.
• Oil Control Lotion- Day cream used to give matte finish
and eliminates shine for hours after application. It soothes
inflammation and leaves tighten skin and thus promote
healing of acne-Prone oily skin conditions.
• Lactrex™ 12% Moisturizing Cream- helps to moisturize
dry, flaky, cracked skin.
Vitamin and gold loaded nanofibre
• Conventional beauty face masks existing in the market
are cotton masks that are pre-moistened with skin
nutrients. The aqueous phase of the pre-moistened
mask can raise the degradation rate of the unstable
ingredients such as ascorbic acid.
• To overcome this problem a novel polymeric face
mask have been developed that can accommodate
several skin nutrients such as ascorbic acid, retinoic
acid, gold, and collagen.
• Many marketing tactics include the inclusion of
antioxidants and other skin nutrients into cosmetic
• The strength and function of the skin depends upon an
important factor i.e. Collagen which also play an
important role in skin rejuvenation and wrinkle reversal
effect. The quantity of collagen in the skin decreases
along with age; therefore, it is extensively used as a
moisturizer in cosmetic creams and products.
• Generally Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has been used
in cosmetic and dermatological preparations for its
photoprotective action, ability to destroy free
radicals and oxidizing agents. It can also encourage
collagen synthesis and suppress the pigmentation of
the skin. Vitamin C is chemically unstable, and can be
oxidized very easily; therefore, more stable derivatives
(with ability to convert into active compound i.e. ascorbic
acid after ingestion) like ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl
tetraisopalmitate, and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate
formulated as a emulsion are extensively used in
• Retinoic acid can be used in treatment of acne and also
promotes the repair of skin damaged by ultraviolet
and can decrease wrinkles caused by photoaging
• Gold nanoparticles have been studied as potential
vaccine carriers and in transdermal delivery.
• Nowadays Gold facial masks are being used in
beauty clinics and saloons. It works by improving
the blood circulation, skin elasticity, and thereby
revitalizes the skin and also reduces the formation of
wrinkles. Skin permeation studies demonstrate that
spherical gold nanoparticles are not inherently toxic to
human skin cell
• Recent sunscreens contain insoluble nanoparticles
(colourless) of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) or zinc oxide
(ZnO), which reflect/disperse ultraviolet more
effectively than bigger particles.
• The nano-sized particles are used in sunscreens as a
substitute to existing chemical UV absorbers, such
as p-aminobenzoic acid and benzophenones, which
can cause sensitivity reactions individuals
• one common ingredient in broad-spectrum sunscreens, which
protect the skin from both UVA and UVB rays, is
avobenzone, which can make a sunscreen greasy and
very noticeable when applied to the skin. Since titanium,
another common sunscreen ingredient, requires an oily
mixture to dissolve, a white residue can be apparent on the
skin upon application. However, when these active ingredients
in sunscreens are converted into nanoparticles, they can be
suspended in less greasy formulations – which seem to
vanish on the skin and do not leave a residue – while
retaining their ability to block UVA and UVB light.
• nanoparticles shrink in size, they interact with light differently. If they are
smaller than the wavelength of visible light, they may become
transparent. Smaller nanoparticles also coat the skin more tightly and
evenly than their counterparts. Microparticle (left); nanoparticle (right)
1/1000 size of microparticle (not to scale
• When properly engineered, nanomaterials may be able
to topically deliver retinoids, antioxidants and drugs
such as botulinum toxin or growth factors for
rejuvenation of the skin in the future.
• vitamin C is an antioxidant that helps fight age-related
skin damage which works best below the top layer of
skin. In bulk form, vitamin C is not very stable and is
difficult to penetrate the skin. However, in future
formulations, nanotechnology may increase the stability
of vitamin C and enhance its ability to penetrate the
• Topical paralytic agents, such as ã-aminobutyric acid,
are being used to transcutaneously relax muscles of
• Botulinum toxin has been stabilized and encapsulated
in a form that allows penetration of the skin and apparent
effacement of rhytides in early clinical trials
• nanoparticles of hyaluronic acid can penetrate the skin
making possible its topical application without the need
of an injection
• Some biologically active materials may be too large
(botulinum toxin, hyaluronic acid) or polar (γ-
aminobutyric acid) to penetrate the epidermis and may
require injections for administration (left).
Nanoencapsulated versions of these molecules may be
stable and penetrate to the dermis (right)
Diagnosis of cutaneous malignancies
Quantum dots, a type of nanoparticles, tagged with
antibodies can be used for real time visualization of
sentinel lymph nodes and cutaneous tumors,
especially metastatic melanoma
• Sentinel lymph-node mapping is now a mainstay for surgery
of intermediate-thickness and thick melanomas.
• It may soon be used for other types of invasive skin cancer
such as squamous cell carcinoma.
• Tracers required for sentinel-node mapping must be
optimized for hydrodynamic diameter, surface, charge,
and contrast. Diameters less than 10nm can overshoot the
draining lymph node. This results in the sentinel node being
missed and multiple downstream nodes and possibly nodal
basins being labeled. Molecules that are larger (50–100nm)
either do not enter lymphatics or travel so slowly that 24 hours
or more may be required for label uptake. Molecules with a
negative surface charge enter lymphatics more readily and
are retained in the lymph nodes better.
• Recently, quantum dots have proved useful in
identifying sentinel nodes using infrared
• allow for excellent realtime visualization of dye travel
during a sentinel-node-mapping procedure. They also
move rapidly due to their specific size of 15–20nm and
are firmly anchored to lymph nodes with their anionic
• they allow for non- radioactive detection.
• Once optimized, they may prove superior to other
tracers for sentinel-node mapping.
Future Melanoma Treatment
• gold when turned into a nanomaterial called nanoshells, has
been shown to be a useful treatment for melanoma in animal
• In one animal study done at MD Anderson Cancer Center in
Houston, investigators joined gold nanoshells with a molecule
which homes to melanoma. When these gold nanoshells are
injected into mice harboring melanoma, the nanoshells
accumulate in the cancerous tissue. When mice are
illuminated with the proper wavelength of light, their tumors,
laden with gold nanoshells, heat up and are effectively killed.
The surrounding tissue, which lacks targeted gold nanoshells,
Nanomechanical and Nanotribological
study of hair
• used to study the mechanical characteristics of hair.
Understanding the differences between hair types allows
cosmetic companies to create products to suit individual
hair types (e.g. ethnic differences between Caucasian,
Asian and African hair) as these can respond differently
to activities like shampooing, styling or colouring.
• The hair care industry is also interested in the effect of
water on the nanomechanical properties of hair.
• Bhusan et al. have conducted nanoscratch tests, using
Nano Intender II (MTS Nanosystems), to understand
properties of different types of hairs at the nanoscale63.
The studies demonstrated the difference in scratch
resistance of single hair fibres of different ethnic
regions as well as the coefficient of friction of hairs.
They found that the first 200nm of the hair surface,
irrespective of origin, is softer than the underlying
layer. A further study into the hair fatigue due to stress
and tension using AFM has shown that the ethnic hairs
vary in mechanical properties
Diagnosis of skin infections
• Carbon nanotubes’ can be linked to bigger molecules
like nucleic acids and antibodies which in turn can bind
their receptors. The electrical conductivity is different for
isolated, coupled and receptor-bound coupled carbon
nanotubes. Based on this unique property, a highly
sensitive biomarker sensor can be developed for the
real time diagnosis of cutaneous infections and may
Treatment of skin infections
• Nanoparticulate chitosan has been used to encapsulate
various volatile antimicrobial gases e.g. nitric oxide
which is released when the polymer dissolves. It is
utilized in treating cutaneous infections and
Treatment of spongiotic dermatoses
• Nanoencapsulated topical steroids absorb in the
epidermis without penetrating the dermis. Therefore,
help avoiding steroid side effects such as atrophy and
telangiectasias and used in the treatment of spongiotic
• filaggrin gene (FLG) is critical to the development of
atopic eczema and ichthyosis vulgaris. In Caucasians,
mutations R501X and 2284deI4 are present in at least
7–10% of the population. Improved barrier creams are
being developed using nanotechnology. One of the most
helpful would be a cream that would either deliver
filaggrin itself to the skin or stimulate the synthesis
of filaggrin. Furthermore, the cream could be
formulated to deliver filaggrin to regions where
transepidermal water loss is highest.
• Traupe et al. are working on a therapy for lamellar
ichthyosis. The defect for one variant has been localized
• Traupe’s group has isolated and purified
transglutaminase-1 and tagged it with six histidines for
purification. They plan to package recombinant
transglutaminase in cationic liposomes and make a
cream for therapy.
• The project is supported by a Foundation for Ichthyosis
and Related Skin Types grant. If successful, enzyme-replacement
therapies may be modified for other
cutaneous genetic diseases.
Sebaceous gland targeting
• targeting strategies for hair follicle related disease like acne, rosacea
get benefit from the follicular penetration of topically applied particles
like poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, biodegradable poly-lactic acid, solid
lipid nanoparticles and liposomes loaded with active drug moiety.
• A major advantage is the better tolerability of irritating retinoid
improving patient compliance as well as the avoidance of systemic
absorption and side effects.
• The extensive research in recent years has led to the
commercialization of certain particle-based anti-acne products of
benzoyl peroxide (BP, such as a BP microsphere cream 5.5%
(NeoBenz Micro(R), SkinMedica, Inc.) and a BP microsphere wash
7% (NeoBenz Micro Wash Plus Pack(R), SkinMedica, Inc.).
• Clinical studies showed high levels of skin tolerability, esthetic
attributes and patient satisfaction after treatment with BP-loaded
Laser ablation and phototherapy
• Short laser pulses already have been used in
ophthalmology and dermatology to target melanosomes
and thus treat hyper- pigmentation disorders of the skin
or retinal disorders.
• Examples of nanoparticles used are iron oxide, gold.
• Photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using gold
nanoparticles have been seen as a promising treatment
strategy of skin cancer and various skin diseases, but its
use has been limited due to the costs and patient
Treatment of hair diseases
• treatment of hair disorders like alopecia androgenetica
and alopecia areata.
• by increasing drug penetration into the hair follicle
openings and can act as a depot for a sustained
drug release within the hair follicle. Examples of
nanoparticles used to treat hair disease are poly(lactic-co-
glycolic) acid, poly (e-caprolactone)-
blockpolyethylene glycol, neutral liposomes, solid lipid
• Encapsulated topical steroids are being developed, which
accumulate in the epidermis, but do not penetrate the dermis,
where collagenolysis associated with atrophy and
telagiectases occurs. These types of agents will be useful for
the management of spongiotic dermatoses and will carry a
reduced risk of corticosteroid-mediated side-effects.
Bulk soybean oil is not toxic. Nanoemulsions of soybean oil
are antimicrobial and are being incorporated into
disinfectants. Nanoemulsions of other compounds that can
penetrate the nail and the pilosebaceous unit are being used
to treat onychomycosis and acne, respectively.
• use would prove beneficial for local treatment of inflammatory
skin diseases as well.
• Glucocorticoids are key drugs in dermatology, but with side
effects like skin atrophy which limits their chronic use. It has
recently been shown that a targeting of the epidermis, where
the inflammatory process takes place, instead of the dermis,
can be achieved by using liposomal formulations, thus
minimizing skin atrophy.
• Several other studies indicate that various drugs such as
podophyllotoxin, cyclosporine A, tacrolimus methotrexate,
psoralen, dithranol, clotrimazole and other antifungal drugs
could be integrated in nanoparticles to achieve a better
tolerability, an increased safety and an optimal therapeutic
Thermosensitive nanoparticle polymers
• Thermo-sensitive polymers encapsulate drugs below a
critical temperature and dissolve to release the drug
above the critical temperature.
• These are being used for drug delivery at the sites of
inflammation or wherever external heat is applied. This is
the basis of treatment of localized psoriasis
(especially nails and scalp) using methotrexate
encapsulated in a thermosensitive polymer.
• As previously mentioned, the hair follicle and more
specifically the bulge region and the hair matrix
accommodate a substantial population of stem cells.
• Since nanoparticles can penetrate selectively into the
hair follicle canal, nanoparticulate formulations could
be used for gene delivery, creating new potential in the
emerging field of gene therapy.
• Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating small inhibitor
ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) can selectively inactivate
• Nanoencapsulated siRNAs have been used for the
management of a genodermatosis (pachyonychia
congenital) and for the successful targeted delivery
and inhibition of a test gene expressed in melanoma
in human trials.
Transdermal drug delivery
• Several opiates are already commercially available as a
patch. Unfortunately, the strong lipophilic stratum
corneum hinders the permeation of hydrophilic
molecules and retains high lipophilic drugs, thus limiting
the transdermal delivery of strong lipophilic or hydrophilic
• Hair follicles could play an important role as a shunt for
the systemic absorption of topically applied drugs.
• Recently nanoparticles have been used as a drug carrier
for transdermal drug delivery system.
• encapsulation of substances in nanoparticles enhances their
transdermal penetration and permeation as a result of the
• The nanoparticles used are calcium carbonate, solid lipid
nanoparticle, nanostructured lipid carrier. More recently,
polymeric nanoparticles and electroporation were successfully
used for the transdermal delivery of insulin to overcome
drawbacks of subcutaneous drug administration like patient
discomfort, localised drug reaction e.g., lipoatrophy and
granuloma formation etc
• transdermal drug delivery could modernize treatment
strategies for Diabetes and chronic pain by offering much
more patient compliance
• . Dr. James T. Elder, from the University of Michigan, discussed
how gene chips make it possible to identify infrequent or low
risk alleles for psoriasis. It is now possible to test cohorts of up
to 30,000 patients and thus obtain the statistical strength to
identify these previously elusive alleles.
• Dr. Costanzo uses nanotechnology in the form of next
generation sequencing technology coupled with chromatin
immunoprecipitation (Nano-ChIP-seq) to explore the
pathogenesis of psoriasis.Using Nano-ChIP-seq, Dr. Costanzo
and his colleagues have shown that IKKα is downregulated in
patients with psoriasis, and they have discovered a novel
nuclear function of IKKα as a repressor of inflammatory
genes in keratinocytes.
• Both of these researchers highlighted how they capitalize on
both the cost saving and data enhancing benefits
nanotechnology confers to gene chips.
treatment of chronic itch
• if there is a reservoir of nanoparticles that collect along the hair
follicle it would hold enormous potential for the treatment of
• nerve fibers in the epidermis and epidermal-dermal junction (DEJ)
are overactive in patients with chronic itch, and the hair follicle is an
important target for anti-itch medication.
• The development of ultra-small polymer particles that allow for
the controlled release of anti-pruritics would enable targeted
drug therapy focused on the epidermis, DEJ skin and nerve
fibersmany potential targets along the hair follicle, from the
infundibulum (CB1, CB2, and NK1) to the hair bulb (CB2, TRPV1,
NK1, B-endorphin) and dermal papilla (SP, CGRP, MOR).
• Sensitization to itch is associated with nerve growth factors,
including G-protein coupled receptors, and ion channel receptors.
• The stratum corneum is in close proximity to fibers containing
these receptors., "If you remove the upper layers of skin, you
don't have itch, you only have pain." Because topical nano-therapeutics
concentrate in the upper layers of the skin,
nanotechnology offers potential for the treatment of itch.
Future perspectives of nanodermatology therapies for itch
include the development of ultra-small polymers that allow
controlled release of anti-pruritics, as well as combination
drugs that make possible precise feedback mechanisms that
can safely regulate the release of drugs on board na-noparticles
to maximize activity, while minimizing toxicity.
Immunomodulation and Vaccine
Delivery via Skin
• . Skin is the main route to allergen sensitization
.Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells are
two types of skin-resident antigen-presenting cells that
express CD1a, a protein that mediates antigen
presentation.T cells are also abundantly present in
normal skin .
• The possibility to exploit nanotechnology to modulate the
immune system and to deliver vaccines through skin are
active research area of increasing importance as
Antimicrobials and Wound Healing
• Silver ions have long been used for their inherent
antimicrobial properties .Silver ions are thought to inhibit
bacterial enzymes and bind to DNA , whereas nano Ag is
reported to induce bacterial cell wall and cytoplasmic
membrane damage .
• Literature also supports the antimicrobial activity of nitric
oxide (NO) and its use to promote wound healing
• nitric oxide–releasing nanoparticles (10 nm) made from
tetramethylorthosilicate, polyethylene glycol, and chitosan.
• Nitric oxide gas was trapped in the hydrogel/glass composite
matrix and released upon contact with water. Topical
application of these nanoparticles was reported in this journal
to be highly effective against cutaneous methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus infection in a mouse
• may be ideal for applications in combat or disaster
situations where emergency personnel could apply them
directly to trauma wounds in the field.
• Other examples are Chlorhexidin-loaded nanoparticles
(Nanochlorex), uncoated TiO2 possess antibacterial
properties due to their photocatalytic action.
• Human skin is largely translucent.
• Three aspects of skin beauty are color correction, gloss
correction, and face-shape correction.
• Color comes from a combination of skin type and ambient
light impinging on the skin. Only about 5% of surface light is
reflected; the remainder penetrates the skin, where it is
scattered and absorbed. Melanin and hemoglobin absorb
almost half of the light, and the other half eventually makes its
way out of the skin. Melanin absorbs UV light, hemoglobin
absorbs mid-wavelength yellow and green light, and the
exiting light is red or infrared. The pattern of this light gives
the skin its appearance and beauty.
• Nanometer-thick titanium-coating mica powders can alter
this pattern. Titanium-coated mica powders in foundation are
superb at color correction, but give the skin too much
• When incorporated with composites of nanoscale barium
chloride and sodium sulfate, this gloss gives way to a matte-like
finish. If the surface coatings are larger (1,000–1,500nm),
they scatter light. If 20–50% of the nano-sized titanium mica
are coated in this way, they reflect light in the mid-face and
scatter light on the periphery of the face. This causes facial
contrast, making the face look more 3D and causing face-shape
correction. These scattering properties can be modified
by altering the shape of the particles themselves from plate-like
to spherical to needle-like
• . Further modifications may be able to enhance internal
reflection of light at the skin–air interface or alter the
wavelength of outgoing light to create a glow. This
could be used for color correction or for apparent
surface correction of fine lines, blemishes, or
shadows. Furthermore, variation of the size of particles
is being used to create make-up colors of nearly infinite
as well as iridescent hues, such as those on the wings of
• Fabrics incorporating superhydrophobic
'nanowhiskers' (nanosized hair-like projections on
individual textile fibers) can repel stains, dirt, and
• Fabrics impregnated with nanosilver are antimicrobial
and may be beneficial to health care workers.
• Nanosilver is also being incorporated into dressings or
bandages to minimize the potential for wound infection.
• Nanosilver in washing machines allows disinfection at
lower temperatures and saves energy
• Fibers can be specifically designed to be bacteriostatic or
fungistatic, to absorb fluids, to be breathable, to be
hemostatic or non-allergenic, and to incorporate growth
factors or medications. They may contain natural
materials such as alginate, chitin, and collagen. They may
contain carbon fibers or be made of composite materials
that are woven, non-woven, knitted, crocheted, braided,
• may have additives that relieve pain, reduce odor, or provide
cushioning or breathability. They may provide compression
that is fixed, variable, or graduated. Fibers can already be
made from yarns of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon, or wool and
coated with nanomaterials. These fibers, if coated with
nanosilver 10nm in size and 0.4–0.9% in weight, are effective
against most bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
• Smart Clothing One company- conductive fiber grid
integrated into the shirt and is washable. When the shirt
is connected to sensors that detect electrical activity and
also stretch, the shirt can be used to monitor its wearers.
• For example, athletes and patients can use the shirt to
monitor heart rate and respiration. Other potential
sensors could detect sweat rate and body temperature.
This information could be relayed wirelessly to local or
• Researchers have also created nanobatteries that can
generate electricity from the movement and rustling of
• In the future these integrated kinetically charged
batteries could allow a shirt, or any item of fabric, to
• to monitor UV light exposure in patients who are sun-sensitive
or to monitor body temperature in patients who
have hypohidrotic disorders.
• could also detect excess sweat and locally release
antiperspirant or detect warmth from itch and locally
release anti-inflammatory medication.
• a small, simple biopsy tool consisting of copper, nickel,
silicon, and chromium layered in the shape of an origami
• Differing coefficients of expansion of the layers allow
temperature change to cause the claw to close and open, like
a Venus flytrap.
• The nanopunch is paramagnetic and its migration can be
controlled by a magnetic field.
• The nanopunch could be injected into the bloodstream and
guided to challenging biopsy sites, such as the nail
matrix, the fascia, and the liver.
• The claw could be activated by temperature and collected
from a urine sample by a magnetic trap. Tissue could then
be released for analysis.
• first described by Michael Faraday in 1857.
• include selenium, copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron.
• Selenium is an important antioxidant for the skin, and
protects the skin through involvement with glutathione
peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. Selenium sulfide is
used in rinse of products such as dandruff shampoos.
• Copper is commonly found in wound healing and anti-aging
products, and possesses antimicrobial and antiviral activities.
Copper containing pillowcases have been found to reduce
wrinkling by stimulating extracellular matrix protein
• 11% of the zinc in the body resides in the epidermis, and zinc
compounds are used in dandruff shampoos, antifungals,
• Metal nanoparticles are used in both cosmetics and
• The high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles
creates an increased driving force for diffusion
across the skin barrier.
• Their small size confers the benefit of invisibility, as
these nanoparticles are 4-7 times smaller than the visible
wavelength of light.
• These metal nanoparticle cosmeceuticals can potentially
deliver metals necessary for wound healing and collagen
remodeling to potential benefit.
• another, engineers at the University of California at
Berkeley recently developed a pressure-sensitive
electronic material from semiconductor nanowires that
functions like human skin.
• first such material made out of inorganic single crystalline
• It could some day restore the sense of touch to patients
with prosthetic limbs. With major players like Merck,
Schering-Plough and Johnson & Johnson providing funding,
and major research institutions across the globe devoting time
and effort to its study, what seemed like science fiction just a
few years ago could well be the nanotechnology-based
realities of tomorrow
• Large number of risks both to humans as well
as to the environment.
• The toxicity of nanomaterials is affected by
their properties, which are attributable to
their smaller size, chemical composition,
surface structure, solubility, shape and
Smaller size of nanoparticles
• create the opportunity for increased uptake and
interaction with the biological tissues
• production of reactive oxygen species, including
free radicals which will result in oxidative stress,
inflammation, and consequent damage to proteins,
membranes and DNA.
• can easily gain access to the blood stream via skin
or inhalation and from there they will be transported to
the various organs. The high dose and long residence
time of the nanoparticles in the vital organs can lead to
Carbon nanotubes have been shown to cause the
death of kidney cells and to inhibit further cell
Whereas 500 nm titanium dioxide particles have only a
small ability to cause DNA strand breakage, 20 nm
particles of titanium dioxide are capable of causing
complete destruction of super-coiled DNA, even at
low doses and in the absence of exposure to UV
Another study found that mice which were subacutely
exposed to 2–5 nm TiO2 nanoparticles showed a
significant but moderate inflammatory response
Shape of nanoparticles
• Nanoparticles are produced in a variety of shapes like
spheres, tubes, sheets etc. and this may be a major
cause for the health risks caused by them. A study has
shown that exposing the abdominal cavity of mice to
long carbon nanotubes are linked with inflammation
of the abdominal wall
Surface area of nanoparticles
• As the size decreases, their surface area increases
leading to an increase in their reactivity.
Nanomaterials are also highly reactive due to their high
surface area-to-mass ratio, providing more area by
weight for chemical reactions to occur, because of which
some nanoscale particles may be potentially explosive
and/ or photoactive. E.g.anoscale titanium dioxide and
silicon dioxide—may explode if finely dispersed in the
air and they come into contact with a sufficiently
strong ignition source
Penetration of nanoparticles via skin
• nanoparticles up to 1000 nm in size can penetrate skin,
especially if skin is flexed or massaged.
• Broken skin is a direct route for the penetration of particles
even up to a size of 7000 nm.
• The presence of acne, eczema and wounds may enhance
the absorption of nanoparticles into the blood stream and
may lead to further complications.
• penetration was deeper in skin affected by psoriasis than
in unaffected skin.
• Recently, the base carriers are being modified in order to
enhance the skin penetration by incorporating certain
penetration enhancers, both physical and chemical, and
also by preparing newer vesicular systems with increased
skin penetrability like ethosomes and transferosomes
Cellular toxicity - zinc oxide & titanium dioxide
• In study by Minghong Wu and co-workers at Shanghai
University, ZnO nanoparticles used in sunscreens can
damage or kill the stem cells in the brains of mice.Wu et
al. prepared cultures of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs),
and treated them with zinc oxide nanoparticles ranging
from 10 to 200 nanometers in size. After 24 hours, the cell
viability assay indicated that ZnO nanoparticles manifested
dose-dependent, but not size-dependent toxic effects on
NSCs. Through analysis using confocal microscopy,
transmission electron microscopy examination, and flow
cytometry, many of the NSCs showed clear signs of
apoptosis. This zinc oxide nanoparticle toxicity was found to
be the effect of the dissolved zinc ions in the culture medium
or inside cells.
• In another work by Arnaud Magrez at the NN Research
Group, it was found that titanium dioxide based
nanofilaments were found to be cytotoxic, which was
affected by their geometry and also enhanced by the
presence of defects on the nanofilament surface,
resulting from chemical treatment. Nanofilament
internalization and alterations in cell morphology
Occupational risks of nanoparticles
• Workers may be accidentally exposed to nanomaterials
during the production of nanomaterials or products
containing them, as well as during use, disposal or
recycling of these products. Exposure may also occur in
cleaning and maintaining research, production and
handling facilities.A higher potency of nanomaterials
compared to microsized particles was detected by
Kaewamatawong et al. At present, there is insufficient
information according to the European Agency for Safety
and Health at Work. In addition, because nanomaterials have
applications in many consumer products and the use of
such materials in products is increasing, consumers have an
increasing chance of exposure to these materials..
• most real world exposure to nanomaterials is chronic.
The potential for nanomaterials to gradually accumulate
in tissue over a long period of time is the most
concerning. He showed that Chinese Hamster Ovary
cells (CHO) have a concentration dependent
increase in ROS in both acute and chronic TiO2
exposed cells. Over time, the effect of TiO2 diminishes
in chronically exposed cells. Overall, however, CHO cells
appear to adapt to chronic exposure of nano TiO2 .the
effect of TiO2 on cells seems to be minimal without light
Route and extent of
• health risks that nanoparticles pose to the humans also
depend on the route and extent of exposure to such
materials. Nanomaterials enter the body mainly through
• most common route of exposure of airborne nanoparticles
according to the National Institute of Occupational Health and
Safety. For eg. workers may inhale nanomaterials while
producing them if the appropriate safety devices are not
used, while consumers may inhale nanomaterials when
using products containing nanomaterials, such as spray
versions of sunscreens containing nanoscale titanium
dioxide. According to officials at the National Institutes of
Health, although the vast majority of inhaled particles enter
the pulmonary tract, evidence from studies on laboratory
animals suggest that some inhaled nanomaterials may travel
via the nasal nerves to the brain and gain access to the
blood, nervous system, and other organs, according to
studies we reviewed.
• Ingestion of nanomaterials may occur from
unintentional hand-to-mouth transfer of
nanomaterials or from the intentional ingestion of
• A large fraction rapidly pass out of the body;
however, according to some of the studies a small
amount may be taken up by the body and then
migrate into organs.
• Studies have shown that certain nanomaterials have
penetrated layers of pig skin within 24 hours of
• According to some of the studies reviewed by the US
Government Accountability Office (GAO), concerns
have been raised that nanomaterials in sunscreens
could penetrate damaged skin.
Environmental risks of nanoparticles
exposure of nanomaterials through release into the water, air, and
soil, during the manufacture, use, or disposal of these materials,
if antibacterial in nature and if released in sufficient amounts, could
potentially interfere with beneficial bacteria in sewage and waste
water treatment plants and could also contaminate water intended
for reuse, according to some of the studies reviewed by US GAO. For
example, studies have revealed the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to
the main body systems of rainbow trout.
In a study conducted by the University of Toledo, the researchers
discovered that nano-titanium dioxide used in personal care
products reduced biological roles of bacteria after less than an
hour of exposure. These findings suggest that these particles, which
end up at municipal sewage treatment plants could eliminate
microbes that play vital roles in ecosystems and help treat
• Rice University's Centre for Biological and Environmental
Nanotechnology has pointed out the tendency for
nanoparticles to bind to contaminating substances
already pervasive in the environment like cadmium and
petrochemicals. This tendency would make nanoparticles a
potential mechanism for long range and widespread
transport of pollutants in groundwater.
• An interdisciplinary team of researchers at the UC (University
of California) Santa Barbara produced a groundbreaking
observation on how nanoparticles are able to biomagnify in
a simple microbial food chain.
Toxicity produced by carbon
• Various studies have shown that carbon fullerenes,
which are currently being used in moisturizers and
some face creams, have the potential to cause brain
damage in largemouth bass, a fish species accepted
by regulatory agencies as a model for defining
ecotoxicological effects, kill water fleas and have
• Fullerenes have even been found to be toxic to the
vascular endothelial cells.
• The buzz around nanodermatology is growing thanks, in
part, to President Obama. In his 2011 State of the Union
address, the President “discussed recent research
related to nanotechnology-based treatment for
• Nanoparticles (NP's) are found throughout nature, during
combustion reactions, in volcanic eruptions, erosion, and
people are naturally exposed to NP's all the time. There
is therefore a natural adaptation and tolerance to NP's
that is imperative for survival
• In July 2012, materials supplier Antaria came under fire
from environmental groups for providing metal oxide
powders containing nanoparticles for a number of
sunscreen brands which were advertised as
nanoparticle-free. This highlights the issue with
classification of nano-enhanced products - the particle
size distribution of many powders will include some
nanoscale particles, and it is not clear how much this
affects the health implications of nanomaterials.
• From available literature, the penetration of ZnO and TiO2
nanoparticles pose minimal health concern.
• ZnO is soluble in acidic environments, and the acidity of the
skin stratum corneum likely induces dissolution and
penetration of ionic Zn. Zinc is an essential mineral and
therefore poses minimal toxicity concern.
• TiO2 nanoparticles are highly insoluble and are prone to
agglomeration, which may hinder their penetration.
Furthermore, stability and low toxicity of TiO2 are two
properties that have long been exploited in the successful use
of Ti metal for dental and orthopedic implants
• The adjuvant effect of these and other types of
nanoparticles that may contact barrier-defective skin, as
well as the effect of UVR induced immunosuppression
on nanoparticle skin interactions, remain important open
questions. Limited data exist on nanoparticle interaction
with diseased skin. Atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are
common conditions on the rise. Contact hypersensitivity
is a common occupational disease. The effects of these
barrier-altering skin conditions on the penetration and
transport of nanoparticles are largely unknown
• “Certainly, some of the early leaders in nanodermatology
have been the cosmetic companies,” says Adnan Nasir
MD PhD, president of the Raleigh, North Carolina-based
Nanodermatology Society (nanodermsociety.org). Now,
the medical and device side of the research and
development equation is catching on.
• a substantial proportion of patents issued for
nanotechnology-based discoveries are currently in the
realm of cosmetic and consumer skin care products. In
fact, the cosmetic industry leads all other industries in
the number of patents for nanoparticles, which have the
potential to enhance sunscreens, shampoos and
conditioners, lipsticks, eye shadows, moisturizers,
deodorants, after-shave products and perfumes
Cosmetics giant L'Oréal invested $927 million in cosmetic
and dermatological research in 2011 and is an industry
leader in nanotechnology-related patents.
Oro Gold Cosmetics, whose products cost as much as
$1,398 for a face mask, includes gold nanoparticles in its
formulas and claims that these nanoparticles have anti-inflammatory
and antioxidant properties, drive tissue
regeneration, restore skin elasticity, and reduce signs of
stress and aging. However, there isn’t concrete proof that
these tiny particles pack such a massive punch
• Lifeline Skin Care has a line of products that they claim
can rejuvenate skin cells.
• They use stem cells (the nonembryonic kind), which is a
type of cell that has the capability to stimulate the
rejuvenation of other cells. The stem cells produce
proteins that direct cells to build new cells to repair
damaged skin tissue. The company encapsulates the
proteins in nanoparticles.
• When you spread the serum containing the
nanoparticles on your skin, they open, delivering proteins
directly to your skin.
• Antaria uses nanoparticles of zinc oxide to make a
sunscreen called ZinClear-IM. This sunscreen protects
you from the UV without leaving behind a white coating
• amerElite Solutions manufactures the collagenFusion
Skin care Systemto reduce the appearance of fine
lines and wrinkles, along with moisturizing and
hydrating the skin.
• The active ingredient is a trade secret called collamin-
G. The manufacturer states that its components are
approxi- mately 200 to 500 times smaller than a pore of
the skin; therefore, approximately 200 to 500 elements
penetrate the skin through a single pore at one time.5
The product is used to reduce fine lines.
• colorescience makes Dual Finish Pressed compacts,
which use nanotechnology and vitamins incorporated
in mica that deliver antioxidants to the skin.
• One company, Nanobio (www.nanobio.com), offers a
nanoemulsion product derived from soybean oil with
indications including the treatment of herpes labialis and
onychomycosis, and vaccine delivery.
• The nanoemulsion formulation of la Prairie Skin caviar
ampoules, available at Bergdorf Goodman, permits
maximum penetration of the exclusive, pat- ented
• It is available as 2 separate ampoules: a powder
containing pure vitamin c, which is mixed with the
• The complex is reported to brighten the skin and
eliminate fine lines.
• Some manufacturers rely on a network or polymer to
drape over the skin, coat it, and protect it, and to
serve as a reservoir of long-lasting, time-released
anti- aging compounds. one example is DiorSkin
Forever Extreme Wear Flawless Makeup SPF 25,
manufactured by Dior. The company makes a
nanostretch network, which is “an invisible, micro-airy
nano-network for a perfect complexion.”
• lancôme advertised their rénergie series. Products
included rénergie microlift Flash Lifting, which performs
“25,000 microlifts for results in a flash,” and rénergie
microlift Serum, which contains microlifters enhanced
with a powerful tensing agent to immedi- ately
tighten skin for an instant lifting effect that lasts all
day. The microlifters are made of nanoparticles of silica
and proteins that presumably form a dermo- bonding
network to immediately lift, tighten, and firm the
skin. These products have since been discontinued for
• L’Oréal has revitalift line.
• A compatible Anti-Wrinkle 1 Firming Day cream packages
retinol and vitamin E into nanosomes to allow penetration of
the skin’s surface. The revitalift anti-Wrinkle Firming Facial
cloth mask is a cloth mask that contains nanosomes of
proprietary Pro-retinol a and Par-Elastyl. These are
designed to make skin firmer and fight against the signs of
aging.According to the manufacturer, the mask is “infused
with 7X your daily dosage of anti-wrinkle moisturizer, so you
get a weeks’ worth of treatment in just 10 minutes.”
• Powerful deep delivery of product and speed of action
• to enhance the skin’s appearance and protect the
skin is DiorSnow Pure UV Base SPF 50,
manufactured by Dior, which contains a makeup base
and a brightener and delivers UVA and UVB
• Diorskin Forever Extreme Wear Flawless Makeup SPF
25 also uses polymer technology and a nanostretch
network, which the manufacturer states is “an invisible,
micro-airy nano-network for a perfect complexion.”
• JUVENA of Switzerland selected the absolutely best
size for cosmetic skin care – 40 nanometers
• makes it possible to place the sensitive ingredients
in the form of tiny crystals directly into the cell
• The crystals fulfill two tasks at the same time: they are
the active substance and a means of
transportation—all in one—traveling deep and directly
into the skin where they provide a ‘supply’ depot. From
here the skin can take what it needs, whenever it needs
it. The availability and accessibility of the substances for
the cells is thereby increased and the protective
• Bella˘Pellé manufactured an EGF complex cocktail that
topically delivers antioxidants to the skin in Fullersome
• This product has been discontinued.
• Kara Vita manufactures Enlighten me! to correct skin
discoloration and to even skin complexion. Nanospheres
deliver active ingredients in a time-release formula to
allow improvement of dyschromia in 2 to 8 weeks. The
manufacturers recommend their Face Essential with
SPF 15 moisturizer be used to prevent future discolor-ation.
also for dyschromia,
• KOSÉ corporation manu- factures rutína Pure White to
enhance the appearance of chronic lentigines, which
appear with minimal UV exposure. The product is
designed to reduce pigmenta- tion.
• KOSÉ corporation also manufactures a compatible
rutína Nano-Force Nourishing milk, a moisturizer that
delivers a hyaluronic acid derivative
• Fullerenes are employed by SIrcUIT cosmeceuticals in
SIrcUIT White Out, SIrcUIT O.m.G. serum, and SIrcUIT
Sircuit addict, and reportedly deliver a complex of skin
nutrients designed for skin rejuvenation. The
manufacturers note that fullerenes are more effective
car- riers of active ingredients than liposomes and
nanosomes and are 10 million times smaller. The
company’s source is Shungite, which is an anthracite
from the Shun’ga village in the Onega Lake area in the
Karelia republic of russia, which has been reported to
• Zelens makes a fullerene c-60 Day cream, c-60 Eye
cream, c-60 Night cream, and a DNa Protection Day
cream. The company touts the free radical scavenging
properties of fullerenes and promotes the antioxidant
properties of their products. one study has shown that a-alanine
c-60 is comparable in its radical scavenging
ability as thiourea and ascorbic acid.
• Freedom Plus corporation makes Doctor Gunderson’s
rãahj Nano copper Facial Spray as a rejuvenating
• t has a companion product, Doctor Gunderson’s rãahj
Synergized DhEa Facial Spray, whose active ingredient
• less traditional uses of topical skin care products include
those which act to decrease fat and to augment breast
tissue. at one point, Osmotics cosmeceuticals
manufactured Lipoduction Body Perfecting complex.
• lipoduction contains high levels of pure grapeseed
extract, an antioxidant proven to strengthen the capillary
system and help pre- vent breakdown of the collagen
• Stherb cosmetics International co, Ltd, makes Nano
Breast cream, which is a “combination of
Nanotechnology and the timeless Thai herb, Pueraria
• Nanosomes are oxidation stable compound which
expands the cellular substructure and promotes
development of the lobules and alveoli of the breasts
company reports that subjects “can instantly experience
Natural Breast Enlargement & Firmness.
• added advantage - Toning of Breast Skin, visible
cleavage, radiant texture of breast skin & protection from
• Treating Acne acnel makes a nanolotion for dry acne
• Kara Vita makes clearly It! complexion mist, clearly It!
Spot Treatment, and clearly It! acne Treatment Lotion,
which have nanospheres containing sulfur, tea tree oil,
and salicylic acid
• Ag NanoTech, Inc, makes Bye Bye Acne, a proprietary
nanosilver delivery system. Bye Bye Acne is compliant
with the US Food & Drug Administration monograph on
acne over-the-counter drugs, sustainable ingredients,
eco-friendly packaging, and manufacturing in the United
• Cosmetic manufacturers using nanotechnology confront
an uncertain future from both consumer response
and a regulatory standpoint.
• Eminent scientific bodies like the Royal Society,
Britain's most prestigious scientific body, and the US
Food and Drug Administration warn that the health
risks of nanocosmetics require a thorough
investigation before product commercialization.
• One of the major problems is that there is not much
evidence about how much or what type of safety
assessments are done by the various cosmetic
manufacturers on their products.
• Though there are increasing number of cosmetics and
personal care products containing nanomaterials in the
market, there are no specific regulations regarding their
• In Australia, the National Industry Chemicals Notification
and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) regulates the safety
of ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products
and the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)
regulates sunscreens. However these regulators fail to
distinguish between nanoparticles and larger sized
• The EU's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products
(SCCP) looked at the safety evaluation of nanomaterials
for use in cosmetic products and considered the
implications on animal testing and whether the previous
opinions on nanomaterials currently used in sunscreen
products would need to be revised.
• The European Parliament approved the amended recast of
the EU Cosmetics Directive, introducing the mention of
‘nanomaterials’ into an EU legislation. As requested by the
European Parliament, the new regulation introduces a
safety assessment procedure for all products containing
nanomaterials, which could lead to a ban on a substance
if there is a risk to human health.