Line and staff

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Line and staff

  1. 1. LINE AND STAFF, DECENTRALISATION
  2. 2. LINE AND STAFF… deals with the authority relationships i.e the problems of line and staff what is power, responsibility and authority? what are authority relationships?
  3. 3. AUTHORITY AND POWER  POWER:Power is the ability or potentials of a person to influence another person or a group to perform an act. 1.Referent Power 2. Legitimate Power 3. Expert Power 4. Coercive Power 5. Reward Power
  4. 4. AUTHORITY AND POWER Authority :It is the formal right given to a manager to command or to give orders to perform a certain task. Authority is given to a manager to achieve the objectives of the organization. It is a right to get the things done through others. It is a right to take decisions. IT IS POWER, BUT IN AN ORGANISATIONAL SETTING
  5. 5. LINE AND STAFF Line functions are those which have direct responsibility for accomplishing the objectives of the enterprise. Staff refers to those elements of the organization that help the line to work most effectively in accomplishing the primary objectives of an enterprise.
  6. 6. STAFF… Staff relationship is advisory. The function of people in staff position is to investigate , research and give advice to line managers to whom they report.
  7. 7. LINE AND STAFF… Line and staff are distinguished by their authority relationships and not what they do E.G. The pr dept is purely staff.. But within the dept there will be line and staff relationships
  8. 8. LINE AND STAFF.. Staff functions :- purchase, accounting, personnel, & quality control. Line functions:- production, marketing & sales, finance. CONFUSION? ? ? ?
  9. 9. FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY It is the power which an individual or department may have delegated to it over specified processes , practices, policies , or other matters relating to activities undertaken by personnel in departments other than its own.
  10. 10. BENEFITS OF STAFF: 1. 2. Their advice is critical as they have specialised knowledge in their areas The advice could be critical in solving a problem
  11. 11. LIMITATIONS OF STAFF: Danger of undermining line authority Lack of responsibility Thinking in a vacuum Managerial problems
  12. 12. MAKING STAFF WORK EFFECTIVELY: Understanding authority relationships Make line listen to staff Keep staff informed COMPLETED STAFF WORK - i.e. ADVICE NOT CONTROL
  13. 13. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY Give the necessary authority to make decisions within the area of their assigned duties Enables decision making Effective supervision THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF DELEGATION IS TO MAKE ORGANISATION POSSIBLE
  14. 14. HOW IS AUTHORITY DELEGATED? 1. When decision making power is vested in subordinate by a superior 2. Superiors cannot delegate authority which they do not have.
  15. 15. PROCESS OF DELEGATION..  The determination of results expected from persons in a position The assignment of tasks to persons in a position The delegation of authority for accomplishing these tasks The holding of people responsible for the accomplishment of these tasks.
  16. 16. PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION:  Principle of delegation by results expected  Principle of functional definition  Scalar principle  Authority principle  Principle of unity of command  Principle of absoluteness of responsibility  Principle of parity of authority and responsibility
  17. 17. PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY RESULTS EXPECTED Authority delegated to an individual manager should be adequate to ensure the ability to accomplish results expected.
  18. 18. PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION The more a position or a department has clear definitions of results expected , activities to be undertaken , organizational authority delegated, and authority and informational relationships with other positions understood, the more adequately the responsible individuals can contribute towards accomplishing enterprise objectives.
  19. 19. SCALAR PRINCIPLE The clearer the line of authority from the ultimate authority for management in an enterprise to every subordinate position , the more effective will be responsible decision making and communication.
  20. 20. AUTHORITY LEVEL PRINCIPLE Maintainance of intended delegation requires that decisions within the authority competence of individuals be made by them and not be referred upward in the organization structure.
  21. 21. PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OF COMMAND The more completely an individual has a reporting relationship to a single superior , the less the problem of conflict in instructions and the greater the feeling of personal responsibility for results.
  22. 22. PRINCIPLE OF ABSOLUTENESS OF RESPONSIBILITY The responsibility of subordinates to their superiors for performance is absolute , once they have accepted an assignment and the power to carry it out, and the superiors cannot escape responsibility for the organization activities of their subordinates.
  23. 23. PRINCIPLE OF PARITY OF RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY The responsibility for actions cannot be greater than that implied by authority delegated nor should it be less.
  24. 24. THE ART OF DELEGATION Receptiveness Willingness to achieve Willingness to let others make mistakes Willingness to trust subordinates Willingness to establish and use broad controls
  25. 25. DECENTRALISATION.. IT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL ASPECT OF DELEGATION IT IS MORE OF HOW MUCH OF AUTHORITY IS TO BE DELEGATED RATHER THAN WHAT KIND OF AUTHORITY IS TO BE DELEGATED.
  26. 26. FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREE OF DECENTRALISATION: COSTLINESS OF THE DECISION UNIFORMITY OF POLICY HISTORY OF THE ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES AVAILABILITY OF MANAGERS
  27. 27. RECENTRALISATION WHAT IS IT? HOW MUCH TO DECENTRALISE? 1. Verifiable objectives 2. Technique of organisation i.e. state each manager’s duites and responsibilities 3. Character of top leadership 4. Stretch span of management to the maximum 5.Promote managers only when they have good subordinates to take their place
  28. 28. EFFECTIVE ORGANISATION.
  29. 29. SOME MISTAKES IN ORGANISING.. FAILURE TO PLAN PROPERLY FAILURE TO DELEGATE AUTHORITY FAILURE TO BALANCE DELEGATION GRANTING AUTHORITY WITHOUT RESPONSIBILITY HOLDING PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE WHO DO NOT HAVE AUTHORITY
  30. 30. THE END.

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