LINE AND STAFF…
deals with the authority relationships
i.e the problems of line and staff
what is power, responsibility and authority?
what are authority relationships?
AUTHORITY AND POWER
POWER:Power is the ability or potentials of a person to influence
another person or a group to perform an act.
2. Legitimate Power
3. Expert Power
4. Coercive Power
5. Reward Power
AUTHORITY AND POWER
Authority :It is the formal right given to a manager to command or to
give orders to perform a certain task.
Authority is given to a manager to achieve the objectives of
It is a right to get the things done through others.
It is a right to take decisions.
IT IS POWER, BUT IN AN ORGANISATIONAL SETTING
LINE AND STAFF
Line functions are those which have direct responsibility
for accomplishing the objectives of the enterprise.
Staff refers to those elements of the organization that
help the line to work most effectively in accomplishing
the primary objectives of an enterprise.
Staff relationship is advisory.
The function of people in staff position is to investigate ,
research and give advice to line managers to whom they
LINE AND STAFF…
Line and staff are distinguished by their authority
relationships and not what they do
E.G. The pr dept is purely staff..
But within the dept there will be line and staff relationships
It is the power which an individual or department may have
delegated to it over specified processes , practices, policies ,
or other matters relating to activities undertaken by
personnel in departments other than its own.
BENEFITS OF STAFF:
Their advice is critical as they have specialised knowledge
in their areas
The advice could be critical in solving a problem
LIMITATIONS OF STAFF:
Danger of undermining line authority
Lack of responsibility
Thinking in a vacuum
MAKING STAFF WORK EFFECTIVELY:
Understanding authority relationships
Make line listen to staff
Keep staff informed
COMPLETED STAFF WORK - i.e. ADVICE NOT
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
Give the necessary authority to make decisions within the
area of their assigned duties
Enables decision making
THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF DELEGATION IS TO MAKE
HOW IS AUTHORITY DELEGATED?
1. When decision making power is vested in subordinate
by a superior
2. Superiors cannot delegate authority which they do not
PROCESS OF DELEGATION..
The determination of results expected from persons in a
The assignment of tasks to persons in a position
The delegation of authority for accomplishing these tasks
The holding of people responsible for the
accomplishment of these tasks.
PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION:
Principle of delegation by results expected
Principle of functional definition
Principle of unity of command
Principle of absoluteness of responsibility
Principle of parity of authority and responsibility
PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY
Authority delegated to an individual manager should be
adequate to ensure the ability to accomplish results
PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL
The more a position or a department has clear
definitions of results expected , activities to be
undertaken , organizational authority delegated, and
authority and informational relationships with other
positions understood, the more adequately the
responsible individuals can contribute towards
accomplishing enterprise objectives.
The clearer the line of authority from the ultimate
authority for management in an enterprise to every
subordinate position , the more effective will be
responsible decision making and communication.
AUTHORITY LEVEL PRINCIPLE
Maintainance of intended delegation requires that decisions
within the authority competence of individuals be made by
them and not be referred upward in the organization
PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OF COMMAND
The more completely an individual has a reporting
relationship to a single superior , the less the problem of
conflict in instructions and the greater the feeling of
personal responsibility for results.
PRINCIPLE OF ABSOLUTENESS OF
The responsibility of subordinates to their
superiors for performance is absolute , once they
have accepted an assignment and the power to
carry it out, and the superiors cannot escape
responsibility for the organization activities of
PRINCIPLE OF PARITY OF
RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY
The responsibility for actions cannot be greater than that
implied by authority delegated nor should it be less.
THE ART OF DELEGATION
Willingness to achieve
Willingness to let others make mistakes
Willingness to trust subordinates
Willingness to establish and use broad controls
IT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL ASPECT OF DELEGATION
IT IS MORE OF HOW MUCH OF AUTHORITY IS TO
BE DELEGATED RATHER THAN WHAT KIND OF
AUTHORITY IS TO BE DELEGATED.
FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREE OF
COSTLINESS OF THE DECISION
UNIFORMITY OF POLICY
HISTORY OF THE ENTERPRISE
AVAILABILITY OF MANAGERS
WHAT IS IT?
HOW MUCH TO DECENTRALISE?
1. Verifiable objectives
2. Technique of organisation i.e. state each manager’s duites and
3. Character of top leadership
4. Stretch span of management to the maximum
5.Promote managers only when they have good subordinates to
take their place
SOME MISTAKES IN ORGANISING..
FAILURE TO PLAN PROPERLY
FAILURE TO DELEGATE AUTHORITY
FAILURE TO BALANCE DELEGATION
GRANTING AUTHORITY WITHOUT RESPONSIBILITY
HOLDING PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE WHO DO NOT