To promote, protect,
The Lifecycle of Embedded
                   manage and archive
Image Metadata within Digital
       ...
MAKING A CASE FOR PHOTO METADATA




getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 2
• What is the VALUE of an Image?
               ©Ken Reid




getMETAsmart               SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page...
• What is the VALUE of an Image?
               ©Ken Reid




getMETAsmart               SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page...
• Who is this woman?
               US Library of Congress




getMETAsmart                            SAA Photo Metadata ...
US Library of Congress




getMETAsmart                            SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 6
getMETAsmart
                             US Library of Congress




SAA Photo Metadata Project
Page 7                    ...
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 8
US Library of Congress




                         getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 9
Where did this image come from?




getMETAsmart     SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 10
Photo Metadata 101




getMETAsmart        SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 11
What might we want to know about this image?
               ©David Riecks




getMETAsmart                   SAA Photo Met...
©David Riecks




                getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 13
An image file can hold more than pixels.

   It can also include metadata explaining:

         •     Creator and ownershi...
An image file is like a bento box …




                                                      ©David Riecks
getMETAsmart  ...
… It includes containers for different things.




                                                 ©David Riecks
getMETAs...
An image file is like a bento box …

View Animation at:
http://www.photometadata.org/META-101-metadata-types




 getMETAs...
All flavors (actually “schemas”) include
        Fields of Information




                                               ...
When adding info to those fields consider
     – What will be needed to “find” the image later?
     – Think like an art b...
What goes in each field?
• Download the IPTC Core Users Guide




getMETAsmart      SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 20
What goes in each field?
 • Use our “Guide To Photo Metadata Fields”




getMETAsmart        SAA Photo Metadata Project   ...
My field names are not the same as yours!
     – Recognize that Developers have not standardized
          • Some use the ...
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 23
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 24
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 25
My field names are not the same as yours!
     – Developers have not standardized
          • Some use the older “legacy” ...
Caption and Keyword Guidelines
     –   Who
     –   What
     –   When
     –   Where
     –   Why
     –   How




     ...
ControlledVocabulary.com/metalogging/

getMETAsmart           SAA Photo Metadata Project      Page 28
View Animation at:
http://www.photometadata.org/META-101-metadata-types
               Bento Box GIF goes here




getMETA...
The Language of Schemas

                                     IPTC-IIM
                                     IPTC Core
    ...
Schemas

     IPTC-IIM
          •    Short for Information Interchange Model
          •    Sometimes called “legacy” met...
Schemas

     IPTC Core
          • 2005 update to the IIM version
          • Incorporates all the fields
          • Add...
Schemas

     IPTC Extension
          • New addition to the IPTC schemas (2008)
          • Not currently in many applica...
Schemas

     Dublin Core
          • Used by the Cultural Heritage Community
          • IPTC-Core has 5 fields from the ...
Schemas

     Exif
          •    Exchangeable Information File
          •    Primarily “Machine Readable”
          •   ...
Schemas

     PLUS
          • Picture Licensing Universal System
          • Focused on Licensing and Rights Information
...
How are these schemas
               stored inside image files?




                                                    ©D...
How are these schemas stored?
  Exif
   – Both a schema and a storage method
   – Maintained by camera manufacturers




 ...
How are these schemas stored?
  Exif
  Image Resource Block
   – Legacy format
   – Holds IPTC-IIM schema




 getMETAsmar...
How are these schemas stored?
  Exif
  Image Resource Block
  XMP
   –   Newer method developed by Adobe (2001)
   –   Hol...
How do these schemas
relate to each other?

               IPTC-IIM
               IPTC Core
               IPTC Extension...
… OK, in most cases:
       •   IPTC Core includes nearly all of IPTC-IIM
       •   Dublin Core shares five fields with I...
• Synchronization Issues
     – “Shared” fields
     – Where & when info is
       written DOES matter
     – Backwards co...
• Synchronization Issues
     – A Tale of Two Workflows




getMETAsmart         SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 44
• Synchronization Issues
     – New to Old Workflow (and return) = Problems




getMETAsmart         SAA Photo Metadata Pr...
• Synchronization Issues
     – Old to New Workflow = No problems




getMETAsmart         SAA Photo Metadata Project   Pa...
• Synchronization Issues
                     – Old to New Workflow = No problems
©David Riecks




                getMET...
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 48
Looking Ahead
   The good news:
   •   IPTC Core will soon be all you really need to know
   •   IPTC Extension will offer...
Photometadata.org QuickTour




getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 50
Photometadata.org QuickTour




getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 51
Photometadata.org QuickTour




getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 52
Photometadata.org QuickTour




getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 53
Do stock images have metadata?
SAA MetaSurvey (2008)
  An investigative review of
  the metadata workflow of
   stock dist...
SAA MetaSurvey
Stock Distributor Workflow Questions
•    Is critical metadata embedded and preserved in all image files?
 ...
SAA MetaSurvey
Metadata on Stock Websites


                  Getty    Corbis     Jupiter     Alamy   Masterfile   Veer

 ...
SAA MetaSurvey:                                         Sub-
                                                          Sub...
SAA MetaSurvey:
What happens downstream?
                                       no metadata   no metadata




          ©
...
SAA MetaSurvey
Report: MetaSurvey of Stock Distributors
Available @ http://photometadata.org/META-Insights-MetaSurvey




...
Preservation of Photo Metadata Survey

• Social Media
• Photo Sharing Sites




getMETAsmart    SAA Photo Metadata Project...
http://www.controlledvocabulary.com/socialmedia/




getMETAsmart       SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 61
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 62
http://regex.info/exif.cgi


getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project              Page 63
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 64
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 65
getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metadata Project   Page 66
The SAA Photo Metadata Project is made possible thanks to the generous
    support of the U.S. Library of Congress and our...
Additional Info?

David Riecks
http://www.controlledvocabulary.com
Twitter: davidriecks




getMETAsmart   SAA Photo Metad...
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Making a Case for Photo Metadata

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David Riecks, Stock Artist's Alliance, presentation from VRA 28 Atlanta.

Making a Case for Photo Metadata from "Embedded Metadata: Share, Deliver, Preserve" session.

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Making a Case for Photo Metadata

  1. 1. To promote, protect, The Lifecycle of Embedded manage and archive Image Metadata within Digital your images. Photographs: Challenges and Best Practices. - or - The Secret Life of Photo Metadata
  2. 2. MAKING A CASE FOR PHOTO METADATA getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 2
  3. 3. • What is the VALUE of an Image? ©Ken Reid getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 3
  4. 4. • What is the VALUE of an Image? ©Ken Reid getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 4
  5. 5. • Who is this woman? US Library of Congress getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 5
  6. 6. US Library of Congress getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 6
  7. 7. getMETAsmart US Library of Congress SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 7 images from the Library of Congress, American Memory Collection
  8. 8. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 8
  9. 9. US Library of Congress getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 9
  10. 10. Where did this image come from? getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 10
  11. 11. Photo Metadata 101 getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 11
  12. 12. What might we want to know about this image? ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 12
  13. 13. ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 13
  14. 14. An image file can hold more than pixels. It can also include metadata explaining: • Creator and ownership information • What the image depicts • Rights and licensing information • Technical information about the image file getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 14
  15. 15. An image file is like a bento box … ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 15
  16. 16. … It includes containers for different things. ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 16
  17. 17. An image file is like a bento box … View Animation at: http://www.photometadata.org/META-101-metadata-types getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 17
  18. 18. All flavors (actually “schemas”) include Fields of Information ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 18
  19. 19. When adding info to those fields consider – What will be needed to “find” the image later? – Think like an art buyer or image researcher ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 19
  20. 20. What goes in each field? • Download the IPTC Core Users Guide getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 20
  21. 21. What goes in each field? • Use our “Guide To Photo Metadata Fields” getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 21
  22. 22. My field names are not the same as yours! – Recognize that Developers have not standardized • Some use the older “legacy” IPTC-IIM named fields • Some use the IPTC Core fields • Some make up their own field names! getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 22
  23. 23. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 23
  24. 24. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 24
  25. 25. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 25
  26. 26. My field names are not the same as yours! – Developers have not standardized • Some use the older “legacy” IPTC-IIM named fields • Some use the IPTC Core fields • Some make up their own field names! – Use “Mapping Charts” ControlledVocabulary.com/imagedatabases/ ControlledVocabulary.com/imagedatabases/iptc_core_mapped.pdf getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 26
  27. 27. Caption and Keyword Guidelines – Who – What – When – Where – Why – How ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 27
  28. 28. ControlledVocabulary.com/metalogging/ getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 28
  29. 29. View Animation at: http://www.photometadata.org/META-101-metadata-types Bento Box GIF goes here getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 29
  30. 30. The Language of Schemas IPTC-IIM IPTC Core IPTC Extension Dublin Core Exif ©Bettman/Corbis PLUS getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 30
  31. 31. Schemas IPTC-IIM • Short for Information Interchange Model • Sometimes called “legacy” metadata • Stored using the Image Resource Block method • Limited field sizes getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 31
  32. 32. Schemas IPTC Core • 2005 update to the IIM version • Incorporates all the fields • Adds Contact Info, Location, Rights Usage and special IPTC fields, Genre, Scene and Subject Codes • Stored as part of XMP • No limits on length of field • Unicode Compatible getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 32
  33. 33. Schemas IPTC Extension • New addition to the IPTC schemas (2008) • Not currently in many applications • Adds fields requested by “other” communities – Stock – Museum – Libraries • Includes a number of PLUS fields • Stored as XMP getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 33
  34. 34. Schemas Dublin Core • Used by the Cultural Heritage Community • IPTC-Core has 5 fields from the 15 original that overlap • Stored as XMP getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 34
  35. 35. Schemas Exif • Exchangeable Information File • Primarily “Machine Readable” • Stores technical data on capture • Both a Schema and a Storage Mechanism getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 35
  36. 36. Schemas PLUS • Picture Licensing Universal System • Focused on Licensing and Rights Information • Stored as XMP getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 36
  37. 37. How are these schemas stored inside image files? ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 37
  38. 38. How are these schemas stored? Exif – Both a schema and a storage method – Maintained by camera manufacturers getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 38
  39. 39. How are these schemas stored? Exif Image Resource Block – Legacy format – Holds IPTC-IIM schema getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 39
  40. 40. How are these schemas stored? Exif Image Resource Block XMP – Newer method developed by Adobe (2001) – Holds many schemas (IPTC Core, IPTC Ext, PLUS, Dublin Core) – Photoshop namespace holds star ratings, color labels – Unicode compatible – No limits on field lengths – Can be stored as a “sidecar” file getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 40
  41. 41. How do these schemas relate to each other? IPTC-IIM IPTC Core IPTC Extension Dublin Core Exif PLUS getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 41
  42. 42. … OK, in most cases: • IPTC Core includes nearly all of IPTC-IIM • Dublin Core shares five fields with IPTC • PLUS will embed fields in IPTC Extension • Exif goes along for the ride • With a few caveats • Crosswalks • Synchronization getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 42
  43. 43. • Synchronization Issues – “Shared” fields – Where & when info is written DOES matter – Backwards compatibility Issues ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 43
  44. 44. • Synchronization Issues – A Tale of Two Workflows getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 44
  45. 45. • Synchronization Issues – New to Old Workflow (and return) = Problems getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 45
  46. 46. • Synchronization Issues – Old to New Workflow = No problems getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 46
  47. 47. • Synchronization Issues – Old to New Workflow = No problems ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 47
  48. 48. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 48
  49. 49. Looking Ahead The good news: • IPTC Core will soon be all you really need to know • IPTC Extension will offer even more • Information stored this way is easily repurposed • And … software tools handle most of this for you: Photoshop Lightroom Photo Mechanic Expression Media Others getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 49
  50. 50. Photometadata.org QuickTour getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 50
  51. 51. Photometadata.org QuickTour getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 51
  52. 52. Photometadata.org QuickTour getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 52
  53. 53. Photometadata.org QuickTour getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 53
  54. 54. Do stock images have metadata? SAA MetaSurvey (2008) An investigative review of the metadata workflow of stock distributors ©David Riecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 54
  55. 55. SAA MetaSurvey Stock Distributor Workflow Questions • Is critical metadata embedded and preserved in all image files? Identifying: copyright, credit, contact & title Descriptive: caption & keywords Rights: terms, rights, release status, restrictions • Is metadata used in compliance with universal standards? • Is there industry coordination and adoption of best practices? getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 55
  56. 56. SAA MetaSurvey Metadata on Stock Websites Getty Corbis Jupiter Alamy Masterfile Veer Thumbnails 75% 70% 0 0 0 0 Previews <1% 100% 90% 99% 85% 0 (watermarked) getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 56
  57. 57. SAA MetaSurvey: Sub- Sub- Distributor Sub- What happens downstream? Distributor Sub- Distributor Sub- Distributor Distributors Stock Photographer Distributor End User End User End User End User Image Users Unregistered Comp Unregistered downloads Comp Unregistered Downloads Comp downloads Unregistered Downloads Comp downloads Unregistered Downloads Comp downloads Unregistered Downloads downloads Unregistered Downloads downloads downloads getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 57
  58. 58. SAA MetaSurvey: What happens downstream? no metadata no metadata © ©David Sanger no metadata no metadata getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 58
  59. 59. SAA MetaSurvey Report: MetaSurvey of Stock Distributors Available @ http://photometadata.org/META-Insights-MetaSurvey getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 59
  60. 60. Preservation of Photo Metadata Survey • Social Media • Photo Sharing Sites getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 60
  61. 61. http://www.controlledvocabulary.com/socialmedia/ getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 61
  62. 62. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 62
  63. 63. http://regex.info/exif.cgi getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 63
  64. 64. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 64
  65. 65. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 65
  66. 66. getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 66
  67. 67. The SAA Photo Metadata Project is made possible thanks to the generous support of the U.S. Library of Congress and our project partners. www.photometadata.org/ getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 67
  68. 68. Additional Info? David Riecks http://www.controlledvocabulary.com Twitter: davidriecks getMETAsmart SAA Photo Metadata Project Page 68

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