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Healthy living soils: sustaining increased productivity and ecosystem services

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Ermias Betemariam (UNCCD-SPI/ICRAF/WLE) and Leigh Ann Winowiecki (ICRAF/WLE)

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Healthy living soils: sustaining increased productivity and ecosystem services

  1. 1. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of1 Ermias Betemariam Leigh Winowiecki Tor-Gunnar Vagen Healthy living soils: sustaining increased productivity and ecosystem services
  2. 2. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of “Yield gaps as poverty traps” Tittonell and Giller (2013) Investments in roads and improvements in soil fertility potentially reduce poverty rates (Okwi et al., 2013)
  3. 3. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of Soil as key natural capital for multiple ecosystem services
  4. 4. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of The objectives of LDN are to: • maintain or improve the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services; • maintain or improve productivity, in order to enhance food security; • increase resilience of the land and populations dependent on the land; • seek synergies with other social, economic and environmental objectives; and • reinforce responsible and inclusive governance of land
  5. 5. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of Shifting cultivation as forest loss in Africa Classifying drivers of global forest loss (Curtis et al. 2018) Counterbalancing future land degradation • More attention to address past land degradation • But we rarely anticipate (forecast, model, project) likely NEW degradation • Monitoring progress & learning for adaptive management (Research) • Information for informed public &private decisions to optimize the selection of interventions & minimize trade offs.
  6. 6. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of Tillage: increases respiration: SOC decrease Harvesting: reduces inputs = SOC decrease Land use change = SOC increase or decrease SOC sequestration = Increasing SOC stocks through the increase of inputs and/or decreasing C decomposition (M. Stocking, 2012) Inputs Litter, roots, branches, microbes Outputs • Autotrophic respiration: roots • Heterotrophic respiration: CO2 respiration of soil organisms that use dead plant matter as a food source What determines the amount of SOC? SOC: you lose it fast you regain it (very) slowly
  7. 7. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of • Measuring & monitoring SOC is challenging • Express the uncertainty in recommendations or to validate them • Avoid transfers decision risk to users • Using SLM practices as a rewarding mechanism, behavioral change Evidence: effects of SLM on SOC
  8. 8. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of 8 Ermias Betemariam | COP13| Ordos, China| Sept. 14, 2017 | Evidence: effects of SLM on the environment Holistic valuation of SLM impacts on ecosystem services is important
  9. 9. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of Soil spectroscopy  Rapid  Low cost  Reproducible  Predicts many soil functional properties New advances in soil health monitoring Capacity development is a priority in Africa (15 countries have soil spectral labs) • Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) • EthioSIS, GhaSIS, NiSIS, TanSIS
  10. 10. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of • The Land Degradation Surveillance Framework (LDSF) • A systematic field-based assessment of multiple variables at the same geo-referenced location • Allows for rapid assessments of indicators of land and soil health • Allows for the production of high quality maps of key indicators • Robust statistical analysis on drivers of degradation • Can be used to monitor changes over time • Field guide available online here: http://landscapeportal.org/blog/2015/03 /25/the-land-degradation-surveillance- framework-ldsf/ Using Systematic Biophysical Assessments of Land and Soil Health: Establishing Baselines and Monitoring Trends
  11. 11. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of http://landscapeportal.org/blog/2015/03/25/the- land-degradation-surveillance-framework-ldsf/
  12. 12. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of National Soil Organic Carbon Stock Estimates Winowiecki, L., Vågen, T.-G., & Huising, J. (2014). Effects of land cover on ecosystem services in Tanzania: A spatial assessment of soil organic carbon. Geoderma, 263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.03.010
  13. 13. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of • gdg
  14. 14. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of https://theconversation.com/lessons-from-kenya-on-how-to- restore-degraded-land-98178 Relationship between low carbon in the soil and high erosion – to prioritize and monitor land restoration options
  15. 15. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of Maps of Soil Organic Carbon- Decision Dashboards
  16. 16. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of http://landscapeportal.org/tools
  17. 17. « 4 per 1000 » Africa Symposium Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 With the support of Healthy soils Healthy crops Healthy livestock Healthy people Thanks you Ermias Betemariam (e.betemariam@cgiar.org) Leigh Winowiecki (L.A.WINOWIECKI@CGIAR.ORG) Tor-Gunnar Vagen (T.VAGEN@CGIAR.ORG)

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