Training and Development of International Staff -with reference to Japan, China, South Koreaand SingaporePresented By:VIRDA AZMISubject: Global Human Resource ManagementM.A. (HRM) Final SemesterDept of Social WorkJamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
Need for T&D• MNCs increasingly use expatriates on short-term and long-term international job assignments for a variety of purposes, such as:• to acquire and transfer knowledge,• to manage a foreign subsidiary,• to fill a staffing need,• to maintain communication,• coordination and control between subsidiaries and corporate headquarters,• and to develop global leadership competence
• An expatriate’s success in the host country is largely determined by his or her cross-cultural adjustment to the host country• Expatriates who are not prepared to confront the challenges (e.g., to cope with culture shock) find it difficult to adjust and hence, perform poorly.• Thus, improving cross-cultural adjustment has been the focus of many international HR interventions.• Since cross-cultural adjustment can be facilitated if the expatriate has an awareness of the norms and behaviors that are appropriate in the host country, many MNCs offer cross-cultural training (CCT) to teach their expatriates the host country’s appropriate norms and behaviors.
Cross-Cultural Training• Cross-cultural training is defined as any planned intervention designed to increase the knowledge and skills of expatriates to live and work effectively and achieve general life satisfaction in an unfamiliar host culture• CCT has been advocated as a means of facilitating effective cross- cultural interactions and cross-cultural adjustment
• In the early 1980s, only 32% of MNCs offered CCT. Almost 20 years later, the 1998 Global Relocation Trends Survey Report indicates that 70% of the 177 MNCs surveyed provide CCT of at least one day’s duration• Cross-cultural training effectiveness is reflected by the cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes that occur during the CCT event.• In order to improve the effectiveness of CCT programs, or to maximize the change that occurs during training, it is important to follow a systematic approach to designing effective CCT programs.
• The process for designing effective CCT programs consists of five distinct phases:1. Identify the type of global assignment for which CCT is needed.2. Determine the specific cross-cultural training needs.3. Establish the goals and measures for determining training effectiveness.4. Develop and deliver the CCT program.5. Evaluate whether the CCT program was effective.
PHASE 1 – IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF GLOBAL ASSIGNMENT• Caligiuri describes a classification of global assignments into four categories:1. Technical2. Functional/tactical3. Developmental/high potential4. Strategic/executive
PHASE 2 – CONDUCT A CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS• A cross-cultural training needs analysis is conducted across three levels:1. The organizational level, to determine the organizational context for CCT2. The individual (or expatriate) level, to determine any special needs that have to be addressed in CCT for a given person; and3. The assignment level, to determine the cross-cultural knowledge and skills required to effectively complete the given assignment.
PHASE 3 – ESTABLISH CCT GOALS AND MEASURES• Cross-cultural training goals should be stated in detailed and measurable terms.• Detailed and measurable training goals help develop appropriate outcomes for training evaluation.• Short-term CCT goals can bring about cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes
• The long-term goal of many CCT programs is to improve the rate of cross-cultural adjustment.• Improving cross-cultural adjustment is important for all expatriates and would generalize across assignments.• Likewise, improved success on the global assignment may be another generalized long-term goal with the specific dimensions, of course, being job specific.
PHASE 4 – DEVELOP AND DELIVER THE CCT PROGRAM• This phase involves determining the specific instructional content needed in order to achieve the stated goal, the methods to deliver the instructional content, and the sequencing of the training sessions.
PHASE 5 – EVALUATE CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING• The evaluation process involves establishing measures of effectiveness (criteria), and developing research designs to determine what changes (e.g. cognitive, affective, and behavioral) have occurred during the training.• Criteria must be established for both evaluation of short-term, and long-term goals.• The appropriate evaluation criteria should also be assessed prior to the delivery of CCT to provide some type of comparison bases for post-training assessment. In addition evaluation strategies need to be developed during phase 3, that is, the decision on how to evaluate CCT’s short-term and long-term goals needs to be made at the same time as these goals are established.
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