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Lecture 3: Earthrise with some context


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Lecture 3 of the course Our Moon: From Imagination to Exploration. In this lecture I discuss the famous Earthrise picture of Apollo 8 with some context of what was going on around the world in the year 1968. Please note that some of the images in these slides are gruesome, so please view and use these slides with discretion.

Please see the presenter notes section for what I said about each slide in class.

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Lecture 3: Earthrise with some context

  1. 1. Our Moon Lecture 3 Earthrise with some context Image: NASA
  2. 2. Lucian of Samosata Syrian Born around 125 CE Died after 180 CE Image: Google Maps Many thanks to Prof. Karen Ni Mheallaigh (University of Exeter) Coming soon: Her book “The Moon in the Greek and Roman Imagination”
  3. 3. A True Story (2nd Century) Possibly the oldest science fiction work “I shall at least say one thing true, when I tell you that I lie, and shall hope to escape the general censure, by acknowledging that I mean to speak not a word of truth throughout.” “I give my readers warning, therefore, not to believe me.” “About noon, the island being now out of sight, on a sudden a most violent whirlwind arose, and carried the ship above three thousand stadia, lifting it up above the water, from whence it did not let us down again into the seas but kept us suspended in mid air, in this manner we hung for seven days and nights.” For reference, 3,000 stadia is about 475 km (300 miles)
  4. 4. “Amongst them, when a man grows old he does not die, but dissolves into smoke and turns to air.” “They all eat the same food, which is frogs roasted on the ashes from a large fire; of these they have plenty which fly about in the air, they get together over the coals, snuff up the scent of them, and this serves them for victuals. Their drink is air squeezed into a cup, which produces a kind of dew.” “They have honey here which is extremely sharp, and when they exercise themselves, wash their bodies with milk; this, mixed with a little of their honey, makes excellent cheese” “I must, however, inform you that they have eyes which they take in and out whenever they please: so that they can preserve them anywhere till occasion serves, and then make use of them; many who have lost their own, borrow from others; and there are several rich men who keep a stock of eyes by them.” 2nd Century
  5. 5. “That spot, he told us, which now looked like a moon to us, was the earth.” 2nd Century
  6. 6. vs. Heliots (People of the Sun) Selenites (People of the Moon) Morning Star (Venus)2nd Century
  7. 7. “The defeat then becoming general, many of them were taken prisoners and many slain; the blood flowed in such abundance that the clouds were tinged with it and looked red, just as they appear to us at sunset; from thence it distilled through upon the earth.” 2nd Century
  8. 8. “The conquerors determined not to besiege the city of the Moon, but when they returned home, resolved to build a wall between them and the Sun, that his rays might not shine upon it; this wall was double and made of thick clouds, so that the moon was always eclipsed, and in perpetual darkness.” 2nd Century
  9. 9. The Treaty “That the Heliots shall demolish the wall now erected between them, that they shall make no irruptions into the territories of the Moon and restore the prisoners according to certain articles of ransom to be stipulated concerning them; that the Selenites shall permit all the other stars to enjoy their rights and privileges; that they shall never wage war with the Heliots, but assist them whenever they shall be invaded; that the king of the Selenites shall pay to the king of the Heliots an annual tribute of ten thousand casks of dew, for the insurance of which, he shall send ten thousand hostages; that they shall mutually send out a colony to the Morning-star, in which, whoever of either nation shall think proper, may become a member; that the treaty shall be inscribed on a column of amber, in the midst of the air, and on the borders of the two kingdoms.”
  10. 10. vs. Heliots (People of the Sun) Selenites (People of the Moon) Morning Star (Venus)2nd Century
  11. 11. Vietnam Soviet UnionUnited States 20th Century vs. Total dead 1,326,494–4,249,494
  12. 12. 1968
  13. 13. Image: HBO
  14. 14. January 30th, 1968 Image: WO W. A. Parks (February 3rd, 1968) Tet Offensive Tet holiday (Vietnamese Lunar New Year ) By the Viet Cong & North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) against the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) & the United States Armed Forces
  15. 15. February 8th, 1968 South Carolina State University campus (Orangeburg, South Carolina) Killed by police Samuel Hammond Jr. (Age 18) Delano Middleton (Age 17) Henry Smith (Age 19) Orangeburg Massacre Image: Washington Post Image: Ammodramus All-Star Bowling Lane
  16. 16. February 12th & 25th, 1968 South Korean Marines Killed 69-79 unarmed people Villages of Phong Nhị & Phong Nhất, South Vietnam Phong Nhị & Phong Nhất Massacre South Korean Marines Killed 135 unarmed people Hà My village Hà My Massacre
  17. 17. March 16th, 1968 Image: Ronald L. Haeberle United States Soliders Killed between 347 and 504 Unarmed South Vietnamese civilians Victims were men, women, children, and infants 26 soldiers charged One (Lt. William Calley Jr.) served 3.5 years under house arrest My Lai Massacre
  18. 18. March, 1968
  19. 19. March 27th, 1968 Image: Arto Jousi First human in space Yuri Gagarin Image: Aleksandr Markin A MiG-15UTI
  20. 20. March 28th, 1968 Killed by the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil For protesting against high prices of meals at the Calabouço Restaurant He was 18 years old Edson Luís de Lima Souto
  21. 21. April 4th, 1968 Apollo 6 Lorraine Motel (Memphis, Tennessee) Image: DavGreg Martin Luther King, Jr.
  22. 22. April 7th, 1968 Image: Lothar Spurzem Jim Clark
  23. 23. June 1st, 1968 Helen Keller Image: Los Angeles TimesImage: Family member of Thaxter P. Spencer
  24. 24. June 6th, 1968 Robert Kennedy Image: U.S. News & World Report Image: Wknight94
  25. 25. Five Warsaw Pact countries (Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria, East Germany & Hungary) Invade Czechoslovakia 137 Czechoslovakian civilians killed August 20th, 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Image: National Archives
  26. 26. August 22nd to 30th,1968 Democratic Party National Convention Image: Bea A. CarsonImage: Library of Congress Hubert Humphrey nominated
  27. 27. Zond 5 First living things to travel to the Moon (2 tortoises) Russian tortoise September 14th to 21st,1968 Image: Yuriy75 Soyuz 7K-L1 “Zond” Image: Ebs08
  28. 28. October 11th,1968 Images: NASA Apollo 7 First human launch of Apollo program
  29. 29. October 16th,1968 Mexico City (Men’s 200-meter race) Tommie Smith (Gold) & John Carlos (Bronze) Raise their fists in a black power salute Both expelled from the Olympics Smith: “If I win, I am American, not a black American. But if I did something bad, then they would say I am a Negro. We are black and we are proud of being black. Black America will understand what we did tonight.” One glove each suggested by Peter Norman (Silver) (In 2006, Smith & Carlos were pallbearers at Norman’s funeral) Image: Angelo Cozzi Summer Olympics
  30. 30. Apollo 8December 21st, 1968 First human launch of Saturn V First humans to go to the Moon Images: NASA
  31. 31. Image: NASA
  32. 32. Earthrise Image: NASA
  33. 33. “Thank You Apollo 8. You saved 1968.” –Person unidentified (Telegram)
  34. 34. James ”Frankie” Boyce Images: New Jersey Vietnam Veterans’ Museum December 30th, 1968 Drafted to U.S. Army in April, 1968
  35. 35. Frankie’s letter to his father Image taken at the New Jersey Vietnam Veterans’ Museum December 30th, 1968 I am spending New Years in the woods. I hate this. I wish I could have spent New Years home with you and mommy.
  36. 36. Frankie’s letter to his father Image taken at the New Jersey Vietnam Veterans’ Museum December 30th, 1968 They really hate colored people over here. I had to beat up a white boy the other day for calling me a nigger and talking about my mother.
  37. 37. Frankie’s letter to his father Image taken at the New Jersey Vietnam Veterans’ Museum December 30th, 1968 Pop, since I got the record player, if there is some record you want me to hear, you can send them. Tell Richard to keep sending me all the latest records.
  38. 38. Frankie’s letter to his father Image taken at the New Jersey Vietnam Veterans’ Museum December 30th, 1968 I won't spend next New Years in the woods. You can believe that.
  39. 39. Frankie’s letter to his father Image taken at the New Jersey Vietnam Veterans’ Museum December 30th, 1968 I won't spend next New Years in the woods. You can believe that. Killed January 20, 1969 (he was 20 years old)
  40. 40. “Thank You Apollo 8. You saved 1968.”
  41. 41. “What the American public always wants is a tragedy with a happy ending” –William Dean Howells (1837–1920)
  42. 42. Earth From 6.4 billion kilometers (4 billion miles) away Voyager 1 February 14th, 1990 Image: NASA/JPL 20th Century
  43. 43. Look again at that dot. That's here. That's home. That's us. On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every "superstar," every "supreme leader," every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there--on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam. The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that, in glory and triumph, they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner, how frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves. The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit, yes. Settle, not yet. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we make our stand. It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image of our tiny world. To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we've ever known. Carl Sagan Pale Blue Dot 1994
  44. 44. Icaromenippus (by Lucian) FRIEND: “I expect to hear a great deal about the form and figure of the earth, and how it all appeared to you from such an eminence.” MENIPPUS: “…when I first looked down, I could not find the high mountains, and the great sea; and, if it had not been for the Rhodian Colossus, and the tower of Pharos, should not have known where the earth stood.” “I beheld clearly and distinctly everything that was doing upon earth, not only whole nations and cities, but all the inhabitants of them, whether waging war, cultivating their fields, trying causes, or anything else; their women, animals, everything, in short, was before me.” “You may conceive what a strange medley this appeared to me; it was just as if a number of dancers, or rather singers, were met together, and every one was ordered to leave the chorus, and sing his own song, each striving to drown the other’s voice, by bawling as loud as he could; you may imagine what kind of a concert this would make.” 2nd Century
  45. 45. Icaromenippus (by Lucian) MENIPPUS: “And yet such, my friend, are all the poor performers upon earth, and of such is composed the discordant music of human life; the voices not only dissonant and inharmonious, but the forms and habits all differing from each other, moving in various directions, and agreeing in nothing; till at length the great master of the choir drives everyone of them from the stage, and tells him he is no longer wanted there; then all are silent, and no longer disturb each other with their harsh and jarring discord.” “Above all, I could not help smiling at those who quarrel about the boundaries of their little territory, and fancy themselves great because they occupy a Sicyonian field, or possess that part of Marathon which borders on Oenoe, or are masters of a thousand acres in Acharnæ; when after all, to me, who looked from above, Greece was but four fingers in breadth” “When I looked down upon Peloponnesus, and beheld Cynuria, I reflected with astonishment on the number of Argives and Lacedemonians who fell in one day, fighting for a piece of land no bigger than an Egyptian lentil” “When I saw a man brooding over his gold, and boasting that he had got four cups or eight rings, I laughed most heartily at him: whilst the whole Pangæus, with all its mines, seemed no larger than a grain of millet.” 2nd Century