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Lecture 12: The Cold War and the Space Race


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Lecture 12 of the course Our Moon: From Imagination to Exploration. In this lecture, I conclude the discussion of the Cold War and the Space Race. Please see presenter notes for what I said about each slide in class.

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Lecture 12: The Cold War and the Space Race

  1. 1. Our Moon Lecture 12 The Cold War and the Space Race
  2. 2. Apollo 1 Planned launch date February 21st, 1967 Fire during test January 27th, 1967 Wasn’t considered hazardous since no propellant loaded onto Saturn IB Image: NASA Gus Grissom Ed White Roger Chaffee
  3. 3. October 18th, 1966 Image: NASA GrissomWhite Chaffee
  4. 4. January 28th, 1967 Images: NASA
  5. 5. Image: NASA
  6. 6. Image: NASA
  7. 7. Image: NASA Apollo 1 Cabin Atmosphere Cabin: 100% oxygen 16.7 psi pressure Sea level: 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen 14 psi pressure
  8. 8. Images: NASA Mercury—Redstone 4 Door Issue Liberty Bell 7 Launched July 21st, 1961 Gus Grissom’s suborbital flight Unable to recover empty capsule
  9. 9. Apollo 1 Door Image: NASA
  10. 10. Redesigned Door
  11. 11. Soyuz 1 “Soyuz” means “Union” in Russian Launched on April 23rd, 1967 Killed while returning to the Earth Spacecraft crashed into the ground (issue with parachute deployment) Image: Lev Ivanov Vladimir Komarov
  12. 12. Voskhod 1 “Voskhod” means sunrise Launched October 12th, 1964 First three-person crew No spacesuits, no launch escape system Image: Andrew Gray
  13. 13. Soyuz 11 First & only mission to the first space station (Salyut 1) Spacecraft landed on Earth Recovery personnel found three dead inside Cabin pressure went to 0 due to leak Died on June 29th, 1971 (after 24 day mission) Only humans to have died in space Image: USSR Georgy Dobrovolsky Vladislav Volkov Viktor Patsayev
  14. 14. “From this day forward, Flight Control will be known by two words: ‘Tough and Competent.’ Tough means we are forever accountable for what we do or what we fail to do. We will never again compromise our responsibilities. Every time we walk into Mission Control we will know what we stand for. Competent means we will never take anything for granted. We will never be found short in our knowledge and in our skills. Mission Control will be perfect. When you leave this meeting today you will go to your office and the first thing you will do there is to write ‘Tough and Competent’ on your blackboards. It will never be erased. Each day when you enter the room, these words will remind you of the price paid by Grissom, White, and Chaffee. These words are the price of admission to the ranks of Mission Control.” Gene Kranz, NASA flight director (reflecting on the Apollo 1) Failure Is Not an Option Image: NASA
  15. 15. “We were too gung ho about the schedule and we locked out all of the problems we saw each day in our work. Every element of the program was in trouble and so were we. The simulators were not working, Mission Control was behind in virtually every area, and the flight and test procedures changed daily. Nothing we did had any shelf life. Not one of us stood up and said, ‘Dammit, stop!’” Gene Kranz, reflecting on the Apollo 1 Failure Is Not an Option Image: NASA NASA: people on the Moon by 2024 (62 months to go…) Forgotten Lessons
  16. 16. Image: National Air and Space Museum Saturn V and N1 Rockets Work on the N1 started late (4 years after Saturn V) N1 launched 4 times (failed each time)
  17. 17. N1 Rocket Image: U.S. Air Force September 19th, 1968 First stage 30 engines! Image: Soviet space program
  18. 18. Image: NASA Options of Getting to the Moon
  19. 19. Image: NASA Direct Ascent
  20. 20. Image: NASA Rocket Options
  21. 21. Image: NASA Options of Getting to the Moon
  22. 22. Earth Orbit Rendezvous John D. Bird Images: NASA
  23. 23. Lunar Orbit Rendezvous Yuri Kondratyuk Born in 1897 (Poltava, Russian Empire, now part of Ukraine) Birth name: Oleksandr Shargei Adopted a stolen identity for his safety Came up with Lunar Orbit Rendezvous in 1916 Tom Dolan was the first to advocate for this for the Apollo program Image: Zac Allan
  24. 24. Lunar Orbit Rendezvous John C. Houbolt Letter to NASA Associate Administrator Robert Seamans: “Why is Nova, with its ponderous size simply just accepted, and why is a much less grandiose scheme involving rendezvous ostracized or put on the defensive? I fully realize that contacting you in this manner is somewhat unorthodox.” Image: NASA
  25. 25. One Last Race Apollo 11 3 person crew Launched on July 16th, 1969 Landed on July 20th, 1969 Luna 15 Robotic sample return Launched on July 13th,1969 Crashed on July 21st, 1969
  26. 26. Fallen Astronauts & Cosmonauts Image: NASA Charles A. Bassett II (airplane crash before Gemini 9) Pavel I. Belyayev (flew on Voskhod 2) Roger B. Chaffee (died in Apollo 1 fire) Georgy Dobrovolsky (died during Soyuz 11) Theodore C. Freeman (airplane crash prior to space) Yuri A. Gagarin (Vostok 1, first human in space) Edward G. Givens Jr. (car crash prior to space) Virgil I. Grissom (died in Apollo 1 fire) Vladimir Komarov (died during Soyuz 1) Viktor Patsayev (died during Soyuz 11) Elliot M. See Jr. (airplane crash before Gemini 9) Vladislav Volkov (died during Soyuz 11) Edward H. White II (died in Apollo 1 fire) Clifton C. Williams Jr. (airplane crash prior to space)
  27. 27. Some of the Fallen Workers at Cape Canaveral Morris Carter (died on January 28th, 1960): Hit by a truck while watering down Saturn rocket pad Phillipe Bengas (died on April 27th, 1964): Died due to explosion while supporting Apollo program Oscar Simmons (died on July 2nd, 1964): Fell from 26th level of the Vehicle Assembly Building Marion J. Anderson (died on May 4th, 1965): 12-foot wooden form fell 457 feet and hit him in the Vehicle Assembly Building Albert J. Tribe (died on August 5th, 1965): Struck by lightning while pouring concrete at Launchpad 39B V. S. Evans (died on March 16th, 1966): Killed by a descending elevator at Launchpad 37 while working on Saturn 1B
  28. 28. Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Launched on July 15th, 1975 First multinational crewed mission Stafford commanded Apollo 10 Slayton one of the Mercury 7 Leonov first to space walk Image: NASA
  29. 29. Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Image: Toytoy National Air and Space Museum
  30. 30. Video: NASA
  31. 31. Image: Rudolf Kucherov