Pollution is theintroduction ofcontaminants intoenvironment thatcauses instability,disorder, harm ordiscomfort to theecosystemi.e.physical systemsor living organisms.
The major forms of pollution are :- Air Pollution Water Pollution Noise Pollution Light Pollution Soil Pollution Thermal Pollution Visual Pollution Land Pollution
Air pollution is theintroduction of chemicals,particulate matter, orbiological materials.Stratospheric ozonedepletion due to air pollutionhas long been recognized asa threat to human health. ItIs also caused by the gasescome through the vehicles.
Water pollution is contamination ofwater bodies. Water pollution occurswhen pollutants are dischargeddirectly or indirectly into waterbodies without adequate treatment toremove harmful compounds. Waterpollution affects plants andorganisms living in these bodies ofwater and cases the effect isdamaging not only to individualspecies and populations, but also tothe natural biological communities.
Noise pollution isdispleasing human, animalor machine-created soundthat disrupts the activity orbalance of human or animallife. The source of mostoutdoor noise worldwide ismainly construction andtransportation systems,including vehicle’s noiseaircraft noise and rail noise.
Light pollution is thealteration of light levels inthe outdoor environment(from those presentnaturally) due to man-madesources of light. Indoor lightpollution is such alteration oflight levels in the indoorenvironment due to sourcesof light, which compromiseshuman health.
Soil pollution comprises the pollutionof soils with materials, mostlychemicals, that are out of place or arepresent at concentrations higher thannormal which may have adverse effectson humans or other organisms. It isdifficult to define soil pollution exactlybecause different opinions exist on howto characterize a pollutant; while someconsider the use of pesticides acceptableif their effect does not exceed theintended result, others do not considerany use of pesticides or even chemicalfertilizers acceptable.
Thermal pollution is the degradation ofwater quality by any process that changesambient water temperature.A common cause of thermal pollution isthe use of water as a coolant by powerplants and industrial manufacturers.When water used as a coolant is returnedto the natural environment at a highertemperature, the change in temperaturedecreases oxygen supply, and affectsecosystem composition. Urban runoff-storm water is charged to surface watersfrom roads and parking lots -can also bea source of elevated water temperatures.
Visual pollution is the term given tounattractive and man-made visualelements of a vista, a landscape, orany other thing that a person doesnot feel comfortable to look at.Visual pollution is an aestheticissue, referring to the impacts ofpollution that impair ones ability toenjoy a vista or view. The term isused broadly to covervisibility, limits on the ability toview distant objects, as well as themore subjective issue of visualclutter.
Land pollution is the degradationof Earths land surfaces oftencaused by human activities andtheir misuse of land resources. Itoccurs when waste is notdisposed properly. Health hazarddisposal of urban and industrialwastes, exploitation ofminerals, and improper use ofsoil by inadequate agriculturalpractices are a few factors.Urbanization andindustrialization are majorcauses of land pollution.