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MRI SECTIONAL ANATOMY OF BRAIN

  1. 1. Sectional Anatomy of Brain Vipin kumar Msc medical imaging
  2. 2. APPROACH TO STUDY OF BRAIN ANATOMY SKULL VAULT, BASE & SUTURES. MENINGES. BRAIN PARENCHYMA. CSF SPACES & CISTERN
  3. 3. SKULL VAULT
  4. 4. MENINGES  DURAMATER :  ARACHNOID MATER  PIAMATER  outer periosteal layer & inner meningeal layer
  5. 5. MENINGEAL FOLDS  DURAL REFLECTIONS DURAL VENOUS SINUSES  FALX CEREBRI B/W TWO DURAMATERS  TENTORIUM CEREBELLI FALX CEREBELLI DIAPHRAGMATIC SELLA
  6. 6. BRAIN  FOREBRAIN (PROSENCEPHALON)  Telencephalon – Cerebral hemispheres.  Diencephalon - Epithalamus, Thalamus, Hypothalamus and Sub thalamus.  MIDBRAIN ( MESENCEPHALON )  HINDBRAIN ( RHOMBENCEPHALON)  Metencephalon – pons and cerebellum.  Myelencephalon – medulla.
  7. 7. CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES  Outer gray matter : the cerebral cortex.  inner white matter : centrum semiovale.  Divided into lobes by four important sulci:  Lateral (Sylvain fissure)  Central (Rolandic fissure)  Parieto - occipital and  Calcarine sulcus.
  8. 8. LOBES OF BRAIN
  9. 9. CORPUS CALLOSUM: Thick band of white matter connecting two hemispheres. BASAL GANGLIA : central gray matter of telencephalon consisting of lentiform nucleus, caudate nucleus, claustrum & amygdala. INTERNAL CAPSULE: Thick white matter band lying between caudate nucleus, thalamus & lentiform nucleus.
  10. 10. Trunk/body Genu of cc splenium rostrum
  11. 11. MIDBRAIN (MESENCEPHALON) Smaller dorsal part - TECTUM Larger ventral part - CEREBRAL PEDUNCLES Interpeduncular fossa/cistern separate two peduncles Each cerebral peduncle - CRUS & TEGMENTUM OF MIDBRAIN
  12. 12. Mid brain
  13. 13. HINDBRAIN  PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA anteriorly  CEREBELLUM posteriorly  The fourth ventricle is present between the pons-medulla & cerebellum
  14. 14. CSF SPACES  LATERAL VENTRICLES (telencephalon)  Foramina of monro  THIRD VENTRICLE (diencephalon)  Aqueduct of sylvius(MB)  FOURTH VENTRICLE (hindbrain)  Foramina of luschca & magendie  FINALLY INTO THE SUBARACNOID SPACE
  15. 15. SUBARACHNOID CISTERNS VENTRAL (median & paramedian) Perimedullary Prepontine Suprasellar Cp angle DORSAL (median & paramedian) Cisterna magna Ambient Cistern Supracerebellar Quadrigeminal Interhemispheric
  16. 16. . Maxillary Sinus . Nasopharynx Post Contrast sagittal T1 Weighted M.R.I. Section at the level of Foramen . Cervical Cord Magnum Cisterna Magna . Mandible Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
  17. 17. Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd M.R.I. Section at the level of medulla Sigmoid Sinus Medulla Fig. 1.2 Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
  18. 18. Cavernous Sinus ICA Basilar Artery Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd Pons M.R.I. TMP lobe IV Ventricle Section at the level of Pons IAC MCP Vermis Cerebellar Hemisphere
  19. 19. Orbits midbrain Aqueduct of Sylvius Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd M.R.I. Section at the level of Mid Brain Middle Cerebral Artery Posterior Cerebral Artery Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
  20. 20. Sylvian Fissure Frontal lobe III Ventricle Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd M.R.I. Section at the level of the III Ventricle Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Fig. 1.5 Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
  21. 21. fontal Lobe Frontal Horn caudate Nucleus . Putamen . Internal Cerebral Vein Internal Capsule Choroid Plexus within the Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd occipital horn M.R.I. Section at the level of Thalamus Occipital Lobe Temp Lobe Thalamus Superior Sagittal Sinus Fig. 1.6 Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
  22. 22. Genu of corpus callosum Choroid plexus within the body of lateral ventricle Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd M.R.I. Section at the level of Corpus Callosum Splenium of corpus callosum
  23. 23. Frontal Lobe Body of the Corpus Callosum Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd M.R.I. Section at the level of Body of Corpus Callosum Parietal Lobe Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
  24. 24. Frontal Lobe Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd M.R.I. Section above the Corpus Callosum Parietal Lobe Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
  25. 25. Corpous collusm pons 4 th ventricle medulla Brainstem
  26. 26. Splenium of CC Tegmentum of Midbrain Tectal Plate of Midbrain 4th Ventricle
  27. 27. Scalp fat Internal cerebral vein Superior sagittal sinus . Bone Inferior sagittal sinus Parietal lobe Corpus callosum Vein of Galen Occipital lobe Mass intermedia of thalamus Straight sinus . Vermis . IV ventricle Cerebellar tonsil
  28. 28. Frontal Sinus Clivus Tongue
  29. 29. Superior Saggital Sinus T2 Cornoal MRI Sylvian Fissure Hippocampus Temporal Lobe
  30. 30. Coronal section Falx cerebri Lat ventricle Tentorium 4 th ventricle
  31. 31. Choroid plexus within lateral ventricle Posterior frontal lobe Cerebellar . Posterior temporal hemisphere lobe Tentorium Superior vermis Cerebellar tonsil Coronal Section of the Brain at the level of IV Ventricle Post Contrast Coronal T1 Weighted MRI
  32. 32. Frontal lobe Corpus callosum Frontal horn III Caudate nucleus Pituitary gland Optic nerve sp Pituitary stalk Internal carotid artery np Cavernous sinus Coronal Section of the Brain at the level of Pituitary gland Post Contrast Coronal T1 Weighted MRI
  33. 33. PATHOLOGIS
  34. 34. whole R. hemispherical infarct
  35. 35. bleed into brain stem
  36. 36. Old stroke
  37. 37. New stroke in T2 flair
  38. 38. DWI showing stroke
  39. 39. accumulated blood mpgr T2 flair
  40. 40. Cerebral abscesses from endocarditis
  41. 41. Glioblastoma Multiforme
  42. 42. Giant meningioma
  43. 43. Chiari malformation
  44. 44. Herpes encephalitis
  45. 45. Hydrocephalus
  46. 46. giant unruptured MCA aneurysm
  47. 47. T2 Axial MRI with Developmental Delay and Epilepsy

Editor's Notes

  • . Internal Carotid ArteryInternal Auditory Canal
  • Usually cystify and develop firm borders
  • New strokes usually show up as white on T2.
  • Usually cystify and develop firm borders
  • Glios are rapid growing and cause death by brain compression. They do not usually metastasize, but occasionally can following debulking surgery.
  • Some believe cranium too small for brain, Others believe the foramen magnum is malformed. Symptoms of headache, ataxia and nystagmus with progressive pressure on brain stem
  • Bi-temporal distribution is typical. Thought to occur by re-activation of herpes virus much like “cold sores” except through different nerve distribution
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