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# 08 elec3114

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### 08 elec3114

1. 1. 1 Root Locus Techniques• The definition of a root locus• How to sketch a root locus• How to refine your sketch of a root locus• How to use the root locus to find the poles of a closed-loop system• How to use the root locus to describe qualitatively the changes in transient response and stability of a system as a system parameter is varied• How to use the root locus to design a parameter value to meet a transient response specification for systems of order 2 and higher Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
2. 2. 2Introduction to Root Locus Techniques• a graphic technique that gives the qualitative description of a control systems performance• provide solutions for systems of order higher than two• describe qualitatively the performance (transient response) of a system as various parameters are changed• give a graphic representation of a systems stability Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
3. 3. 3 Vector Representation of Complex Numbers (1)• Vector representation of complex numbers: s = σ + jω; (s + a); alternate representation of (s + a); (s + 7)|s→5 + j2 • (s + a) is a complex number and can be represented by a vector drawn from the zero of the function to the point s Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
4. 4. 4 Vector Representation of Complex Numbers (2)Let us apply the concept to a complicated function:Each complex factor can be expressed as a vector of magnitude M and angle θ: Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
6. 6. 6 Defining the Root Locus Root locus - representation of the paths of the closed-loop poles as the gain is variedCamera system that automaticallyfollows a subject Block diagram of the camera system Close-loop transfer of the camera system Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
7. 7. 7 Pole plot from the TablePole location as a function of gain for the camera system Root locus Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
8. 8. 8 Properties of the Root Locus (1)- using the properties of the root locus we can sketch the root locus for higher ordersystems without having to factor the denominator of the closed-loop transferfunctionConsider the general control system: Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
9. 9. 9 Properties of the Root Locus (2)A pole exists when the denominator of T(s) becomes zero: Alternatively, - hence, if the angle of the complex number is and odd multiple of 1800, that value of s is a system pole for some value of K Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
10. 10. 10Solution: Zero: ( s + 2) = 0 → z = −2 Poles: s 2 + 4 s + 13 = 0 → s1, 2 = −2 ± j 3 Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
11. 11. 11 Sketching the Root Locus1. Number of branches The number of branches of the root locus equals the number of closed-loop poles.2. Symmetry The root locus is symmetrical about the real axis.3. Real-axis segments On the real axis, for K > 0 the root locus exists to the left of an odd number of real-axis, finite open-loop poles and/or finite open- loop zeros. Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
12. 12. 124. Starting and ending points The root locus begins at the finite and infinite poles of G(s)H(s) and ends at the finite and infinite zeros of G(s)H(s). 5. Behavior at infinity The root locus approaches straight lines as asymptotes as the locus approaches infinity. Further, the equations of the asymptotes are given by the real-axis intercept and angle in radians as follows: Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
13. 13. 13Additional rules to refine the sketch6. Real-axis breakaway and break-in points The root locus breaks away from the real axis at a point where the gain is maximum and breaks into the real axis at a point where the gain is minimum. For points along the real-axis segment of the root locus where breakaway and breaking points could exist, s = σ. dK = 0, solving for σ we find dσ breakaway and break - in points Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
14. 14. 14Another method to find breakaway and break-in points :Breakaway and break-in points satisfy the relationshipwhere zi and pi are the negative of the zero and pole values, respectively, ofG(s)H(s). Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
15. 15. 157. Calculation of jω -axis crossings (a) The root locus crosses the jω-axis at the point where G(s)H(s) = (2k + 1)180°. Hence the jω-axis crossing can be found by searching the jω-axis for (2k + 1)1800 OR (b) By letting s=jω in the characteristic equation, equating both the real part and the imaginary part to zero, and solving for ω and K. Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
16. 16. 168. Angles of departure and arrival The root locus departs from complex, open loop poles and arrives at complex, open-loop zeros at angles that can be calculated as follows. Assume a point ε close to the complex pole or zero. Add all angles drawn from all open-loop poles and zeros to this point. The sum equals (2k + 1)180°. The only unknown angle is that drawn from the ε close pole or zero, since the vectors drawn from all other poles and zeros can be considered drawn to the complex pole or zero that is ε close to the point. Solving for the unknown angle yields the angle of departure or arrival. Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
17. 17. 178. Angles of departure and arrival The root locus departs from complex, open loop poles and arrives at complex, open-loop zeros at angles that can be calculated as follows. Assume a point ε close to the complex pole or zero. Add all angles drawn from all open-loop poles and zeros to this point. The sum equals (2k + 1)180°. The only unknown angle is that drawn from the ε close pole or zero, since the vectors drawn from all other poles and zeros can be considered drawn to the complex pole or zero that is ε close to the point. Solving for the unknown angle yields the angle of departure or arrival. Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
18. 18. 189. Plotting and calibrating the root locus All points on the root locus satisfy the relationship G(s)H(s) = (2k + 1)180°. The gain, K, at any point on the root locus is given by Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
19. 19. 19Problem Determine whether or not the sketch can be a root locus Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
20. 20. 20Problem Determine whether or not the sketch can be a root locus Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
21. 21. 21Problem Determine whether or not the sketch can be a root locus Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
22. 22. 22Problem Sketch the general shape of the root locus for each of theopen-loop pole-zero plots Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
23. 23. 23Problem Sketch the general shape of the root locus for each of theopen-loop pole-zero plots Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
24. 24. 24Problem Sketch the general shape of the root locus for each of theopen-loop pole-zero plots Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
25. 25. 25 Transient Response Design via Gain AdjustmentThe conditions justifying a second-order approximation:1. Higher-order poles are much farther into the left half of the s-plane than the dominant second-order pair of poles. The response that results from a higher order pole does not appreciably change the transient response expected from the dominant second-order poles. Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
26. 26. 262. Closed-loop zeros near the closed-loop second-order pole pair are nearly cancelled by the close proximity of higher-order closed-loop poles.3. Closed-loop zeros not cancelled by the close proximity of higher-order closed loop poles are far removed from the closed-loop second-order pole pair. Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
27. 27. 27Problem: Design the value of gain, K, to yield 1.52% overshoot. Alsoestimate the settling time, peak time, and steady state error.SolutionA 1.52% overshoot corresponds to a damping ratio of 0.8 in a second-order underdamped system without any zeros. Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.